genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species.
a special type of DNA located at the ends of chromosomes, serving as a "cap" to protect the ends from destruction, shortens. Eventually so little remains that the cells no longer duplicate at all.
naturally occurring highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen
cross-linkage theory of aging
over time protein fibers that make up the body's connective tissue form bonds, or links, with one another. when these normally separate fibers cross-link, tissue becomes less elastic, leading to many negative outcomes.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the amount of energy the body uses at complete rest
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
refers to an array of physical and psychological symptoms that usually appear six to ten days prior to menstruation. The most common are abdominal cramps, fluid retention, diarrhea, tender breats, backache, headache, fatigue, tension, irritability, and depression
refers to our reflections on how we arrived at facts, beliefs, and ideas
dividing information, values, authority, into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they
viewing of all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought. Aware of a diversity of opinions on many topics , they gave up the possibility of absolute truth in favor of multiple truths, each relative to its context.
commitment within relativistic thinking
instead of choosing between opposing views, they try to formulate a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions.
a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems
cognitive affective complexity
awareness of positive and negative feelings and coordination of them into a complex organized structure
acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or endeavor
in early and middle childhood, children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them
between ages 11 and 16, adolescents think about careers in more complex ways, at first in terms of their interests, and soon, as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations- in terms of their abilities and values
by the late teens and early twenties, with the economic and practical realities of adulthood just around the corner
the transition to adult roles has become so delayed and prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional period, extending from the late teens to the mid twenties, called emerging adult hood
intimacy vs. isolation
Eriksons psychological conflict of early childhood is intimacy versus isolation, reflected in the young person's thoughts and feelings about making a permanent commitment to an intimate partner
a key concept in Levison's theory, is the underlying design of a person's life, consisting of relationships with significant others- individuals, groups, and institutions.
age-graded expectations for major life events, such as beginning a first job, getting married, birth of the first child, buying a home, and retiring.
triangular theory of love
identifies 3 components- intimacy, passion, and commitment-that shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop.
intense sexual attraction
warm, trusting affection and caregiving.
unhappiness resulting from a gap between thee social relationships we currently have and those we desire.
family life cycle
a sequence of phases characterizing the development of most familiess around the world.
involving a clear of husbands and wife's roles, still exist in western nations. The man is head of household. His primary responsibility is the economic well being of his family. The woman devotes herself to caring for her husband and children and to creating nurturant, comfortable home.
partners relate as equals, sharing power and authority. Both try to balance the time and energy they devote to their occupations, thehir children, and their relationship.
refers to the lifestyle of unmarried couples who have a sexually intimate relationship and who share a residence.
around age 60, the lens loses its capacity to adjust to objects at varying dstances entirely, a condition called presbyopia
a disease in which poor fluid drainage leads to buildup of pressure within the eye, damaging the optic nerve. (middle aged at risk)
the midlife transition in which fertility declines
the end of menstruation and reproductive capacity
ow daily doses of estrogen
when age related bone loss is severe, a condition called osteoporosis develops.
type A behavior pattern
extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outbursts, and sense of time pressure.
a set of 3 personal qualities- control, commitment, and challenge-that together they call hardiness
refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social conventions-abilities acquired because they are valued by the individuals culture.
depends more heavily on basic info processing skills- ability to detect relationships among visual stimuli, speed of analyzing information, and capacity of working memory.
neural network view
as neurons in the brain die, breaks in neural networks occur. The brain adapts by forming bypasses- new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient.
suggests that older adults experience greater loss of info as it moves through the cognitive system. As a result, the whole system must slow down to inspect and interpret the information.
practical problem solving
which requires people to size up real-world situations and analyze how best to achieve goals that have a high degree of uncertainty.
generativity vs. stagnation
involves reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation
self doubt and stress, especially during the forties, prompt major restructuring of the personality.
future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming. Possible selves are the temporal dimension of self-concept-what the individual is striving for and attempting to avoid
parental imperative theory
holds that identification with traditional gender roles is maintained durng the active parenting years to help ensure the survival of children. men become more goal oriented, while women emphasize nurturance. After children reach adulthood, parents are free to express the other rgender side of their perosnalities.
big 5 personality traits
neuroticism, extroversion, openess to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
feminization of poverty
a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult population living in poverty, regardless of age and ethnic group
gathering the family for celebrations and making sure everyone stays in touch
widely used to refer to the idea that middle
a condition in which long term job stress leads to mental exhaustion, a sense of loss of personal control, and feelings of reduced accomplishment.
when women and ethnic minorities experienceinvisible barrier to advancement up the corporate ladder
actual competence and performance
average life expectancy
number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age
average healthy life expectancy
number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live in full health without disease or injury
maximum life span
the genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
cloudy areas in the lens resulting in foggy vision and eventual blindness
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