Last Modified: 2011-07-09
Related Textbooks:Understanding Human Sexuality
- Statistical definition according to this approach, an abnormal sexual behavior is defined by...
- Sociological approach may define abnormal sexual behavior as sexual behavior that violates...
- Psychological approach “the three criteria of abnormality are discomfort, inefficiency, and...
- Medical approach recognizes 8 paraphilias: fetishism, transvestic fetishism, sexual sadism,...
- Additional diagnostic criteria
- Abnormal and normal cannot be put in two entirely separate categories
- There are many sexual variations such as voyeurism, sadism, and exhibitionism.
- Fantasies, urges, or behaviors have occurred over months,
- They cause “clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning.
- Extreme cases: the person is incapable of being aroused without the object present
- Fetish item is usually closely associated with the body
- Can be divided into categories of soft and hard media fetishes
- Hard are usually associated with sadomasochism and soft are usually fur or silk
- Learning Theory: fetishes result from classical conditioning
- Cognitive Theory: fetishists have serious cognitive distortion in that the perceive a nonconventional stimulus as erotic
- Sexual Addiction Model
- a learned association is built between the fetish object and sexual arousal and orgasm
- Sometimes a single learning trial can cement fetish association
- Their perception of arousal is further distorted
- Arousal may be caused by feelings of guilt and self-loathing, which they misinterpret as sexual arousal fetish ritual must be carried out
- Almost exclusively a male sexual variation
- A harmless and victimless sexual variation
- Sexual addiction: a person has a...
- Patrick Carnes: each episode of sexually...
- Preoccupation. Person thinks of nothing...
- Rituals. Person enacts rituals that become a...
- Compulsive sexual behavior. The sexual...
- Despair. The addict falls into a feeling of...
- The key of addiction is the compulsiveness,...
- According to Carnes most effective therapy...
- Gay activists criticize Carnes who say that...
- Compulsive Sexual Behavior (CSB) a disorder,...
- Can be sexually aroused by fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving being beaten, humiliated, bonded, or tortured to achieve sexual excitement.
- Named after Leopold von Sacher-Masoch who wrote novels expressing masochistic fantasies.
- Often paired with sadism
- Sexual Bondage the use in sexual behavior of restraining devices that have sexual significance
- Been an erotic staple of erotic fiction and art for centuries
- Most men and women, regardless of sexual orientation prefer to be “bottom”
- Sociologists emphasize that D-S is the key to S-M not pain
- There is a distinct D-S subculture, involving magazines, clubs and bars.
- NOT a violent outbreak but a carefully controlled performance with a script
- S-M is a rare form of sexual behavior, but in its milder, nonparaphilic forms it’s probably more common that one would think.
- Themes of S-M parties could be: hypermasculinity, administering and receiving pain, physical restriction, and humiliation.
- Sadists and Masochists do not always find giving and receiving pain pleasurable, only when there is a sexual script attached to it
- Causes are not precisely known, theories that could explain fetishes could also be applied
- Classical conditioning could be an explanation
- Psychological theory to explain masochism: the masochist is motivated by a desire to escape from self-awareness more common among males than females
- Much more common among men than women
- However, watching a partner undress or a stripper dance is not considered voyeurism
- Peepers usually want the woman they view to be a stranger and don’t want her to know they’re watching
- The element of risk of getting caught is also important
- Also known as “flashing” in which the person derives sexual pleasure from exposing his genitals to others in situations where it is clearly inappropriate
- Exhibitionists are usually men
- Homosexual exhibitionism is quite rare, most cases are men exposing themselves to women
- Social-Learning Theory to explain cause
- Parents may have subtly-or obviously-modeled such behavior to the man when he was a child.
- In adulthood there may be reinforcement for the behavior because the man gets attention when he performs it.
- Theory has been used to devise some programs of therapy that have been successful
- Leads to compulsive sexual behavior in the sense that the person feels driven to it even when there may be very...
- The compulsiveness of the behavior leads it to become extremely inefficient, with the result that it impairs the...
- A valid criterion for hypersexuality in men may not be valid for women
- Highly sexual refers to women who desire sexual stimulation to orgasm six or seven per times per week, or who think of...
- Techniques used include: temporary strangulation by rope around the neck, a pillow against the face, or a plastic bag over the head or upper body
- Estimated that is causes 250-1,000 deaths per year in US
- Sick shit
- Contemporary therapists report cases f men and women engaging in sexual activity with household pets.
- Two most common reasons for sexual interest in animals
- Primary prevention: intervening in home life or in other factors during...
- Secondary prevention: idea is to diagnose and treat the problem as early as...
- Analyze the components of sexual development disturbance in one or more...
- Gender Identity. The sense of maleness or femaleness developed in early childhood,
- Sexual responsiveness. Arousal to appropriate stimuli
- Formation of relationships with others.
- Desire for affection
- Pleasurable sex
- 1800s: castration was used as a treatment for uncontrollable sexual urges
- Hormonal Treatment involved the use of drugs to reduce sexual desire
- Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA): most commonly used in US and binds to androgen receptors...
- Leuprolide acetate (LA): synthetic analog of GnRH, the continued use of which suppresses...
- Psychopharmacologistcal treatment uses psychotropic medications, like antidepressants – these...
- Comprehensive Programs include
- Behavior therapy to reduce inappropriate sexual arousal and...
- Social skills training
- Modification of distorted thinking; challenging the...
- Relapse prevention; helping the person identify and control or...
- Covert Sensitization involves pairing aversive imagery with...
- Orgasmic Conditioning The patient is told to masturbate to his...
- Drugs used that reduce the production of androgen in the testes (chemical castration)
- Antiandrogens that bind to androgen receptors in the brain and genitals, blocking the effects of androgen
- Use of these drugs should cause a sharp decline in sexual desires
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