transient, neurophysiological reactions to events that have consequences for our welfare, and require an immediate behavioural response. they include feelings, but also physiological reactions, expressive behaviours, behavioural intentions and cognitive changes
a small set of emotion categories, or families of emotions, that are considered to be universal to all humans, biologically based and genetically coded, and evolutionary based. humans come into the world with programs for these basic emotions; social and cultural learning then influence how they are used in life
emotions that focus on the self, such as shame, pride, or embarrassment. they are important in studies of culture, because humans universally have a unique knowledge of self that is different frrom that of other animals, thus giving rise to self-conscious emotions.
a set of studies that demonstrated pancultural universality of facial expressions of emotion
joy, surprise, contempt, sadness, anger, disgust and fear