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Natalie Ceballos Texas State University, San Marcos STUDENT STUDY GUIDE FOR Psychology Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli Gulf Coast Community College J. Noland White Georgia College and State University Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Copyright © 2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, 1 Lake St., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Higher Education, Rights and Contracts Department, 501 Boylston Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02116, or fax your request to 617-671-3447. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 14 13 12 11 10 www.pearsonhighered.com ISBN-10: 0-205-15346-1 ISBN-13: 978-0-205-15346-6 Contents 1. The Science of Psychology 1 2. The Biological Perspective 13 3. Sensation and Perception 27 4. Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs 43 5. Learning 57 6. Memory 75 7. Cognition: Thinking, Intelligence, and Language 87 8. Development Across the Life Span 99 9. Motivation and Emotion 115 10. Sexuality and Gender 131 11. Stress and Health 143 12. Social Psychology 155 13. Theories of Personality 169 14. Psychological Disorders 183 15. Psychological Therapies 197 CHAPTER 1 ? THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define psychology and describe the goals that psychologists hope to achieve. ? Describe the history of psychology. ? Discuss the current state of psychology, including the most common perspectives and major professions in the field. ? Describe the scientific method and discuss its strengths and weaknesses. ? Explain the basic guidelines and ethical concerns of psychological research. ? Introduce the criteria for critical thinking and its application in psychology. RAPID REVIEW Psychology is defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and control the behaviors and mental process of both humans and animals. The goals of psychology can be thought of in terms of what, why, when, and how behaviors and mental processes occur. The field of psychology is relatively new (about 130 years old) but has its origins in the much older fields of physiology and philosophy. Wilhelm Wundt formed the first psychology laboratory in Germany in 1879. Wundt used the method of objective introspection in an attempt to study human thought processes. Because of his innovative efforts to bring objectivity and measurement to the concept of psychology, Wundt is often referred to as the father of psychology. The reality, however, is that multiple people in multiple locations began studying psychology and promoting their particular perspective around the same time. Five historical perspectives are discussed in the text. Edward Titchener, a student of Wundt?s, expanded on Wundt?s ideas and brought the method of introspection to the United States. Titchener believed that introspection could be used on thoughts as well as physical sensations. He called his approach structuralism because his ultimate goal was to describe the precise structure of our mental processes. At the same time in the United States, William James was focused on discovering how our mental processes help us to function in our daily lives and began to promote his viewpoint known as functionalism. The terms structuralism and functionalism are no longer used to describe specific viewpoints in the field of psychology. Meanwhile, back in Germany, the Gestalt psychologists were studying how sensation and perception create a whole pattern that is greater than the sum of the individual components. Max Wertheimer was a major proponent of Gestalt psychology. In neighboring Austria, Sigmund Freud developed his theory of psychoanalysis based on the concept of the unconscious. Freud believed the unconscious played an important role in controlling our day-to-day behaviors and thoughts. Freud?s theory is also referred to as the psychodynamic perspective. On the opposite end of the spectrum, and back in the United States, was John Watson. Watson expanded the findings of Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, to promote the perspective of behaviorism. The behaviorists believed that psychology should focus on concepts that could be studied scientifically, and they felt that the only area of psychology that could be approached scientifically was observable behavior. Today seven major perspectives make up the field of psychology. The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the role of the unconscious. Behaviorism attempts to study psychology by focusing on observable actions and events. The humanistic perspective emphasizes human potential and free will; in other words, it focuses on people?s abilities to direct their own lives. Biopsychology focuses on the biology underlying our behavior and thoughts, while the cognitive perspective focuses on the thoughts or ?cognitions? themselves. Cognitive neuroscience is a specific area of the cognitive perspective that focuses on the physical changes in the brain that occur when we think, remember, or engage in other mental processes. The sociocultural perspective explores the role of social and cultural factors on our behaviors and thoughts, while evolutionary psychologists attempt to explain behavior and thoughts in terms of their adaptive or ?survival? qualities. The field of psychology offers many professional opportunities. Psychiatrists receive a medical degree (M.D.), treat serious psychological disorders, and can prescribe medication for their patients. A The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -1- psychologist attends graduate school to obtain a doctorate degree (either a Ph.D., Ed.D. or Psy.D.) and can select one of many career options from research to counseling to consulting for a business. A psychoanalyst is a psychiatrist or psychologist who has received special training in Freud?s method of psychoanalysis. A psychiatric social worker receives a Master of Social Work degree (M.S.W.) and provides counseling to patients or possibly conducts research. Psychologists use the scientific method to reduce bias and error in their observations. The steps of the scientific method include asking a question, turning that question into a hypothesis?a statement about what you believe the actual answer is?testing your hypothesis, drawing a conclusion, and reporting your findings. Your findings can then be further strengthened if other researchers conduct a study and draw the same conclusions as you did, or in other words if other researchers replicate your findings. The method you use to test your hypothesis depends on which of the four goals of psychology you are attempting to achieve. If you would like to answer the question of ?what? (goal = describe), you would use a descriptive method. Naturalistic observation provides a realistic picture of behavior but can become biased through the observer effect (research participants behave differently when they know they are being watched) and observer bias (the researcher only sees what he or she wants to see). Laboratory observation is similar to naturalistic observation but the participants are observed in a laboratory setting instead of ?out in nature.? Sometimes a researcher will disguise himself or herself as an actual participant in order to reduce the observer effect. This approach is called participant observation. A case study is a detailed investigation of one individual, or case, and can provide a great deal of information about that one person. However, case studies are hard to generalize to a larger population. For a survey, researchers ask a group of participants a series of questions. Surveys allow researchers to gather a lot of information quickly. However, a survey offers no guarantee that the participants will answer the questions truthfully. Also, researchers must be sure to take a representative sample of the population in which they are interested. A researcher interested in discovering the relationship between two variables would use the correlational method. A correlation coefficient tells the researcher the direction and strength of the relationship. The coefficient will always be a number between ?1.00 and +1.00. A correlation shows that a relationship between two variables exists, but cannot explain the cause of the relationship. In other words, correlation does not prove causation. In order to answer the question of ?why,? a researcher must conduct an experiment. A true experiment differs from a quasi-experiment in that true experiments use random assignment to sort participants into groups. In a quasi-experimental design, the groups are already in place when the participants are recruited for the study (for example, smokers vs. nonsmokers). In an experiment, the researcher manipulates a variable (the independent variable) and measures some response from the participants (the dependent variable). In order to measure the dependent variable, the researcher must come up with an operational definition for the variable. An operational definition is a set of instructions that explains exactly how to measure the variable. For example, aggressive behavior could be operationally defined as the number of times a participant swings a toy sword in a five-minute observation period. The overall goal of the experiment is to keep everything the same except for the independent variable. In order to accomplish this, the researcher usually observes two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The researcher will most likely use random assignment to determine which participants will go into which group. Often, the control group receives a fake treatment in order to control for the placebo effect in which the participant?s expectations actually influence the results of the experiment. Normally, the participants are not told which group they are in (single-blind study). In order to control for any expectations the experimenter might have (the experimenter effect) the study is often designed so that neither the participants nor the experimenter know who is in which group (double-blind study). All psychological research must follow the ethical guidelines specified by the American Psychological Association. Understanding the scientific method can help you in your daily life as you apply the four principles of critical thinking to problems you face on a day-to-day basis. The four criteria are as follows: (1) most truths need to be tested, (2) all evidence is not equal, (3) authorities are not always right, and (4) an open mind is still important. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -2- STUDY HINTS 1. Be careful not to confuse the independent variable (i.v.) with the dependent variable (d.v.). The independent variable is the variable the researcher manipulates her or himself. If you think about it as if you were the researcher conducting the experiment, the independent variable is the one that I control. Another way to make sure you have correctly labeled the variables in an experiment is to insert the variable names into the following phrase and make sure it still makes sense. The test phrase is: How __________ affects ___________ . (i.v.) (d.v.) Here is an example for you to practice using the test phrase. A researcher conducts a study looking at the color of different rooms and aggressiveness. She takes a group of 40 college students and randomly assigns 20 to the red room and 20 to the blue room. After the students have been in the rooms for 30 minutes, she measures each person?s aggressiveness level on a scale of 1 to 10. In this experiment, which variable is the independent variable and which is the dependent? Try inserting the variable names into the phrase above. You can see that ?How aggressiveness affects room color? does not make sense and is not what the researcher is interested in. However, ?How room color affects aggressiveness? does correspond to the researchers? goals. So in this case, the room color is the independent variable and aggressiveness is the dependent variable. Try one more example. A researcher conducts an experiment to study memory skills and caffeine intake. The researcher has a total of 20 volunteer subjects. He gives 10 subjects a can of caffeinated soda and the other 10 subjects receive a can of decaffeinated soda. He then has all the subjects complete a memory task. What are his independent and dependent variables? Try inserting the variable names into the phrase above. Again, you can see that ?How memory skills affect caffeine intake? does not make sense and is not what the researcher is interested in. However, ?How caffeine intake affects memory skills? does correspond to the researcher?s goals. So in this case, the caffeine intake is the independent variable and memory skill is the dependent variable. 2. The concept of operational definitions is introduced in this chapter. An operational definition can be thought of as a recipe telling a researcher precisely how to make her observations. In other words, they define the operations or procedures the researcher should go through in order to record her data. Operational definitions are based on behaviors and actions that can be observed and they are much different from the definitions given in a standard dictionary. For example, the dictionary might define fear as feeling anxious or apprehensive about a possible situation. However, that definition does not tell the researcher how to measure one individual?s level of fear. On the other hand, the researcher might operationally define fear as the percent increase in heart rate from a baseline level during a two-minute observation period. Try this example yourself. Dictionary definition of anger: ____________________________________ The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -3- Operational definition of anger: ___________________________________ The dictionary might define anger as a strong feeling of displeasure. However, an operational definition of anger might be something like the number of times an adult slams his or her fists on the table. Now, try to figure out what variable is being operationally defined below. The number of times a person laughs within a five-minute period. Operational Definition of ___________________: The score an individual receives on an IQ test. Operational Definition of ___________________: The first example is operationally defining the variable of happiness and the second example gives an operational definition for intelligence. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1.1 What defines psychology as a field of study, and what are psychology?s four primary goals? 1.2 How did structuralism and functionalism differ, and who were the important people in those early fields? 1.3 What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism? 1.4 What are the basic ideas behind the seven modern perspectives, as well as the important contributions of Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers? 1.5 How does a psychiatrist differ from a psychologist, and what are the other types of professionals who work in the various areas of psychology? 1.6 Why is psychology considered a science, and what are the steps in using the scientific method? 1.7 How are naturalistic and laboratory settings used to describe behavior, and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these settings? 1.8 How are case studies and surveys used to describe behavior, and what are some drawbacks to each of these methods? 1.9 What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about relationships? 1.10 How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment? 1.11 Why are the placebo and the experimenter effects problems for an experiment, and how can single-blind and double-blind studies control for these effects? 1.12 What are the basic elements of a real- world experiment? 1.13 What are some ethical concerns that can occur when conducting research with people and animals? 1.14 What are the basic principles of critical thinking, and how can critical thinking be useful in everyday life? The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -4- PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the option you feel best answers the question or completes the sentence. 1. How is psychology different from philosophy? a) Psychology uses the scientific method to answer questions. b) Psychology is interested in questions related to human behavior. c) There is no difference between philosophy and psychology. d) The field of psychology is much older than the field of philosophy. 2. The first psychology laboratory was opened in ________ in order to study ___________. a) 1865; psychological disorders b) 1946; learning c) 1879; introspection d) 1809; biopsychology 3. The psychological perspective of structuralism focused on a) how the whole structure is bigger than the individual parts. b) understanding each individual structure of human thought. c) how mental thought helps us structure our daily activities. d) the structure of society at large. 4. The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences. a) intervention b) introspection c) insight inventory d) induction 5. William James believed that mental processes could not be studied as isolated, static events but instead needed to be viewed in terms of how they helped people perform in their daily lives. James was a strong proponent for a) structuralism. b) functionalism. c) behaviorism. d) the humanistic perspective. 6. Gestalt psychologists are associated with which of the following sayings? a) The pineal gland is the seat of the human soul. b) Psychology should reach into the soul of mankind. c) Behavior should be broken down into its individual components. d) The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. 7. Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________. a) learned; inherited b) repressed conflicts; learned c) sexual; unconscious d) conditioned; unconditioned The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -5- 8. A researcher who studies the chemical changes in the brains of patients with depression would be approaching psychology from which perspective? a) behaviorist b) psychodynamic c) cognitive d) biopsychological 9. One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are a) supported by significant scientific research. b) based on facts. c) difficult to scientifically test and, thus, difficult to disprove. d) used by the majority of psychologists. 10. A humanistic psychologist would be interested in which of the following research studies? a) describing a group of people who claim to have reached their full potential b) understanding the role of the unconscious in a child?s decision to disobey her parents c) investigating the role of hormones in the mating behavior of birds d) figuring out visual illusions are possible 11. Taylor received her degree from a medical school and now meets with patients on a daily basis. Most of her patients have a serious psychological disorder and often Taylor will prescribe medication to treat the disorder. Taylor is a a) psychologist. b) psychiatrist. c) psychiatric social worker. d) school nurse. 12. Vido has an M.S.W. and is interested in working on the causes of poverty. What type of professional is Vido most likely to become? a) educational psychologist b) psychiatrist c) school psychologist d) psychiatric social worker 13. Why do psychologists use the scientific method? a) It is easier to use than other methods. b) All academic fields must use the scientific method. c) It is the only method available to answer questions. d) It reduces bias and error in measurement. 14. Deb spent the entire day at the park observing children with their parents to see whether fathers or mothers spent more time playing with their kids. Deb used the method of a) naturalistic observation. b) laboratory observation. c) survey. d) case study. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -6- 15. Which of the following topics would be best studied using the case study method? a) the reaction times of adults in a stressful situation b) the sleep pattern of adolescents c) the impact of club sports involvement on female adolescent self-esteem d) the personality characteristics of a man accused of killing five people 16. A group of randomly selected subjects that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called a) volunteer bias. b) a representative sample. c) the experimental group. d) the control group. 17. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables? a) +0.62 b) -0.98 c) +0.01 d) +1.24 18. A researcher finds that as the number of classes missed increases, the students? grades decrease. This is an example of a a) positive correlation. b) negative correlation. c) zero correlation. d) case study. 19. Marcy is trying to define anxiety in a way that can be empirically tested. She is attempting to find an appropriate a) hypothesis. b) operational definition. c) double-blind study. d) theory. 20. A researcher is investigating the effects of exercise on weight. What are the independent and dependent variables in this experiment? a) The dependent variable is weight; the independent variable is exercise. b) The independent variable is calories consumed; the dependent variable is diet. c) The independent variable is weight; the dependent variable is calories consumed. d) The dependent variable is amount of exercise; the independent variable is calories consumed. 21. In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the group that smokes the cigarette without nicotine is a) the control group. b) the driving simulator. c) the experimental group. d) the no-control group. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -7- 22. A psychology professor feels that her students will do better on her exams if music is playing while they take their exams. To test her hypothesis she divides her class in half. One half takes the exam in a room with music playing and the other half takes the exam in a similar room but without the music playing. In this case, the independent variable is a) the time of day when the exam is taken. b) the absence or presence of music playing. c) the exam. d) the students? scores on the exam. 23. For the experiment described in Question 22, the dependent variable is a) the room the exam is taken in. b) the absence or presence of music playing. c) the exam. d) the students? scores on the exam. 24. Twenty volunteers are brought into a sleep laboratory in the evening. Ten are allowed eight hours of sleep while the other ten are only allowed two hours of sleep. In the morning, all 20 subjects are tested for their reaction time in a driving simulation program. For this experiment, the reaction time in the simulation program is the a) independent variable. b) dependent variable. c) confounding variable. d) random variable. 25. For the experiment described in Question 24, the amount of sleep allowed is the a) independent variable. b) dependent variable. c) confounding variable. d) random variable. 26. Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect? a) You sleep because you are tired. b) You throw up after eating bad meat. c) You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. d) You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol. 27. ______________________ is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know whether participants are in the experimental or the control group until after the results are tallied. a) The double-blind study b) Field research c) The single-blind study d) Correlational research The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -8- PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a Psychology bases its answers on observations, while philosophy answers its questions using logic and reasoning. Both fields are interested in human behavior. The field of psychology is only 125 years old, while philosophy is much older. 2. c Wilhelm Wundt opened his laboratory in Germany in 1879 and used the method of introspection to study the basic elements of mental processes. 3. b Structuralists felt that mental processes had to be broken down into their most basic or elemental form in order to be understood. 4. b Introspection was used in an attempt to self-examine the structure of the mind. Although the word intervention looks similar, it has a completely different meaning. 5. b James believed we need to understand the function of mental processes. 6. d Gestalt psychologists believed that you had to look at the whole picture in order to understand the larger processes of perception and sensation and that it could not be broken down into its smaller components without losing its essence. 7. b Freud studied repressed (unconscious) conflict and Watson studied observable behavior. Watson did not believe that the unconscious could be studied scientifically. 8. d The biopsychological perspective focuses on studying the biological changes that underlie behavior and mental processes. 9. c Since it is very hard to scientifically test the psychodynamic theories there is little scientific data to support the theories. 10. a The humanistic perspective focuses on the uniqueness and potential of human beings and tries to suggest ways for humans to maximize their potential. 11. b Psychiatrists have M.D.s, counsel patients with serious disorders, and can prescribe medications. 12. d Psychiatric social workers typically have their Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) and counsel patients with less severe disorders or focus on social issues such as poverty. 13. d The scientific method is based on observations so that the influence of the researcher?s bias is minimized. 14. a Naturalistic observation consists of recording behaviors as they occur in their normal settings. 15. d A case study focuses on one individual (or ?case?) and provides a detailed description of that individual. 16. b A representative sample is a randomly selected group that matches the population on important characteristics. An experimental group is not necessarily representative of the population. 17. b The correlation coefficient must be between +1.00 and -1.00. The sign of the coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship and the absolute value of the coefficient indicates the strength; therefore, 0.98 is the largest absolute value listed between 0 and 1. 18. b For a negative correlation, the variables move in the opposite direction. As one variable increases the other one decreases. In this case, as the number of absences increase the grade in class decreases. 19. b An operational definition defines responses in terms that allow them to be measured, while a hypothesis is an educated guess, not a definition. 20. a The exercise is controlled by the experimenter and is, therefore, independent of anything the participants do, while the participants? weight is expected to depend on the amount of exercise. 21. a A control group gets either no treatment or treatment that has no effect (in this case, experimenters are controlling for the possibility that the cigarette itself, and not the nicotine, might cause people to get into collisions). 22. b The independent variable is the variable the researcher manipulates. In this case, the instructor manipulated whether music was playing. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -9- 23. d Recall the test phrase, ?How ________(i.v.) affects __________ (d.v.). The professor is testing ?How music affects student test scores.? The dependent variable is the subjects? responses. The room the test is taken in and the test itself should be the same for both groups. 24. b The reaction time is the response observed in the subject. It is not manipulated by the experimenter. 25. a Recall the test phrase, ?How hours slept affect driving reaction time.? 26. d The placebo effect is brought on by expectations, and in this case you felt drunk only because you believed you were drinking alcohol. 27. a The double-blind study is an experiment in which neither the participants nor the individuals running the experiment know whether the participants are in the experimental or control group. In a single-blind study, only the participants are ?blind.? CHAPTER GLOSSARY behaviorism the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only. biopsychological perspective perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system. case study study of one individual in great detail. cognitive neuroscience study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking. cognitive perspective modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning. control group subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment. correlation a measure of the relationship between two variables. correlation coefficient a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and the direction of a correlation. critical thinking making reasoned judgments about claims. dependent variable variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment. double-blind study study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group. evolutionary perspective perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share. experiment a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships. experimental group subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable. experimenter effect tendency of the experimenter?s expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study. functionalism early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play. Gestalt psychology early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures. humanistic perspective perspective that emphasizes human potential and the idea that people have the freedom to choose their own destiny. hypothesis tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations. independent variable variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -10- naturalistic observation study in which the researcher observes people or animals in their normal environment. objective introspection the process of examining and measuring one?s own thoughts and mental activities. observer bias tendency of observers to see what they expect to see. observer effect tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed. operational definition definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured. participant observation a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed. placebo effect the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior. population the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested. psychiatric social worker a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse. psychiatrist a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. psychoanalysis the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud. psychoanalyst either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis. psychodynamic perspective modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person?s behavior than sexual motivations. psychologist a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology. psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. random assignment process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group. replicate in research, repeating a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results. representative sample randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects. scientific method system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced. single-blind study study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group. sociocultural perspective perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture. structuralism early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind. survey study conducted by asking a series of questions to a group of people. The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -11- The Science of Psychology CHAPTER 1 -12- CHAPTER 2 ? THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Explain what neurons are and how they work to transfer and process information. ? Introduce the peripheral nervous system and describe its role in the body. ? Discuss the role of the endocrine system. ? Describe the methods used to observe the structure and function of the brain. ? Identify the basic structures of the brain and explain their functions. RAPID REVIEW The nervous system is made up of a complex network of cells throughout your body. Because psychology is the study of behavior and mental processes, understanding how the nervous system works provides fundamental information about what is going on inside your body when you engage in a specific behavior, feel a particular emotion, or have an abstract thought. The field of study that deals with these types of questions is called biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience. The role of the nervous system is to carry information. Without your nervous system, you would not be able to think, feel, or act. The cells in the nervous system that carry information are called neurons. Information enters a neuron at the dendrites, flows through the cell body (or soma) and down the axon in order to pass the information on to the next cell. Although neurons are the cells that carry the information, most of the nervous system (about 90%) consists of glial cells. Glial cells provide food, support, and insulation to the neurons. The insulation around the neuron is called myelin and works in a way similar to the plastic coating of an electrical wire. Bundles of myelin-coated axons are wrapped together in cable like structures called nerves. Neurons use an electrical signal to send information from one end of its cell to the other. At rest, a neuron has a negative charge inside and a positive charge outside. When a signal arrives, gates in the cell wall next to the signal open and the positive charge moves inside. The positive charge inside the cell causes the next set of gates to open and those positive charges move inside. In this way, the electrical signal makes its way down the length of the cell. The movement of the electrical signal is called an action potential. After the action potential is over, the positive charges get pumped back out of the cell and the neuron returns to its negatively charged state. This condition is called the resting potential. A neuron acts in an all-or-none manner, which means the neuron either has an action potential or it does not. The neuron indicates the strength of the signal by how many action potentials are produced or ?fired? within a certain amount of time. Neurons pass information on to target cells using a chemical signal. When the electrical signal travels down the axon and reaches the other end of the neuron called the axon terminal, it enters the very tip of the terminal called the synaptic knob. At this point, the electrical signal triggers a cascade of events that cause the neurotransmitters in the synaptic vesicles to be released into the fluid-filled space between the two cells. This fluid-filled space is called the synapse or the synaptic gap. The neurotransmitters are the chemical signals the neuron uses to communicate with its target cell. The neurotransmitters fit into the receptor sites of the target cell and create a new electrical signal that then can be transmitted down the length of the target cell. Neurotransmitters can have two different effects on the target cell. If the neurotransmitter increases the likelihood of an action potential in the target cell, the connection is called an excitatory synapse. If the neurotransmitter decreases the likelihood of an action potential, the connection is called an inhibitory synapse. There are at least 50?100 different types of neurotransmitters in the human body. Acetylcholine was the first to be discovered; it is an excitatory neurotransmitter that causes your muscles to contract and has a role in cognition, particularly memory. Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that decreases the activity level of neurons in your brain. Serotonin can function as both an excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter and has been linked with sleep, mood, and appetite. Low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been found to cause Parkinson?s disease, and increased levels of dopamine have been linked to the psychological disorder known as schizophrenia. Endorphins The Biological Perspective 13 CHAPTER 2 are a special neurotransmitter called a neural regulator that controls the release of other neurotransmitters. When endorphins are released in the body, the neurons transmitting information about pain are not able to fire action potentials. The different types of neurotransmitters are cleared out of the synaptic gap through the processes of reuptake, diffusion, or enzymatic degradation. Agonists and antagonists are chemicals that are not naturally found in your body. However, when they get into your nervous system, these chemicals can fit into the receptor sites of target cells. Agonists lead to a similar response in the target cell as the neurotransmitter itself, while antagonists block or reduce the action of the neurotransmitter on the target cell. Valium, a benzodiazepine, is an example of an agonist for the GABA system. It binds to GABA receptors and causes a calming effect in the central nervous system. Drugs may also interact with the mechanisms for clearing the synaptic gap. For instance, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are sometimes used to treat depression, block the reuptake of serotonin at the synapse, making more serotonin available to bind to post-synaptic receptors. The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The spinal cord is a long bundle of neurons that transmits messages between the brain and the body. The cell bodies or somas of the neurons are located along the inside of the spinal cord and the cell axons run along the outside of the spinal cord. Afferent (sensory) neurons send information from your senses to the spinal cord. For example, sensory neurons would relay information about a sharp pain in your finger. Efferent (motor) neurons send commands from the spinal cord to your muscles, such as a command to pull your finger back from a painful stimulus. Interneurons connect sensory and motor neurons and help to coordinate the signals. All three of these neurons act together in the spinal cord to form a reflex arc. The ability of the brain and spinal cord to change both in structure and function is referred to as neuroplasticity. Stem cells are one type of cell that facilitates these changes. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made up of all the nerves and neurons that are NOT in the brain or spinal cord. It includes all the nerves that connect to your eyes, ears, skin, mouth, and muscles. The PNS is divided into two parts, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of all the nerves coming from your sensory systems, called the sensory pathway, and all the nerves going to the skeletal muscles that control your voluntary movements, called the motor pathway. The autonomic nervous system is made up of the nerves going to and from your organs, glands, and involuntary muscles and is divided into two parts: the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division turns on the body?s fight-or-flight reactions, which include responses such as increased heart rate, increased breathing, and dilation of your pupils. The parasympathetic division controls your body when you are in a state of rest to keep the heart beating regularly, to control normal breathing, and to coordinate digestion. The parasympathetic division is active most of the time. The endocrine glands represent a second communication system in the body. The endocrine glands lack ducts and secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. Compared to neuronal communication, the hormonal system generally results in slower, more widespread effects on the body and/or behavior. The pituitary gland is located in the brain and secretes the hormones that control milk production, salt levels, and the activity of other glands. The pineal gland is also located in the brain and secretes melatonin. This hormone helps to track day length and contributes to the regulation of the sleep cycle in humans. The thyroid gland is located in the neck and releases a hormone that regulates metabolism. The pancreas controls the level of blood sugar in the body, while the gonad sex glands? called the ovaries in females and the testes in males?regulate sexual behavior and reproduction. The adrenal glands are divided into two sections that play a critical role in regulating the body?s response to stress. The adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine, whereas the adrenal cortex releases stress hormones such as cortisol. Researchers have used animal models to learn a great deal about the human brain. Two of the most common techniques used in animals involve either destroying a specific area of the brain (deep lesioning) or stimulating a specific brain area (electrical stimulation of the brain or ESB) to see the effect. Researchers have applied both invasive and noninvasive forms of ESB to treat human conditions. For instance, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in the treatment of Parkinson?s disease. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been applied to the treatment of posttraumatic stress The Biological Perspective 14 CHAPTER 2 disorder (PSTD). In work with humans, researchers have also developed several imaging methods to observe the structure and function of a living brain. If a researcher wants a picture of the structure of the brain, he or she might choose a CT scan or an MRI. Computed tomography (CT) scans use X-rays to create images of the structures within the brain. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) use a magnetic field to ?take a picture? of the brain. MRIs provide much greater detail than CT scans. On the other hand, if a researcher wanted to record the activity of the brain, he or she might select an EEG, fMRI, PET scan, or SPECT scan. An electroencephalogram (EEG) provides a record of the electrical activity of groups of neurons just below the surface of the skull. A functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) uses magnetic fields in the same way as an MRI, but goes a step further and pieces the pictures together to show changes over a short period of time. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan involves injecting a person with a low dose of a radioactive substance and then recording the activity of that substance in the person?s brain. The single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan functions similarly to the PET scan but uses a somewhat different radiotracer technique. The brain can be roughly divided into three sections: the brainstem, the cortex, and the structures under the cortex. The brainstem is the lowest part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. The outer wrinkled covering of the brain is the cortex, and the structures under the cortex are essentially everything between the brainstem and the cortex. The brainstem contains four important structures. The medulla controls life-sustaining functions such as heart beat, breathing, and swallowing. The pons influences sleep, dreaming, and coordination of movements. The reticular formation plays a crucial role in attention and arousal, and the cerebellum controls all of the movements you make without really ?thinking? about it. One main group of structures under the cortex is the limbic system. The limbic system includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate cortex. The thalamus receives input from your sensory systems, processes it, and then passes it on to the appropriate area of the cortex. The hypothalamus interacts with the endocrine system to regulate body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleeping, sexual activity, and mood. It appears that the hippocampus is critical for the formation of long-term memories and for memories of the locations of objects. The amygdala is a small almond-shaped structure that is involved in your response to fear. The cingulate cortex plays an important role in both emotion and cognition. In a process referred to as ?corticalization,? the outer part of the brain, or cortex, is wrinkled to increase its surface area within the bony skull. The cortex is divided into right and left sections called cerebral hemispheres. The two hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick band of neurons called the corpus callosum, which is located immediately below the cingulate cortex. Each cerebral hemisphere can be roughly divided into four sections. These sections are called lobes. The occipital lobes are at the back of the brain and process visual information. The parietal lobes are located at the top and back half of the brain and deal with information regarding touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste. The temporal lobes are just behind your temples and process auditory information. The frontal lobes are located at the front of your head and are responsible for higher mental functions such as planning, personality, and decision making, as well as language and motor movements. Motor movements are controlled by a band of neurons called the motor cortex, which is located at the back of the frontal lobe. Mirror neurons, neurons that fire when you perform an action and also when you see someone else perform that action, may explain a great deal of the social learning that takes place in humans from infancy on. Recent studies suggest that humans have mirror neurons in areas of the brain associated with movement, vision, and memory. Association areas are the areas within each of the lobes that are responsible for ?making sense? of all the incoming information. Broca?s area is located in the left frontal lobe in most people and is responsible for language production. A person with damage to this area would have trouble producing the words that he or she wants to speak. This condition is referred to as Broca?s aphasia. The comprehension of language takes place in Wernicke?s area located in the left temporal lobe. If this area of the brain is damaged, individuals are often still able to speak fluently, but their words do not make sense. This type of language disorder is referred to as Wernicke?s aphasia. Damage to the right parietal and occipital lobes The Biological Perspective 15 CHAPTER 2 can cause a condition known as spatial neglect in which the individual ignores objects or body parts in their left visual field. The cerebrum is made up of the two cerebral hemispheres and the structures connecting them. The split-brain research studies of Roger Sperry helped scientists to figure out that the two cerebral hemispheres are not identical. The left hemisphere is typically more active when a person is using language, math, and other analytical skills, while the right hemisphere shows more activity during tasks of perception, recognition, and expression of emotions. This split in the tasks of the brain is referred to as lateralization. STUDY HINTS 3. You will need to know the different functions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recall that the PNS is divided into two main sections: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system deals with the senses and the skeletal muscles (all ?S?s?) and is fairly straightforward to understand. The autonomic nervous system is slightly more complicated. First, understand that the autonomic nervous system deals with all the automatic functions of your body. What are some functions that are controlled automatically in your body? List them here: ______________, ______________, ______________, ______________, You probably mentioned functions such as digestion, heart rate, pupil dilation, breathing, salivation, or perspiration, to name a few. These are the functions controlled by the autonomic system. The two components of the autonomic system balance each other out. The two divisions are the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Most of the time, the parasympathetic division is in control. Some people have called the parasympathetic division the rest-and-digest system because it controls the digestive processes, maintains a resting heart and breathing rate, and in general keeps your body in its normal relaxed state. The sympathetic division goes into action when your body needs to react to some type of threat. It might be helpful to associate sympathetic with surprise, since the sympathetic division is the part of your nervous system that responds when you are surprised. This system is often referred to as the fight-or flight system. What happens to your body when you are surprised? List some of the responses here: ______________, ______________, ______________, ______________, You probably mentioned responses such as your heart rate increases, you breathe faster, your pupils dilate, you begin to sweat, to name a few. All of these responses are ?turned on? by the sympathetic division of your autonomic nervous system and aid in your survival by allowing you to respond quickly to a threat. 4. Two of the brain structures most commonly confused with each other are the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. Both of the structures are located in the limbic system in the area of your brain above your brainstem and below the outer surface. The hippocampus has been found to be important in helping us form memories that last more than just a few seconds. Patients with damage to the hippocampus often cannot remember information for longer than a few seconds. The hippocampus is also important in storing memories of where things are located, a spatial map. On the other hand, the hypothalamus is important in controlling many of your basic bodily functions such as sleeping, drinking, eating, and sexual activities. The structures are often confused because the two words sound so similar to each other. Can you think of any memory device or ?trick? to help you keep these two brain structures separate? List your idea in the following space: The Biological Perspective 16 CHAPTER 2 hippocampus: ________________________________________________________________ hypothalamus: ________________________________________________________________ One suggestion might be as follows. If you look at the word hippocampus you can think of the last part of the word?campus. In order to get around on your college campus, you need to keep in mind where certain buildings and areas are located. This is exactly what your hippocampus is involved in. Without your hippo-campus, you would have a very hard time finding your way around your college campus. To remember the hypothalamus, first it might help to understand how the name came about. ?Hypo? means under or below. For example, if someone has ?hypothermia? their body temperature is under the normal amount and the person is probably feeling very cold. If someone has ?hypoglycemia? they have under or lower than the normal amount of blood sugar (glycemia is referring to the sugar found in your blood). What do you think ?hypothalamus? means? ________________________________________________________________ If you wrote ?under the thalamus,? then you are correct. The hypothalamus is located directly underneath the thalamus. You might also look at the name to try to remember some of the activities the hypothalamus regulates. Recall that we said the hypothalamus plays a role in hunger, sleep, thirst, and sex. If you look at the ?hypo? of hypothalamus you might memorize ?h? ? hunger, ?y? ? yawning, ?p? ? parched (or very, very thirsty), and ?o? ? overly excited. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2.1 What are the nervous system, neurons, and nerves, and how do they relate to one another? 2.2 How do neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other and with the body? 2.3 How do the brain and spinal cord interact? 2.4 How do the somatic and autonomic nervous systems allow people and animals to interact with their surroundings and control the body?s automatic functions? 2.5 How do the hormones released by glands interact with the nervous system and affect behavior? 2.6 How do psychologists study the structure and function of the brain? 2.7 What are the different structures of the bottom part of the brain and what do they do? 2.8 What are the structures of the brain that control emotion, learning, memory, and motivation? 2.9 What parts of the cortex control the different senses and the movement of the body? 2.10 What parts of the cortex are responsible for higher forms of thought, such as language? 2.11 How does the left side of the brain differ from the right side? The Biological Perspective 17 CHAPTER 2 PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the option you feel best answers the question or completes the sentence. 1. Which of the following terms refers to a group of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body? a) Soma b) Synapse c) nervous system d) Endorphins 2. The central nervous system is made of which two components? a) the somatic and autonomic systems b) the brain and the spinal cord c) the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions d) Neurotransmitters and hormones 3. Located within the nervous system, the function of the _____ is to send and receive messages. a) glial cell b) neuron c) Schwann cell d) oligodendrocyte 4. What type of signal is used to relay a message from one end of a neuron to the other end? a) chemical b) hormonal c) biochemical d) electrical 5. When _______, a chemical found in the synaptic vesicles, is released, it affects the next cell. a) glial cell b) neurotransmitter c) precursor cell d) synapse 6. Which specific event causes the release of chemicals into the synaptic gap? a) an agonist binding to the dendrites b) an action potential reaching the axon terminal c) the reuptake of neurotransmitters d) excitation of the glial cells 7. Sara has been experiencing a serious memory problem. An interdisciplinary team has ruled out a range of causes and believes that a neurotransmitter is involved. Based on the information presented in Chapter 2, which neurotransmitter is most likely involved in this problem? a) GABA b) dopamine c) serotonin d) acetylcholine The Biological Perspective 18 CHAPTER 2 8. Neuron A releases a neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap. As a result, the frequency of action potentials in Neuron B (the receptor cell) is reduced. Which of the following neurotransmitters is most likely to have been released by Neuron A? a) an inhibitory neurotransmitter b) an excitatory neurotransmitter c) glutamate d) an agonist 9. Which part of the nervous system takes the information received from the senses, makes sense out of it, makes decisions, and sends commands out to the muscles and the rest of the body? a) spinal cord b) brain c) reflexes d) interneurons 10. Every deliberate action you make, such as pedaling a bike, walking, scratching, or smelling a flower, involves neurons in the ____ nervous system. a) sympathetic b) somatic c) parasympathetic d) autonomic 11. The heart and the intestines are composed of _____muscles and are controlled by _____. a) involuntary; the somatic nervous system b) involuntary; the autonomic nervous system c) voluntary; the sympathetic nervous system d) voluntary; the parasympathetic nervous system 12. Which of the following responses would occur if your sympathetic nervous system has been activated? a) increased heart rate b) pupil constriction c) slowed breathing d) increased digestion 13. Small metal disks are pasted onto Miranda's scalp and they are connected by wire to a machine that translates the electrical energy from her brain into wavy lines on a moving piece of paper. From this description, it is evident that Miranda's brain is being studied through the use of a) a CT scan. b) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). c) a microelectrode. d) an electroencephalograph. 14. Which method would a researcher select if she wanted to determine whether her patient?s right hemisphere was the same size as his left hemisphere? a) EEG b) deep lesioning c) CT scan d) PET scan The Biological Perspective 19 CHAPTER 2 15. Which of the following is responsible for the ability to selectively attend to certain kinds of information in one's surroundings and become alert to changes in information? a) reticular formation b) pons c) medulla d) cerebellum 16. When a professional baseball player swings a bat and hits a home run, he is relying on his ________ to coordinate the practiced movements of his body. a) pons b) medulla c) cerebellum d) reticular formation 17. Eating, drinking, sexual behavior, sleeping, and temperature control are most strongly influenced by the a) hippocampus. b) thalamus. c) hypothalamus. d) amygdala. 18. After a brain operation, a laboratory rat no longer displays any fear when placed into a cage with a snake. Which part of the rat's brain was most likely damaged during the operation? a) amygdala b) hypothalamus c) cerebellum d) hippocampus 19. Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage? a) frontal lobes b) temporal lobes c) occipital lobes d) parietal lobes 20. If an individual damages his occipital lobes, which would be the most likely problem he would report to his doctor? a) trouble hearing b) problems with his vision c) decreased sense of taste d) numbness on the right side of his body 21. Damage to what area of the brain would result in an inability to comprehend language? a) occipital lobes b) Broca's area c) Wernicke's area d) parietal lobe The Biological Perspective 20 CHAPTER 2 22. If Darren's brain is like that of most people, then language will be handled by his a) corpus callosum. b) occipital lobe. c) right hemisphere. d) left hemisphere. 23. The two hemispheres of the brain are identical copies of each other. a) true b) false 24. Which of the following hormones is released by the pineal gland and prepares you for sleep? a) melatonin b) DHEA c) parathormone d) thyroxin 25. Which endocrine gland regulates your body's response to stress? a) pancreas b) thyroid gland c) pineal gland d) adrenal gland PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. c The nervous system is the correct answer because it is composed of a group of specialized cells that send information to and from all parts of the body. The soma and the synapse are both parts of an individual neuron (not a group of cells), and endorphins are one type of neurotransmitter found in the body. 2. b The central nervous system is composed of the nerves and neurons in the center of your body. The somatic and autonomic systems, as well as the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, are components of the peripheral nervous system. Hormones are the chemical messengers for the endocrine system. 3. b Neurons are specialized cells within the nervous system that receive and send messages. Glial cells serve as a structure for neurons. Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are special types of glial cells that generate myelin. 4. d Neurons use electrical signals to communicate within their own cell. The electrical signal is called an action potential. 5. b Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicles. The synapse is the space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites. Glial cells provide structure for neurons, and precursor cells are not relevant to this question. 6. b When the electrical signal (called an action potential) reaches the axon terminal, the synaptic vesicles release their contents into the synaptic gap. Agonists binding to dendrites and the reuptake of neurotransmitters are activities that can occur in a neuron, but do not directly result in neurotransmitter release. Glial cells function as a support structure. 7. d Acetylcholine is found in a part of the brain responsible for forming new memories. 8. a Inhibitory neurotransmitters from Neuron A inhibit the electrical activity of Neuron B (receptor cell). The other answer choices would result in the opposite effect; for example, glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The Biological Perspective 21 CHAPTER 2 9. b The spinal cord carries messages to and from the body to the brain, but it is the job of the brain to make sense of all the information. Reflexes are an action rather than a structure, and interneurons were only discussed in terms of their role in spinal cord reflexes. 10. b The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscle movement, whereas the autonomic nervous system consists of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands. The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are merely divisions of the autonomic nervous system. 11. b The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary muscles like the heart and intestines. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary muscles. The heart and intestines are involuntary rather than voluntary muscles. 12. a The sympathetic division is responsible for controlling your body's fight-or-flight response, which prepares your body to deal with a potential threat. The responses include increased heart rate and breathing, pupil dilation, decreased digestion, among others. 13. d An electroencephalograph or EEG records brain wave patterns. CT scans take computer-controlled X-rays of the brain. Microelectrodes were not mentioned in this context in Chapter 2. fMRI does not record electrical activity of the brain. 14. c A CT scan is the only selection among these options that would allow the researcher to take a picture of the structure of the brain. The other options listed provide information about the function of the brain. 15. b The reticular formation plays a role in selective attention. 16. c The cerebellum is responsible for controlling the movements that you have practiced repeatedly, the movements that you don't have to really ?think about.? 17. c The hypothalamus regulates sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. 18. a The amygdala?located within the limbic system, a part of your brain responsible for regulating emotions and memories?has been found to regulate the fear response. 19. d The parietal lobes contain the centers for touch, taste, and temperature. 20. b The occipital lobes are responsible for processing visual information. 21. c Wernicke's area is located in the temporal lobe and is important in the comprehension of language. Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe and plays a role in the production of language. The occipital and parietal lobes are not specialized language areas. 22. d For most people the left hemisphere specializes in language. 23. b The left hemisphere is more active during language and math problems, while the right hemisphere appears to play a larger role in nonverbal and perception based tasks. 24. a The pineal gland secretes melatonin. 25. d The adrenal glands secrete several hormones in response to stress. CHAPTER GLOSSARY agonists chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell. acetylcholine the first neurotransmitter to be discovered. Found to regulate memories in the CNS and the action of skeletal and smooth muscles in the PNS. action potential the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon. adrenal glands endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence. The Biological Perspective 22 CHAPTER 2 afferent (sensory) neuron a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system. all-or-none referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all. amygdala brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. antagonists chemical substances that block or reduce a cell?s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters. association areas areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing. autonomic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands. axon tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells. axon terminals branches at the end of the axon. biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning. brainstem section of the brain that connects directly to the spinal cord and regulates vital functions such as breathing, the heart, reflexes, and level of alertness. Broca?s aphasia condition resulting from damage to Broca?s area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly. central nervous system (CNS) part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. cerebellum part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement. cerebral hemispheres the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain. cerebrum the upper part of the brain consisting of two hemispheres and the structures that connect them. cingulate cortex primary cortical component of the limbic system, involved in emotional and cognitive processing. computed tomography (CT) brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain. corpus callosum thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. cortex outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input. deep lesioning insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire. dendrites branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons. diffusion process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. dopamine neurotransmitter that regulates movement, balance, and walking and is involved in the disorders of schizophrenia and Parkinson?s disease. efferent (motor) neuron a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. electroencephalograph machine designed to record the electroencephalogram. electroencephalogram (EEG) a recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull, most often using scalp electrodes. endocrine glands glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream. The Biological Perspective 23 CHAPTER 2 endorphin neurotransmitter that is found naturally in the body and works to block pain and elevate mood. It is chemically similar to morphine and its name is short for ?endogenous morphine.? enzymatic degradation process by which structure of neurotransmitters is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor. excitatory synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire. frontal lobes areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) MRI-based brain-imaging method that allows for a functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation. GABA abbreviation for gamma-aminobutyric acid, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. glial cells cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons. gonads sex glands; secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction. hippocampus curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects. hormones chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands. hypothalamus small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex. inhibitory synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing. interneuron a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the afferent neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the efferent neurons. Interneurons also make up the bulk of the neurons in the brain. limbic system a group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain. medulla the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate. mirror neurons neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another. motor cortex section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system. motor neuron a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body. Also called efferent neuron. motor pathway nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons. myelin fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse. nerves bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body. nervous system an extensive network of specialized cells that carry information to and from all parts of the body. The Biological Perspective 24 CHAPTER 2 neuron the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and which receives and sends messages within that system. neuroplasticity the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma. neuroscience a branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves and nervous tissue. neurotransmitter chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell. occipital lobes sections of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain. olfactory bulbs two bulb-like projections just under the front of the brain that receives information from the receptors in the nose. ovaries the female gonads. pancreas endocrine gland; controls the levels of sugar in the blood. parasympathetic division part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands. parietal lobes sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations. peripheral nervous system (PNS) all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself. pineal gland endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum; secretes melatonin. pituitary gland gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland). pons the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left?right body coordination, and arousal. positron emission tomography (PET) brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain. receptor sites 3-dimensional proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters. reflex arc the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action. resting potential the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse. reticular formation (RF) an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal. reuptake process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles. sensory neuron a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system. Also called afferent neuron. sensory pathway nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons. serotonin neurotransmitter involved in pain disorders and emotional perceptions. Is also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). single photon emission tomography (SPECT) neuroimaging method that is similar to PET but uses a different radioactive tracer and can be used to examine brain blood flow. soma the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell. somatic nervous system division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body. somatosensory cortex area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste. The Biological Perspective 25 CHAPTER 2 The Biological Perspective 26 CHAPTER 2 spatial neglect condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field. spinal cord a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes. stem cells special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear. sympathetic division (fight-or-flight system) part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal. synapse (synaptic gap) microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell. synaptic knob rounded areas on the end of the axon terminal. synaptic vesicles saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals. temporal lobes areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech. testes the male gonads. thalamus part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area. thyroid gland endocrine gland found in the neck; regulates metabolism. Wernicke?s aphasia condition resulting from damage to Wernicke?s area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language. CHAPTER 3 ? SENSATION AND PERCEPTION YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define sensation and introduce some of the key concepts developed by researchers in the study of sensation. ? Explain in detail how our sense of sight and our sense of hearing work and discuss some causes for impairments in these senses. ? Discuss the chemical senses of taste and smell and the lesser known somesthetic senses of touch, body position, and balance. ? Describe our experience of perception, especially in relation to visual stimuli. ? Understand depth perception and the cues that facilitate this function. RAPID REVIEW Sensation allows us to receive information from the world around us. Synesthesia is the rare condition in which a person experiences more than one sensation from a single stimulus, for example the person who can hear and see a sound. The process of converting an outside stimulus into the electrical- chemical signal of the nervous system is called sensory transduction. Outside stimuli (such as the sound of your mother?s voice) activate sensory receptors, which convert the outside stimulus into a message that our nervous system can understand?electrical and chemical signals. The sensory receptors are specialized forms of neurons and make up part of our somatic nervous system. Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner were two pioneers in the study of sensory thresholds. Weber studied the smallest difference between two stimuli that a person could detect 50 percent of the time. He called this difference a just noticeable difference (jnd), and he discovered that the jnd is always a constant. For instance, if a person needs to add 5 percent more weight to notice the difference in the heaviness of a package, then this person?s jnd is 5 percent. If the initial weight of the package is 10 lbs., then 0.5 lb. would need to be added to detect a difference (5 percent of 10 lbs. = 0.5 lb). If the initial weight is 100 lbs., then 5 lbs. would need to be added in order for the person to detect a difference in weight (5 percent of 100 lbs. = 5 lbs.). The fact that the jnd is always a constant is known as Weber?s law. Fechner investigated the lowest level of a stimulus that a person could detect 50 percent of the time. He called this level the absolute threshold. The ability to see a candle flame from 30 miles away on a clear dark night is an example of the absolute threshold for human sight. In general, the body is interested in detecting changes in environmental information; constant stimuli tend to be ignored. Habituation and sensory adaptation are two methods our body uses to ignore unchanging information. Habituation takes place when the lower centers of the brain prevent conscious attention to a constant stimulus, such as the humming of a desktop computer. Sensory adaptation occurs in the sensory receptors themselves when the receptors stop responding to a constant stimulus, such as the feeling of your shirt on your skin. The visual system does not adapt in this way, but rather, uses saccadic eye movements, tiny vibrations below the level of our conscious awareness, to allow the viewing of unchanging stimuli. The visual sensory system is activated by photons of light that have specific wavelengths associated with them. The three psychological aspects to our experience of light are brightness, determined by the height, or amplitude, of the light wave; color, or hue, determined by the length of the light wave; and saturation, or purity, determined by the mixture of wavelengths of varying heights and lengths that make up light. Light enters your eye through the cornea that protects your eye and helps to focus the light, and then travels through a hole in your iris, called your pupil. The iris is a group of muscles that control the size of the pupil; this is also the structure that gives us eye color. The light then passes through the lens, which focuses the light and allows you to focus on objects that are close or far away. This process is known as visual accommodation, the efficiency of which typically decreases with age. The light then travels through the vitreous humor in the middle of your eyeball to reach the retina at the very back of your eye. The retina is approximately the size of a postage stamp and contains the sensory receptor neurons that convert the incoming light waves in to an electrical-chemical signal that the nervous system can understand. Your eye contains two types of sensory receptors, rods and cones. About 70 percent of Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -27- the sensory receptors in your eyes are rods. Rods detect the brightness of light and send information about the levels of black, white, and shades of gray. The rods are located in the periphery of the retina; that is, almost everywhere except the very center. Rods are extremely sensitive to light but produce images with low acuity, or sharpness. Our eyes? ability to adapt to a dark room and eventually see objects is mediated by the rods in our eyes and is called dark adaptation. Cones make up the remaining 30 percent of the sensory receptors in your eyes and are located mainly in the center of the retina. Cones transmit information about color and produce images with very high acuity. Our ability to quickly adapt when we enter a bright room is called light adaptation and is accomplished by the cones. The place where the information from the rods and cones leaves the eye is called the blind spot because it contains no visual receptors to receive information. After light is converted to an electrical-chemical signal by the rods and cones, the message passes through the bipolar cells, to the ganglion cells, the axons of which travel out of the eye as the optic nerve. At the optic chiasm, about 50 percent of these axons, those associated with the half of the eye closest to the nose, cross over and travel toward the visual cortex on the opposite side of the brain. The remaining 50 percent of the axons, those associated with the half of the eye closest to the ear, project to the visual cortex on the same side of the brain. From that point, the axons forming the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. From the thalamus the signal is sent to the occipital lobes, which, if you recall from the previous chapter, are responsible for processing visual information. The exact method the cones use to transmit information about color is still unknown. Two theories are currently proposed. The trichromatic theory was originally proposed by Thomas Young and later modified by Hermann Helmholtz. The theory suggests the three types of cones?red, green, and blue? combine to produce sensation of color much like three spotlights would combine to produce the full spectrum of colors. The trichromatic theory most likely is an accurate description of the cones but cannot explain certain visual phenomena such as the afterimage. The afterimage is the image you see after staring at something and then looking away. For example, stare at something red, then look away and you see a green afterimage. A different theory of color perception known as the opponent-process theory was developed to explain phenomena such as the afterimage. The theory states that cones are arranged in pairs with a red-green pair and a blue-yellow pair. If one member of the pair is firing then the other member cannot. When you stare at something red, the red member sends information and the green member is inhibited. When you look away, the green member is no longer inhibited and sends information even though you are not looking at anything green. Both the trichromatic theory and the opponent-process theory are probably correct. The trichromatic theory most likely explains the actions of cones in the retina, while the opponent-process theory explains the actions higher up in the visual system in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. Color blindness is caused by defective cones in the retina. Monochromatic color blindness occurs when a person has no cones or no functional cones; whereas, dichromatic color blindness exists when only one cone is not working properly. Two types of red-green colorblindness are common. A lack of functioning red cones is called protanopia, and deficient green cones result in deuteranopia. Blue- yellow color deficiency, tritanopia, is less common and is seen in individuals with nonfunctional blue cones. The gene for color-deficient vision is sex-linked and thus, more prevalent among males. Our sense of hearing, the auditory system, is activated by the vibrations of molecules in the air that surrounds us. These vibrations are called sound waves, and like light waves, we respond to three features of sound waves. Pitch corresponds to the frequency of the wave, volume is determined by the amplitude of the wave, and timbre relates to the purity of the wavelengths. Humans can only respond to wavelengths of a certain frequency. The average range for humans is between 20 and 20,000 Hertz (Hz) or waves per second. Sound waves enter our auditory system through the pinna, travel down the ear canal?also known as the auditory canal?and then vibrate the eardrum, which causes the hammer, anvil, and stirrup to vibrate. The vibrations of the stirrup cause the oval window to move back and forth, which causes the fluid in the cochlea to vibrate. The fluid causes the basilar membrane to vibrate, which causes the organ of Corti to brush against the membrane above it, and this causes the hair cells to bend. The hair cells are the sensory receptors of the auditory system, and the movement of the hair cells triggers Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -28- an action potential in axons, which travel to the brain in a bundle called the auditory nerve. A louder noise causes the hair cells to fire more action potentials. Three theories explain how the brain receives information about pitch. Different areas of the basilar membrane vibrate in response to different frequencies of sound waves. Place theory states that pitch is determined by the place on the organ of Corti that is stimulated. The frequency theory suggests that the speed of vibrations of the basilar membrane determine the pitch heard by the person. The volley principle suggests that hair cells take turns firing in a process called volleying. All three theories are correct. Frequency theory holds true for wavelengths of 100 Hz or less, volley theory covers the wavelengths from 100 to 1000 Hz, and place theory seems to account for the wavelengths faster than 1000 Hz. Hearing impairment is the term used to describe difficulties in hearing. Conduction hearing impairment occurs from damage to the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. Nerve hearing impairment is caused by problems in the inner ear or in the auditory pathways and cortical areas of the brain. Ordinary hearing aids are designed to assist with conduction hearing impairment, whereas cochlear implants can be used to restore some hearing for people with nerve hearing impairment. The sense of taste, or gustation, is activated by chemicals that dissolve in the mouth. The sensory receptors are receptor cells found within the taste buds that are located on the little bumps on the tongue, cheek, and roof of your mouth. The little bumps that you can actually see with your eye are called papillae. The average person has about 500 taste buds on his or her tongue. Five basic tastes have been proposed; they are sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami. Umami is the newest taste and corresponds to a ?brothy? taste like the taste from chicken soup. Some people, called ?supertasters,? have 20 times the typical number of taste buds and are more sensitive to various flavors. Other research suggests that obese individuals, as compared to those individuals who are not obese, might be less sensitive to sweet flavors. For this reason, obese people might be particularly drawn to foods that are very sweet and high in fat. The sense of smell, or olfaction, is also a chemical sense. Humans have about 10 million olfactory receptor cells located in a 1 square inch area at the top of the nasal passage. Olfactory receptor cells send their axons directly to the olfactory bulbs, located right under the frontal lobes. This pathway is unique in that it bypasses the thalamus and instead goes directly to the olfactory bulbs, which are a part of the brain. From the olfactory bulbs, information is sent to the primary olfactory cortex (also called the piriform cortex), as well as brain areas associated with emotion (the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). The sense of touch is actually composed of several sensations and is more accurately referred to as somesthetic senses. The three somesthetic senses are skin, kinesthetic, and vestibular. The skin contains at least six different types of sensory receptors and transmits information about touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. The currently accepted theory about pain is called gate-control theory and suggests that pain information is regulated by a number of factors in the brain and spinal cord. Two chemicals involved with pain messages are substance P and endorphins. Substance P transmits information about pain to the brain and spinal cord, while endorphins inhibit the transmission of signals of pain. The kinesthetic sense relays information about your body?s sense of position in space. The information comes from sensory receptors called proprioceptive receptors located in your skin, joints, muscles, and tendons. Our sense of balance, or vestibular sense, is regulated by receptor cells in the otolith organs and the semicircular canals. Both structures are located near the cochlea of the inner ear. The otolith organs contain small crystals suspended in fluid. Movement of the body causes the crystals to move and activates the sensory receptors. Similarly, the semicircular canals are three fluid-filled cavities located in three different planes (x, y and z) through which the body can rotate. When the body moves, it sets off hair-like receptors in these canals. Sensory conflict theory describes a phenomenon by which information from the eyes may conflict with information from the vestibular system, causing dizziness. Riding in a moving vehicle causes this type of response in some people. Research suggests that these symptoms may decrease following repeated exposure to the environment that causes motion sickness. Perception is the interpretation of sensation and seems to follow some basic principles, although individual and cultural differences in perception have been recorded. One principle is that of perceptual constancy. We tend to view objects as the same size, shape, and brightness even if the sensations we are receiving from our sensory systems are not constant in size, shape, or brightness. An example of perceptual constancy is our perception of the size and shape of a door as it is opened and closed. Gestalt Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -29- psychologists believe that when people are presented with visual information, they interpret the information according to certain expected patterns or rules. The patterns are called the Gestalt principles of perception, and they include the following seven rules: figure-ground relationships, closure, similarity, continuity, contiguity, proximity, and common region. The principle of figure-ground relationships can be illustrated by looking at reversible figures, which are visual illusions in which the figure and ground seem to switch back and forth. Visual perception of depth, called depth perception, appears to be present at a very early age. Visual cues for depth that require the use of one eye are referred to as monocular cues and include linear perspective, relative size, overlap or interposition, aerial perspective, texture gradient, motion parallax, and accommodation. Visual cues that use two eyes are called binocular cues and include convergence and binocular disparity. An illusion is a perception that does not correspond to reality. Illusions differ from hallucinations in that a hallucination?s origin is in the brain itself; whereas, an illusion is a distorted perception of what?s really there. Some famous visual illusions include the Hermann Grid, the Müller-Lyer illusion, the moon illusion, and illusions of motion. The Rotating Snakes illusion and the Enigma are two popular motion illusions. Research suggests that eye movements called microsaccades might partially explain how motion illusions work. In addition to cultural and individual differences, perceptions can be influenced by perceptual sets or expectancies. One example of perceptual expectancy is top-down processing and occurs when a person uses preexisting knowledge to fit individual features into an organized whole. If there is no expectancy to help organize information, a person might use bottom-up processing to build a complete perception by making sense of the smaller features piece by piece. Magic acts are one familiar application of perceptual principles, in which magicians use visual and cognitive illusions to ?fool? their audiences. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -30- STUDY HINTS 5. Chapter 3 presented information about seven different sensory systems. A chart can be extremely helpful in organizing these various components. See how much of the information you can fill in below and go to the textbook to find the remaining answers. The first row is filled in for you. A complete table can be found at the end of the Study Hints section. Sensory System External Stimulus Sensory Organ Sensory Receptor Proposed Theories visual system light waves eyes rods and cones trichromatic theory opponent-process theory Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -31- 6. Many students confuse the Gestalt principles of perception with the monocular cues for depth perception. The two lists are given here. The principles of perception deal with the rules we use to decide which objects should be grouped together, while the monocular depth cues are used to determine how far away objects are. Gestalt principles of perception Monocular depth cues closure linear perspective similarity texture gradient contiguity aerial position continuity interposition figure-ground relationship motion parallax proximity relative size In order to help clarify the difference, use these cues to draw two separate pictures. Use one or more of the Gestalt principles to create a picture with at least two separate groups of objects. Use one or more of the monocular depth cues to draw a picture of a tree, house and a person. Make sure the tree is the farthest object and the person is the closest object. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -32- Completed Sensory System Chart Sensory System External Stimulus Sensory Organ Sensory Receptor Proposed Theories visual system light waves eyes rods and cones trichromatic theory opponent-process theory auditory system sound waves ears hair cells in the organ of Corti place theory frequency theory volley theory gustatory system (taste) soluble chemicals tongue, cheeks, mouth taste cells in the taste buds olfactory system (smell) air-borne chemicals nose olfactory receptors skin senses pressure, temperature, pain skin six different types including free nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles gate-control theory of pain kinesthetic body position skin, joints, muscles, and tendons proprioceptive receptors vestibular acceleration and tilt semicircular canals and otolith organs hair cells LEARNING OBJECTIVES 3.1 How does sensation travel through the central nervous system, and why are some sensations ignored? 3.2 What is light, and how does it travel through the various parts of the eye? 3.3 How do the eyes see, and how do the eyes see different colors? 3.4 What is sound, and how does it travel through the various parts of the ear? 3.5 Why are some people unable to hear, and how can their hearing be improved? 3.6 How do the senses of taste and smell work, and how are they alike? 3.7 What allows people to experience the sense of touch, pain, motion, and balance? 3.8 What are perception and perceptual constancies? 3.9 What are the Gestalt principles of perception? 3.10 How do infants develop perceptual abilities, including the perception of depth and its cues? 3.11 What are visual illusions, and how can they and other factors influence and alter perception? Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -33- PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the option you feel best answers the question or completes the sentence. 1. The most important role of sensory receptors is to a) coordinate communications within the body. b) regulate the body?s response to pain. c) control skeletal muscle contractions. d) convert an external stimulus into an electrical-chemical message the nervous system can use. 2. The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the a) absolute threshold. b) range threshold. c) differential threshold. d) noticeable threshold. 3. An automobile manufacturer has decided to add a little bit of horsepower to its cars. They have a device that alters horsepower one unit at a time. Suppose drivers first notice the increase on a 200 horsepower car when it reaches 220 horsepower. How much horsepower must be added to a 150 horsepower car for drivers to notice the difference? a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 25 4. If you stared at a picture for a long period of time, you might think the image of the picture would fade due to sensory adaptation. This would be the case except for the tiny vibrations of your eye called a) glissades. b) saccades. c) habituation movements. d) light wave responses. 5. Light is said to have a dual nature, meaning it can be thought of in two different ways. These two ways are a) particles and photons. b) waves and frequencies. c) photons and waves. d) dark light and daylight. 6. When light waves enter the eye, they first pass through the a) iris. b) lens. c) pupil. d) cornea. 7. Which of the following is true about cones? a) They are more sensitive to light than rods. b) They are found mainly in the center of the eye. c) They operate mainly at night. d) They respond only to black and white. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -34- 8. The existence of afterimages in complementary colors best supports the ______ theory of color vision. a) opponent-process b) place c) vibrational d) Hering trichromatic 9. Which of the following properties of sound would be the most similar to the color or hue of light? a) pitch b) loudness c) purity d) timbre 10. Vibrating molecules in the air are called a) light waves. b) sound waves. c) odor waves. d) taste sensations. 11. The membrane stretched over the opening to the middle ear is the a) pinna. b) oval window. c) tympanic membrane. d) cochlea. 12. Which is the correct order of the three bones of the middle ear, from the outside in? a) anvil, hammer, stirrup b) hammer, anvil, stirrup c) stirrup, anvil, hammer d) stirrup, hammer, anvil 13. Which theory proposes that above 100 Hz but below 1000Hz, auditory neurons do not fire all at once but in rotation? a) place theory b) volley theory c) frequency theory d) rotational theory 14. The _________ theory explains how we hear sounds above 1,000 Hz. a) place b) frequency c) volley d) adaptive 15. In the auditory system, transduction occurs in the a) hair cells of the cochlea. b) hair cells of the semicircular canals. c) hair cells of the olfactory epithelium d) hair cells of the papillae. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -35- 16. Which of the following items describes a function of the bones of the middle ear? a) They transform sound waves to into an electrical signal. b) They amplify the vibrations of the ear drum. c) They funnel sound waves from the outside world into the ear. d) They provide information about movement in three planes (x, y and z). 17. If a severe ear infection damages the bones of the middle ear, you may develop _______ hearing impairment. a) nerve b) stimulation c) brain pathway d) conduction 18. Cochlear implants bypass the a) outer ear. b) outer and middle ear. c) outer, middle, and inner ear. d) auditory nerve. 19. The ?bumps? on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the a) olfactory receptors. b) taste buds. c) papillae. d) taste receptors. 20. An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to a) olfactory bulb. b) thalamus. c) amygdala. d) pons. 21. According to your textbook, what is the best current explanation for how the sensation of pain works? a) the sensory conflict theory b) the gate control theory c) the volley principle d) congenital analgesia 22. Which is the best description of the vestibular senses? a) having to do with touch, pressure, temperature, and pain b) having to do with the location of body parts in relation to each other c) having to do with movement and body position d) having to do with your location as compared to the position of the sun 23. We know when we are moving up and down in an elevator because of the movement of tiny crystals in the a) outer ear. b) inner ear. c) otolith organs. d) middle ear. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -36- 24. Proprioceptors aid in the process of a) perception of visceral pain. b) perception of the spatial location of body parts in relation to one another. c) perception of odor molecules in the air. d) perception of somatic pain. 25. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as a) size constancy. b) shape constancy. c) brightness constancy. d) color constancy. 26. Closure is the tendency a) to perceive objects, or figures, on some background. b) to complete figures that are incomplete. c) to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping. d) to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern. 27. Which Gestalt principle is at work in the old phrase, ?birds of a feather flock together?? a) closure b) similarity c) expectancy d) continuity 28. Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called a) monocular cues. b) diocular cues. c) binocular cues. d) dichromatic cues. 29. The Müller-Lyer illusion exists in cultures with a) more men than women. b) more women than men. c) few buildings. d) buildings with lots of corners. 30. People?s tendency to perceive things a certain way because their previous experiences or expectations influence them is called a) a perceptual set. b) binocular disparity. c) motion parallax. d) accommodation. 31. When you look at a flowing river, the width of the river seems to converge into a point in the distance. This phenomenon is called a) a monocular cue. b) a pictorial depth cue. c) linear perspective. d) all of the above are correct. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -37- 1. d Sensory receptors are the body?s ?antennae? to the outside world. Each sensory receptor type is specially designed to receive a specific external signal and convert it to an electrical-chemical signal that the brain can understand. 2. a Gustav Fechner investigated the sensitivity of the human sensory systems and called the lowest level of a stimulus that a person could detect half of the time the absolute threshold. 3. c According to Weber?s law, the just noticeable difference (jnd) is a constant proportion. A change from 200 to 220 represents an increase of 20 units and a jnd of 20/200 or 0.10, which is 10 percent. If the company starts with 150 horsepower, they will need to increase it by 10 percent in order for the driver to notice a difference. Ten percent of 150 is 15. 4. b Saccades are the small quick movements your eye makes in order to keep the visual stimuli changing. When our sensory receptors receive unchanging, constant stimuli, they eventually stop responding to the stimulus. This process is known as sensory adaptation. 5. c Light can be thought of as a wave and as particles. Photons are the specific type of particles of which light is composed. 6. d The cornea is the outermost coating of the eye. It is transparent and serves to protect the eye and to help focus the light coming in to the eye. 7. b Cones are the sensory receptors that respond to color and send visual information of high acuity or visual sharpness. The cones are located primarily in the center of the retina. Rods are more sensitive than cones to light, and they respond only to black and white. 8. a The opponent process theory of color vision was introduced, in part, to explain the phenomenon of the afterimage. 9. a Both light and sound travel in waves. Pitch is determined by the length of the sound wave just as color is determined by the length of the light wave. Both brightness and loudness are determined by the height of their respective waves. 10. b The outer and middle parts of the ear are designed to funnel the vibrating air molecules to the inner ear where they are translated into an electrical signal and sent to the brain. 11. c The tympanic membrane is also known as the eardrum. Sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to vibrate, which then causes the bones of the middle ear to move back and forth. 12. b The order of the bones is hammer, anvil, stirrup which spells ?has.? 13. b Volley theory describes the perception of pitch for the middle frequencies (100 ? 1000 Hz). Frequency theory describes the low frequencies (100 Hz and less), and place theory describes the fastest frequencies (1000 Hz and higher). 14. a The idea is that at very high sound frequencies, the action potential frequency can?t keep up, so pitch has to be coded by the place on the basilar membrane that is activated. 15. a Sound waves result in the vibration of the basilar membrane, which causes the hair cells of the cochlea to brush against the membrane above them. In this way, sound waves are transformed into an electrical signal (action potential) that the brain can understand. Although hair cells exist in the vestibular system and hair-like cilia exist in the olfactory system, neither are involved in auditory transduction. The papillae are visible components of the gustatory system and contain the taste buds rather than hair cells. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -38- 16. b The vibration of the three bones of the middle ear, the hammer, anvil and stirrup, amplify the vibrations from the ear drum. The hair cells of the cochlear transform sound waves into an electrical signal. The pinna funnels sound waves from the outside world into the inner ear. The semicircular canals provide information about movement in the x, y and z planes. 17. d Conduction hearing impairment is caused by damage to the outer or middle ear. 18. b Cochlear implants use an electronic device instead of the movements of the bones in the middle ear to convert the sound wave into a signal that is then sent to the auditory nerve in the inner ear. 19. c The bumps you can see with your eye are the papillae. The taste buds are located along the sides of the papillae. Each taste bud contains 10?20 taste receptors. 20. a The olfactory system is the only system in which the receptors send their signal directly to the higher brain and bypass the thalamus, which normally acts as a filter for the processes of the lower brain. 21. b According to your textbook, the gate-control theory of pain is the best current explanation for how pain works. The sensory conflict theory applies to motion sickness; the volley principle explains the perception of sound rather than pain. Although congenital analgesia is related to pain, it refers to a condition in which people cannot feel pain. 22. c The vestibular sense provides you with a sense of balance and sends your brain information about acceleration and tilt. 23. d Although the otolith organs are located in the inner ear, the inner ear is a more precise answer. 24. b Proprioceptors aid in the perception of the spatial location of body parts in relation to one another. The term referring to the perception of smell is olfaction. 25. a Size constancy refers to the fact that our perception of the size of an object tends to remain constant. 26. b Closure is one of the Gestalt principles of perception and refers to our tendency to ?close? objects to form a complete picture. 27. b The saying is emphasizing that objects with similar characteristics (?birds of a feather?) tend to be grouped together (?flock together?). This is the principle of similarity. 28. c The phrase ?ocular? means having to do with the eyes. ?Mono? refers to one and ?bi? refers to two. Therefore, the term binocular means seeing depth with two eyes. 29. d The carpentered-world theory states that the Müller-Lyer illusion does not exist in certain ?primitive? cultures because they are not surrounded by straight lines and corners. 30. a An individual?s expectations or perceptual set often influence perception of objects. 31. d All of the answers are correct. Linear perspective is a type of monocular cue that can be used to add depth to pictures; thus, it is also a pictorial depth cue. CHAPTER GLOSSARY absolute threshold the lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50 percent of the time the stimulation is present. accommodation as a monocular clue, the brain?s use of information about the changing thickness of the lens of the eye in response to looking at objects that are close or far away. aerial (atmospheric) perspective the haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater. afterimages images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -39- auditory canal short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum. auditory nerve bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear. binocular cues cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes. binocular disparity the difference in images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects. blind spot area in the retina where the axons of three layers of retinal cells exit the eye to form the optic nerve. bottom-up processing the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception. brightness constancy the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change. closure the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete. cochlea snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid. cones visual sensory receptor found at the back of the retina, responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision. contiguity the tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related. continuity the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern. convergence the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and less convergence if objects are distant. dark adaptation the recovery of the eye?s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights. depth perception the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. figure?ground the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background. frequency theory theory of pitch that states that pitch is related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membrane. gustation (gustatory system) the sensation of taste. habituation tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging information. hertz (Hz) cycles or waves per second, a measurement of frequency. just noticeable difference (difference threshold) the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time. kinesthetic senses sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other. light adaptation the recovery of the eye?s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness. linear perspective the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other. monocular cues (pictorial depth cues) cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only. motion parallax the perception of motion of objects in which close objects appear to move more quickly than objects farther away. Müller-Lyer illusion illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the lines, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different. olfaction (olfactory system) the sensation of smell. olfactory bulbs areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive information from the olfactory receptor cells. opponent-process theory theory of color vision that proposes visual neurons (or groups of neurons) are stimulated by light of one color and inhibited by light of another color. overlap (interposition) the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -40- perception the method by which the sensations experienced at any given moment are interpreted and organized in some meaningful fashion. perceptual set (perceptual expectancy) the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions. pinna the visible part of the ear. pitch psychological experience of sound that corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves; higher frequencies are perceived as higher pitches. place theory theory of pitch that states that different pitches are experienced by the stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of Corti. proximity the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping. relative size perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be of a certain size appear to be small and are, therefore, assumed to be much farther away. reversible figures visual illusions in which the figure and ground can be reversed. rods visual sensory receptor found at the back of the retina, responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light. sensation the process that occurs when special receptors in the sense organs are activated, allowing various forms of outside stimuli to become neural signals in the brain. sensory adaptation tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging. sensory conflict theory an explanation of motion sickness in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information from the vestibular senses, resulting in dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomfort. shape constancy the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina. similarity the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group. size constancy the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance. skin senses the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. somesthetic senses the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses. synesthesia disorder in which the signals from various sensory organs are processed in the wrong cortical areas, resulting in the sense information being interpreted as more than one sensation. texture gradient the tendency for textured surfaces to appear to become smaller and finer as distance from the viewer increases. top-down processing the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole. transduction the process of converting outside stimuli, such as light, into neural activity. trichromatic theory theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green. vestibular senses the sensations of movement, balance, and body position. visual accommodation the change in the thickness of the lens as the eye focuses on objects that are far away or close. volley principle theory of pitch that states that frequencies about 400 Hz to 4000 Hz cause the hair cells (auditory neurons) to fire in a volley pattern, or taking turns in firing. Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -41- Sensation and Perception CHAPTER 3 -42- CHAPTER 4 ? CONSCIOUSNESS: SLEEP, DREAMS, HYPNOSIS, AND DRUGS YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define consciousness and discuss the different levels of consciousness. ? Explain the factors that control sleep, theories on the purpose of sleep, the stages of sleep, and disorders of sleep. ? Discuss dreams and three theories that attempt to explain the purpose of dreams. ? Introduce the phenomenon of hypnosis and theories suggesting the underlying mechanism. ? Describe properties and potential dangers of psychoactive drugs including stimulants, depressants, narcotics, and hallucinogens. ? Understand how hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations might be misinterpreted as supernatural events. RAPID REVIEW Consciousness is defined as a person?s awareness of the world around him or her; this awareness may be used to organize behavior. Waking consciousness is defined as the state of awareness where our thoughts and feelings are clear and organized. Altered states of consciousness describe a shift in the quality or pattern of a person?s awareness. Examples of altered states of consciousness include using drugs, daydreaming, being hypnotized, or simply sleeping. The sleep?wake cycle is a circadian rhythm, meaning one cycle takes about a day to complete. The cycle is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) located in the hypothalamus. The SCN responds to changes in daylight and regulates body temperature and the release of melatonin from the pineal gland. By the end of the day, lower body temperature and higher melatonin levels cause people to feel sleepy. In addition, high levels of serotonin are believed to produce feelings of sleepiness. The sleep? wake cycle tends to shift to a 25-hour cycle when subjects do not have access to the sun or clocks. Sleep deprivation, or loss of sleep, results in an increase in microsleeps (brief periods of sleep lasting only a few seconds), concentration problems, and an inability to perform simple tasks. Participants in a number of sleep deprivation studies reported that they were unaware of their impaired functioning. Two theories are currently proposed for why we sleep. The adaptive theory suggests that we sleep to avoid predators, while the restorative theory states that sleep is needed to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage. Both theories are probably partially correct. Based on brain wave activity recorded with the use of an EEG, sleep has been divided into two different types, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep. Non-REM sleep is a deep, restful sleep and consists of four stages. Stage 1 sleep is also called light sleep and occurs when brain activity begins to shift from alpha to theta wave activity. Many people experience a hypnic jerk in this stage when their body jerks suddenly and wakes them up. As body temperature continues to drop and heart rate slows, sleep spindles begin to appear on the EEG recording, signaling Stage 2 of non-REM sleep. Stage 3 occurs when the slow, large delta waves first appear. When delta waves account for more than 50 percent of the total brain activity, the person is said to be in Stage 4, the deepest stage of sleep. After a person cycles through Stages 1?4, instead of entering Stage 1, people experience REM sleep. During this type of sleep, the brain is active and displays beta wave activity, the eye exhibits rapid movements, and the skeletal muscles of the body are temporarily paralyzed. This paralysis is referred to as REM paralysis. When a person is wakened from this type of sleep they often report being in a dream state. Most likely, around 90 percent of dreams take place in REM sleep, although dreams also do occur in non-REM sleep. Contrary to popular belief, people do not go crazy when deprived of REM sleep; however, they do spend longer amounts of time in REM sleep when allowed to sleep normally again. This phenomenon is known as REM rebound. Nightmares are bad dreams and typically occur in REM sleep. REM behavior disorder is a rare disorder in which a person?s muscles are not paralyzed during REM sleep, allowing them to thrash about and even get up and act out their dreams. A large number of disorders are associated with sleep. Sleepwalking, or somnambulism, occurs in Stage 4, as does the rare disorder of night terrors. Most people state that they are not aware of the actions Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -43- they committed during a sleepwalking episode. The explanation of ?sleepwalking? has been used as a successful defense in several trials for murder, but in these cases, the term sleepwalking is more likely referring to the condition known as REM behavior disorder. Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or get a good night of quality sleep. Sleep apnea is a disorder in which a person actually stops breathing for brief periods throughout the night. Narcolepsy is a genetic disorder in which a person suddenly enters REM sleep during the day. Such attacks can occur many times throughout the day and without warning. The attacks often occur with cataplexy, or a sudden loss of muscle tone. Several theories have been proposed to explain why dreams occur. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams represented our unconscious thoughts and desires. He called the actual content of a dream the manifest content and the real meaning of the dream the latent content. The activation-synthesis hypothesis was originally proposed by Hobson and McCarley and suggests that dreams occur when the cerebral cortex attempts to fit together (or synthesize) random neural input from the lower brain structures. The activation-information mode model (AIM) expands on the activation-synthesis model in an attempt to explain the meaningful, realistic, and consistent nature of many dreams. AIM proposes that the cortex uses information from the previous days as it pieces together the input coming from the lower brain structures. A considerable amount of information is known about the content of dreams. Most dreams tend to reflect events in everyday life as well as the ?personality? of the dreamer?s culture. Men tend to dream about weapons, tools, cars, roads, and other males. Further, their dreams tend to occur in outdoor or unfamiliar settings and contain more physical aggression as compared to women?s dreams. Men also report more sexual dreams. Women tend to dream about men and women equally, and they also are more likely to report dreams about people they know, family, home, concerns about their appearances, and dreams in which they are the victims of aggressive acts. Dreams of being naked in public appear to be common in many cultures. Hypnosis is a state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptive to suggestion. Hypnosis can reduce the sensation of pain, create temporary states of amnesia, and affect sensory perception. However, it cannot increase physical strength, enhance memory, or regress a person back to their childhood. One theory of hypnosis proposed by Ernst Hilgard suggests that the hypnotized person is in a state of dissociation with one part of the brain unaware of the activities happening under hypnosis and another part aware and simply watching what is happening. Hilgard called the part of the consciousness that was aware of the activities the hidden observer. The social-cognitive theory of hypnosis states that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are simply playing the role they feel is expected of them in the situation. A psychoactive drug is any drug that alters a person?s thinking, perception, or memory. Physical dependence on a drug occurs when the user?s body does not function normally without the drug. Two signs of physical dependence are drug tolerance and symptoms of withdrawal when deprived of the drug. Psychological dependence occurs when a drug is needed to maintain a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being. Psychoactive drugs can be classified into major categories including stimulants, depressants, narcotics, and psychogenic drugs. Stimulants are a class of drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system and the organs connected to it. Specifically, stimulants activate the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. Amphetamines are human-manufactured stimulants and include drugs such as benzedrine, methedrine, and dexedrine. Large doses of amphetamines can lead to a severe mental disturbance and paranoia called amphetamine psychosis. Cocaine is a naturally occurring stimulant found in the leaves of the coca plant. Cocaine produces feelings of happiness, energy, power, and pleasure and also reduces pain and suppresses appetite. Cocaine is highly addictive and can cause convulsions and death even in first- time users. Signs of cocaine abuse include compulsive use, loss of control, and disregard for the consequences of use. Nicotine is a mild yet toxic, naturally occurring stimulant that raises blood pressure, accelerates the heart, and provides a rush of sugar into the bloodstream. Nicotine has been found to be more addictive than heroin or alcohol and is linked to nearly 430,000 deaths in the United States each year. Caffeine is a third naturally occurring stimulant that increases alertness and can enhance the effectiveness of certain pain relievers. Depressants are drugs that slow down the central nervous system and include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol. Barbiturates have a strong sedative, or sleep-inducing, effect and are Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -44- known as the major tranquilizers. The minor tranquilizers, or benzodiazepines, have a relatively minor depressant effect and are used to lower anxiety and reduce stress. Some common benzodiazepines include Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Ativan, Librium, and Rohypnol (also known as the date rape drug). The most commonly used and abused depressant is alcohol. Narcotics reduce the sensation of pain by binding to and activating the receptor sites for endorphins. All narcotics are at least partially derived from the plant-based substance of opium. Opium itself is made from the opium poppy and reduces pain as well as increases feelings of well-being. Morphine is made from opium and is used for the short-term relief of severe pain. Due to its highly addictive nature, the use of morphine is carefully controlled. Heroin is also partially derived from opium but is not used as a medicine due to the fact that it is more addictive than morphine or opium. Narcotics are thought to be so addictive because they mimic the action of endorphins and subsequently cause the body to stop producing its own endorphins so that without the drug, there is no protection from pain. Methadone is a synthetic opioid that does not produce the feelings of euphoria produced by morphine and heroin. Methadone can be used to attempt to control heroin dependency. In addition to methadone treatment, heroin addiction is treated with behavioral therapies such as contingency management therapies and cognitive approaches such as cognitive-behavioral interventions. Hallucinogens are psychogenic drugs that create false sensory perceptions, also known as hallucinations. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is synthesized from a grain fungus and is one of the most potent hallucinogens. Phenyl cyclohexyl piperdine or PCP is a synthesized drug that can act as a hallucinogen, stimulant, depressant, or analgesic depending on the dosage. PCP has also been shown to lead to acts of violence against others or suicide. MDMA or Ecstasy shares some chemical characteristics with amphetamines and also produces hallucinations. Because of their stimulant and hallucinogenic properties, PCP and MDMA are now classified as stimulatory hallucinogenics. Naturally occurring hallucinogenics include mescaline, psilocybin, and marijuana. The physiological effects of marijuana may be milder than other hallucinogens, yet marijuana use can lead to a powerful psychological dependency. Hypnogogic hallucinations may occur during Stage 1 sleep; whereas, hypnopompic hallucinations tend to occur upon awakening from REM sleep. The vivid nature of these hallucinations may cause some people to misinterpret such experiences as ghostly visitations or alien abductions. STUDY HINTS 7. Use the space below to create a visual summary of the brain wave and physiological changes that occur as your body moves from an awake state through the stages of sleep typical for one night of sleep. Use arrows to indicate the progression through the stages throughout the course of a night. Stage Brain wave activity Other descriptions Awake non-REM Stage 1 non-REM Stage 2 non-REM Stage 3 non-REM Stage 4 REM Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -45- 8. The textbook introduces six different sleep disorders. Pretend that you have each of the sleep disorders and write a brief description of a particular episode you experienced due to the disorder. sleepwalking I don?t remember anything that happened but in the morning my mother told me that about 50 minutes after I had fallen asleep (right when I would be in the deepest stage of sleep, Stage 4) I walked past her in the kitchen and I was carrying a bath towel. I put the towel in the refrigerator, looked right at her, and then went back to bed in my bedroom. Supposedly I do this type of thing quite often. night terrors __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ REM behavior disorder __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ insomnia __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ apnea __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ narcolepsy __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -46- Suggested solutions for Question 1 Stage Brain wave activity Other descriptions Awake beta non-REM Stage 1 alpha hypnic jerk occurs here non-REM Stage 2 theta sleep spindles are seen in this stage non-REM Stage 3 delta waves initial appearance of delta waves, they make up minority of brain wave activity non-REM Stage 4 more than 50 percent delta waves deepest stage of sleep, hardest to wake the person up, sleepwalking and night terrors occur in this stage REM beta skeletal muscles are paralyzed (except for people with REM behavior disorder), eyes dart back and forth rapidly below the eyelids LEARNING OBJECTIVES 4.1 What does it mean to be conscious, and are there different levels of consciousness? 4.2 Why do people need to sleep, and how does sleep work? 4.3 What are the different stages of sleep, including the stage of dreaming and its importance? 4.4 How do sleep disorders interfere with normal sleep? 4.5 Why do people dream, and what do they dream about? 4.6 How does hypnosis affect consciousness? 4.7 What is the difference between a physical dependence and a psychological dependence on a drug? 4.8 How do stimulants and depressants affect consciousness, and what are the dangers associated with taking them, particularly alcohol? 4.9 What are some of the effects and dangers of using narcotics and hallucinogens, including marijuana? 4.10 What are hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. What term do psychologists use to designate our personal awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts? a) thinking b) cognition c) conscience d) consciousness 2. A biological cycle, or rhythm, that is approximately 24 hours long is a(n) ______ cycle. a) infradian b) circadian c) diurnal d) ultradian Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -47- 3. The hormone melatonin reaches peak levels in the body during the a) morning. b) early evening. c) afternoon. d) night. 4. Sid is taking part in research on the effects of sleep deprivation; he has been without sleep for 75 hours. Right now researchers have asked him to sit in front of a computer screen and hit a button each time he sees the letter "S" on the screen. A few days ago, Sid was a whiz at this task; however, he is doing very poorly today. How are sleep researchers likely to explain Sid's poor performance? a) Due to the sleep deprivation, Sid does not understand the task. b) Microsleeps are occurring due to the sleep deprivation, and he is asleep for brief periods of time. c) He is determined to ruin the research because of the suffering he is enduring at the hands of the researchers. d) He is probably dreaming that he is somewhere else and has no interest in responding to the "here and now." 5. According to this theory, sleep is a product of evolution. a) restorative theory b) adaptive theory c) psychoanalytic theory d) dream theory 6. If the EEG record reveals evidence of very small and very fast waves, you are likely to conclude that the sleeping person is a) really not sleeping and is awake. b) in Stage 2. c) in Stage 3. d) in Stage 4. 7. Each of the following is true of sleepwalking EXCEPT a) more boys than girls sleepwalk. b) sleepwalking is more common among children than adults. c) waking a sleepwalker is difficult. d) waking a sleepwalker is dangerous. 8. For several months, Ted has been taking increasingly larger doses of barbiturate sleeping pills to treat insomnia. He just decided to quit taking any barbiturate sleeping pills. What is likely to happen to Ted when he stops taking the barbiturate sleeping pills? a) He will become depressed. b) He will experience the REM rebound. c) He will increase his intake of caffeine. d) He will suffer the symptoms of narcolepsy. 9. REM paralysis a) is a myth. b) only occurs in the elderly. c) prevents the acting out of dreams. d) may become permanent. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -48- 10. REM behavior disorder results from a) too much sleep. b) not enough sleep. c) failure of the pons to block brain signals to the muscles. d) deterioration of the medial hypothalamus. 11. What is the rationale for the use of ?sleepwalking? as a defense for committing a crime? a) It was too dangerous to awaken the sleepwalking criminal. b) The suspect actually suffers from REM behavior disorder and was unknowingly acting out a dream. c) High levels of anxiety and stress were created by the sleep deprivation caused by the sleepwalking episodes. d) The suspect was highly susceptible to suggestion at the time of the crime. 12. Mary is having insomnia. Which advice would you give to help her deal with it? a) Take sleeping pills. b) Have a cup of hot tea before going to bed. c) Study in bed and then go immediately to sleep. d) Don?t do anything but sleep in your bed. 13. Sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by a) difficulty falling or remaining asleep. b) episodes of unexplained cataplexy during the day. c) difficulty breathing while asleep. d) experiencing temporary paralysis immediately after waking up from sleep. 14. What two categories of dream content did Sigmund Freud describe? a) poetic and realistic b) literal and symbolic c) latent and manifest d) delusional and hallucinatory 15. The activation-information-mode model (AIM) suggests a) events that occur during waking hours may influence dreams. b) nothing influences dreams. c) dreams are a neurological side effect of indigestion. d) dreams have more latent content than once thought. 16. According to the textbook, girls and women tend to dream about a) animals. b) cars. c) people they know. d) strangers. 17. ____________ is a state of consciousness in which a person may be especially susceptible to suggestion. a) Hypnosis b) Meditation c) Truth induction d) Extrasensory perception Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -49- 18. Tests of ?hypnotic susceptibility? have been found to a) be similar for almost everyone. b) make use of a series of suggestions. c) be almost completely inherited. d) use deception. 19. Hypnosis can a) give people superhuman strength. b) reliably enhance accuracy of memory. c) regress people back to childhood. d) induce amnesia. 20. The idea of ?hidden observer? was suggested by a) Freud. b) Watson. c) Hilgard. d) Kirsch. 21. Psychoactive drugs a) speed up activity in the central nervous system. b) are capable of influencing thinking, perception, and memory. c) slow down activity in the central nervous system. d) are derived from the opium poppy and relieve pain and produce euphoria. 22. Psychological dependence is best described as a) a desire to take a drug. b) drug tolerance and signs of withdrawal when deprived of the drug. c) feelings of sadness when the drug is not available. d) feelings of euphoria following the ingestion of a drug. 23. Drugs that speed up the functioning of the nervous system are called a) stimulants. b) depressants. c) narcotics. d) psychogenics. 24. The most addictive and dangerous (as defined by the number of deaths caused by the drug) stimulant in use today is a) alcohol. b) amphetamine. c) nicotine. d) cocaine. 25. Cathy has just taken a drug that has caused her heart rate and breathing to slow down considerably. Most likely, Cathy has taken a) an amphetamine. b) a barbiturate. c) LSD. d) MDMA. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -50- 26. Your doctor has decided to give you a prescription for a drug to reduce your anxiety levels. Most likely your doctor will prescribe a a) narcotic. b) hallucinogen. c) depressant. d) stimulant. 27. Which of the following is classified as a depressant? a) cocaine b) alcohol c) heroin d) marijuana 28. Jane has a loss of equilibrium, decreased sensory and motor capabilities, and double vision. According to the table in the text, how many drinks has Jane had? a) 1?2 b) 3?5 c) 6?7 d) 8?10 29. Morphine, heroin, and methadone a) are stimulants. b) are derived from opium. c) are often used with ADHD. d) increase the action of the central nervous system. 30. LSD is similar to which of the following drugs? a) cocaine b) methadone c) PCP d) CHT 31. Bill is taken to the emergency room of the hospital after he reports hearing dogs screaming and seeing fire shooting across his shirt and pants. Assuming his condition is due to a drug overdose, which type of drug did Bill most likely consume? a) a depressant b) a barbiturate c) a narcotic d) a hallucinogen 32. One of the greatest risks of using marijuana is a) physical dependency. b) psychological dependency. c) weight gain. d) heart attack. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -51- PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. D Consciousness is defined as personal awareness of feelings, sensation, and thoughts. Your conscience is your sense of morality or right and wrong. 2. B If you break down the word, ?circa? means about or around (such as circa 1960) and ?dia? means day. So circa-dia means about one day long. 3. D High melatonin level is one of the signals for our body that it is time to sleep. The release of melatonin is controlled by signals coming from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is light sensitive. In this way, the release of melatonin follows the light-dark patterns of the day. 4. b Sleep deprivation often leads to decreased performance in simple tasks. Microsleeps are a likely reason for a decrease in performance. These are brief episodes of sleep that we enter and exit rapidly. 5. b Adaptive theory states that a species sleeps during the time when its predators are most likely to be out hunting, thus increasing the likelihood of survival for that species. 6. a The faster the brain wave activity, the more alert and awake the person is. Another option would have been that the person was in REM sleep where fast small brain wave activity is also seen. 7. d Waking the sleepwalker is not dangerous. However, it might be hard to do because they are in Stage 4 deep sleep. 8. b Barbiturate sleeping pills interfere with REM sleep, so since Ted has been deprived of REM he is likely to spend a longer than usual amount of time in REM for the next few nights. This phenomenon is known as REM rebound. 9. c During REM sleep the pons sends messages to the spinal cord that inhibits the movements of skeletal muscles. 10. c REM behavior disorder occurs when REM paralysis does not work and a person acts out their dreams. The paralysis is mediated by the pons in the brainstem. 11. b The sleepwalking defense is actually referring to a suspect thought to have REM behavior disorder. 12. d The idea is that the only association you should have with your bed is sleeping and this will make it easier for you to fall asleep when you get in bed. 13. c Sleep apnea is a sleeping disorder in which a person actually stops breathing for brief periods throughout the night. 14. c Freud thought dreams had two levels: the actual content that he called the manifest content and then the real meaning which he called the latent content. 15. a The activation-information-mode model (AIM) proposes that content experienced while an individual is awake may influence the synthesis of dreams. 16. c Women tend to dream about men and women as well as people they know, while men tend to dream about other men. 17. a Hypnosis is a state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion. 18. b The tests used to determine how likely it is for a person to be hypnotized generally include a list of suggestions. 19. d Hypnosis has only been found to induce temporary amnesia, reduce pain, and alter sensory perceptions. 20. c Ernst Hilgard suggested that hypnosis was possible because the subject dissociates himself into a part that is aware of what is going on (the hidden observer) and a part that is unaware. 21. b Speeding up the central nervous system, slowing down the central nervous system, and the derivatives of opium that relieve pain or produce euphoria all describe a specific categories of psychoactive drugs rather than the overall definition. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -52- 22. c Psychological dependence is the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being. 23. a Stimulants speed up heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, among other activities. 24. c Nicotine has been linked to nearly 430,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. 25. b Barbiturate is the only drug listed that is a depressant. 26. c The depressants known as the mild tranquilizers, or benzodiazepines, are often prescribed to lower anxiety levels. 27. b Alcohol slows down the activity of the central nervous system; thus, it is classified as a depressant. 28. d See the table in the textbook. 29. b All narcotics are derived from the opium poppy. All three of the drugs listed are classified as narcotics. 30. c LSD and PCP are both hallucinogens. 31. d Hallucinogens produce false sensory perceptions. 32. b The effect of psychological dependence can be very powerful. CHAPTER GLOSSARY activation-information mode model (AIM) revised version of the activation-synthesis explanation of dreams in which information that is accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams. activation-synthesis hypothesis premise that states that dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the activation by the brain stem of cortical cells during REM sleep periods. adaptive theory theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active. alcohol the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of various kinds of vegetable matter. alpha waves brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep. altered states of consciousness state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness. amphetamines stimulants that are synthesized (made) in laboratories rather than being found in nature. barbiturates depressant drugs that have a sedative effect. benzodiazepines depressant drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress. beta waves smaller and faster brain waves, typically indicating mental activity. caffeine a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant-based substances. circadian rhythm a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period. cocaine a natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant. consciousness a person?s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment, which is used to organize behavior. delta waves long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep. depressants drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system. hallucinogens drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality. hallucinogenics drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produces hallucinations or increased feelings or relaxation and intoxication. heroin narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive. hypnosis state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -53- insomnia the inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful synthetic hallucinogen. marijuana mild hallucinogen (also known as ?pot? or ?weed?) derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant. MDMA (Ecstasy or X) designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects. mescaline natural hallucinogen derived from the peyote cactus buttons. microsleeps brief sidesteps of sleep lasting only a few seconds. morphine narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain. narcolepsy sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day, without warning. narcotics a class of opium-related drugs that suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system?s natural receptor sites for endorphins. nicotine the active ingredient in tobacco. night terrors relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully. nightmares bad dreams occurring during REM sleep. non-REM (NREM) sleep any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM. opium substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived. PCP synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects. physical dependence condition occurring when a person?s body becomes unable to function normally without a particular drug. psilocybin natural hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms. psychoactive drug drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory. psychological dependence the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream. REM behavior disorder a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares. REM paralysis the inability of the voluntary muscles to move during REM sleep. REM rebound increased amounts of REM sleep after being deprived of REM sleep on earlier nights. restorative theory theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage. sleep apnea disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more during sleep. sleep deprivation any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability. sleepwalking (somnambulism) occurring during deep sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one?s sleep. social-cognitive theory of hypnosis theory that assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation. stimulants drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system. stimulatory hallucinogenics drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. theta waves brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -54- waking consciousness state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized, and the person feels alert. withdrawal physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems. Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -55- Consciousness CHAPTER 4 -56- CHAPTER 5 ? LEARNING YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define learning. ? Explain what classical conditioning is, how it works, and how it was discovered. ? Describe the mechanisms of operant conditioning, its application in the real world, and the researchers who contributed to our understanding of the process. ? Discuss cognitive learning theory and the phenomenon of learned helplessness. ? Define observational learning and describe Bandura?s classic experiments in the area of observational learning. RAPID REVIEW Learning is the process that allows us to adapt to the changing conditions of the environment around us and is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice (as opposed to changes brought about by maturation). Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, discovered one of the simplest forms of learning called classical conditioning. In his classic paradigm, Pavlov used dogs as research subjects. Dogs like to eat meat, and when they are exposed to meat, they salivate. The salivation is a reflex, or an involuntary response that is not under personal choice or control. In Pavlov?s study, the presentation of meat was repeatedly paired with the ticking sound of a metronome. The dogs heard the ticking sound and then they were presented with the meat. Eventually, the dogs began to salivate when they heard the ticking sound alone. This process may be described using five important terms. First, the meat is an unconditioned (or ?unlearned?) stimulus (UCS), and salivation is a reflexive unconditioned response (UCR). Dogs naturally salivate in response to the presence of meat, without having to be trained to do so. A ticking sound does not normally cause dogs to salivate; thus, the ticking sound is originally a neutral stimulus (NS) that does not cause a response on its own. After being paired repeatedly with the meat, the ticking sound begins to produce the same type of reflexive response as the meat. At that point, the ticking sound has become a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation in response to the ticking sound is a conditioned, or learned, response (CR). The repeated pairing of the NS and UCS is known as acquisition. In order for classical conditioning to occur, the CS must occur before the UCS, the CS and UCS must occur close together in time, the CS and UCS must be paired together repeatedly, and the CS should be distinctive. Two other principles of classical conditioning are stimulus generalization, the ability of a stimulus that resembles the CS to produce a CR, and stimulus discrimination, learning to respond to different stimuli in different ways. In classical conditioning, extinction occurs after the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, and the CS no longer produces a CR. Spontaneous recovery occurs when the CS is presented after being absent for a period of time and produces a mild CR. When a powerful conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, the conditioned stimulus itself can function as a UCS and turn the neutral stimulus into a second conditioned stimulus. This process is called higher-order conditioning. John Watson demonstrated a particular type of classical conditioning called conditional emotional response with Little Albert and his learned phobia of white rats. Vicarious conditioning occurs when a person becomes classically conditioned simply by watching someone else respond to a stimulus. Conditioned taste aversions are a unique form of classical conditioning that can occur with only one neutral stimulus?unconditioned stimulus pairing. Conditioning is believed to occur so rapidly due to the biological preparedness of most mammals. Pavlov suggested that classical conditioning works through the process of stimulus substitution, in that the close pairing in time of the CS with the UCS eventually leads to the CS serving as a substitute stimulus for the UCS and activating the same brain area as the UCS. Psychologists who agree with the cognitive perspective, such as Robert Rescorla, have suggested that the CS must provide some information about the upcoming UCS and that it is this expectancy that causes the association to occur. Learning CHAPTER 5 -57- Operant conditioning is a type of learning more strongly associated with voluntary behavior and is based on Edward Thorndike?s work with cats and the puzzle box. Based on his research, Thorndike formulated the law of effect, which states that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated and if a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend not to be repeated. B.F. Skinner expanded on Thorndike?s law of effect and coined the term operant conditioning for this type of learning, since the term operant refers to any voluntary behavior. While classical conditioning focuses on what happens before the response, the key to operant conditioning is what happens after the response, or in other words, the consequence. Reinforcement is a consequence that is pleasurable and strengthens the response that came before it. There are two types of reinforcers: primary reinforcers satisfy basic needs and don?t need to be learned. Secondary reinforcers get their reinforcing power through prior associations with a primary reinforcer and thus are learned. Reinforcement works by adding a pleasurable consequence after a response occurs (positive reinforcement) or removing something unpleasant after a response occurs (negative reinforcement). Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the likelihood that the response will occur again. An important principle that Skinner discovered is that the timing of reinforcement can make a significant difference in how fast a response is learned. Continuous reinforcement occurs when a reinforcer is presented after every response. Partial reinforcement occurs when a reinforcer is given after some, but not all, of the correct responses. Partial reinforcement takes longer to go through extinction, or in other words, is more resistant to extinction. This is known as the partial reinforcement effect. The timing of partial reinforcement is referred to as the schedule of reinforcement. There are four different schedules of reinforcement: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. A ratio schedule occurs when a reinforcer depends on the number of responses that are made. In an interval schedule, reinforcers are presented after a certain period of time has passed. If the reinforcers are always given after a set period of time or number of responses, the schedule is said to be fixed. If the reinforcer is given after varying periods of time or numbers of responses, the schedule is labeled as variable. Punishment, on the other hand, decreases the likelihood of a response. Punishment is any consequence of a response that causes that response to be less likely to happen again. While reinforcement strengthens a response that already exists, the goal of punishment is often to eliminate the response, which is usually a much harder task. Typically punishment only temporarily suppresses the response. Punishment by application describes the situation in which a response is followed by the addition of something unpleasant. Punishment by application is not the most effective way to modify behavior and has a number of serious drawbacks. For instance, rather than stopping the behavior that elicited the punishment, severe punishment may cause the child (or animal) to simply avoid the punisher. Similarly, severe punishment may encourage lying to avoid punishment, or it may create fear and anxiety, which may actually have a negative effect on learning. In particular, hitting may provide a successful model for aggression. Punishment by removal occurs when a response is followed by the removal of something pleasant. Many parents and educators find this type of punishment to be less objectionable. However, one limitation of this method is that it teachers the child what not to do but it does not teach the child what he or she should do. Punishment can be made more effective if it is administered immediately after the undesired behavior, is administered consistently, and is paired with reinforcement for the right behavior. Shaping involves the use of operant conditioning to reward successive approximations until the desired response is obtained. Operant conditioning has several parallels with classical conditioning. For instance, extinction involves the removal of reinforcement, and spontaneous recovery occurs when an organism attempts a previously learned response in order to receive a reward. In addition, a discriminative stimulus is defined as any stimulus that provides an organism with a signal or cue for making a certain response in order to get reinforcement. In the lab, researchers found that even though animals could be operantly conditioned to perform certain tasks, they often had a tendency to go back to their genetic, or natural, way of doing things. This tendency to revert to genetically controlled patterns is called instinctive drift. The term behavior modification is used to describe the process of using operant conditioning to change behavior. A token economy involves the use of tokens to modify behavior. Time-outs are an Learning CHAPTER 5 -58- example of punishment by removal where the child is removed from a situation where they could get attention from others. Applied behavior analysis, or ABA, uses shaping techniques to obtain a desired behavior and is particularly successful with children with disorders such as autism. The technique called biofeedback uses operant conditioning to modify involuntary behaviors such as blood pressure and heart rate. When this technique is used to try to change brain activity, as observed using an electroencephalogram or an fMRI machine, it is referred to as neurofeedback. Cognitive learning theorists focus on the mental processes (or cognitions) that occur during learning. Edward Tolman studied the phenomenon of latent learning in rats placed in a maze but not reinforced for finding their way out. He found that when the rats were subsequently reinforced, learning occurred much faster than for rats that had never been in the maze. Martin Seligman studied a phenomenon he called learned helplessness in dogs. Two groups of dogs participated in this experiment. For one group, the researchers paired a tone with a harmless but painful electric shock. The dogs were harnessed and not allowed to escape the shock; that is, they heard the tone and knew the shock was coming, but there was nothing they could do to prevent it. The researchers expected that, once the dogs had learned to associate the tone with the shock, they would try to escape whenever they heard the tone. The second group of dogs did not undergo conditioning; they were not exposed to the tone and the shock. In the next phase of the experiment, dogs of both groups were placed individually in a two-sided box. The floor of one side of the box featured an electrified grid that could be used to shock the dogs; whereas, the other side of the box (the ?safe side?) had no grid. The two sides of the box were separated by a hurdle. The dogs could jump over the hurdle to safety whenever they heard the tone that signaled the impending shock. The researchers found that, upon the sounding of the tone, the group of dogs that had not undergone conditioning quickly jumped over the hurdle in the center of the box to land on the ?safe side.? However, the conditioned dogs, those that previously learned that escape was impossible, stayed on the side of the box in which the shock occurred, not even trying to leap over the hurdle. The conditioned dogs had essentially learned to be helpless, and rather than trying to escape, they merely sat down and endured the shock. Seligman extended the concept of learned helplessness to humans in an attempt to explain depression. A third cognitive psychologist, Wolfgang Köhler, studied the phenomenon of insight learning in animals. Köhler believed insight learning involved a sudden perception of relationships that could not be gained through trial-and-error learning. All three theories of learning are related in that they focus on what?s going on inside the learner?s mind during the learning process as opposed to the external stimuli and rewards of classical and operant conditioning. A third category of learning is that of observational learning, or the learning of a new behavior by observing someone else who is performing that behavior. The term learning/performance distinction describes the fact that learning can take place without actual performance. Albert Bandura has been a major contributor to the study of observational learning and conducted a series of classic studies observing children?s learned behaviors with a blow-up ?Bobo? doll. Bandura concluded that four elements were needed for observational learning to occur, the four elements are attention, memory, imitation, and motivation. Learning CHAPTER 5 -59- STUDY HINTS 9. Many students get confused with the terms of classical conditioning. The four major components to this type of learning include unconditioned stimulus (UCS), conditioned stimulus (CS), unconditioned response (UCR) and conditioned response (CR). The best way to keep these terms straight is to ask yourself two questions. 1. Is the event I am interested in a stimulus or a response? 2. Is the stimulus/response something that was learned or something that occurs naturally, by instinct? The first question is the easiest way to break down the information. If an event is a stimulus, it will cause something else to happen. List some examples of stimuli here. ________________________________________________________________________ You might have mentioned any number of stimuli including events such as a bright light, a puff of air, a loud siren, a soft whisper, a touch on your arm, the smell of cookies, a written word. The list is quite large. A stimulus is any event that causes a response. Now that you have a good feeling for what stimuli are, try listing some examples of some possible responses. ________________________________________________________________________ You might have mentioned events such as blinking your eyes, laughing, crying, jumping up, heart rate increasing, feeling scared, raising your hand, driving faster. A response is any behavior (inside or outside of your body) that can be observed. Once you determine whether your event is a stimulus or response, the second question is fairly easy. Is the stimulus something the subject had to learn how to respond to? If so, then it would be a learned or conditioned stimulus. If the stimulus is something that causes the response automatically, then it is an unlearned or unconditioned stimulus. The same rule applies for the responses. If this is a response that does not occur by instinct, but instead has been learned through experience, then this is a learned or conditioned response. If the response happens the first time you encounter the stimulus, as an instinct, then it is an unlearned or unconditioned response. Now try some examples and see how you do. A puff of air is aimed at your eye and you blink. The event we are interested in is: the blink Question 1: Is this a stimulus or a response? ________________________________________________________________ If you wrote response, then you are correct. Blinking is a behavior that we can observe. Question 2: Is this response learned or unlearned? ________________________________________________________________ Learning CHAPTER 5 -60- If you wrote unlearned, then you are correct. Blinking to a puff of air is an instinct. Now you can fill in the blanks. The first answer tells you this is a response, so it is either a CR or a UCR. The second answer tells you this is unlearned or unconditioned, so it must be a UCR. Now circle the right term: Stimulus Response Learned CS CR Unlearned UCS UCR Try some more on your own. A picture of a piece of chocolate cake causes your mouth to water. The event we are interested in is: the picture of the cake Question 1: Is this a stimulus or a response? ________________________________________________________________ Question 2: Is this response learned or unlearned? ________________________________________________________________ Now circle the right term: Stimulus Response Learned CS CR Unlearned UCS UCR Your heart speeds up as you see a police car pull up behind you. The event we are interested in is: your heart speeding up Question 1: Is this a stimulus or a response? ________________________________________________________________ Question 2: Is this response learned or unlearned? ________________________________________________________________ Now select the right term: Stimulus Response Learned CS CR Unlearned UCS UCR Learning CHAPTER 5 -61- A loud noise causes someone to jump. The event we are interested in is: the loud noise Question 1: Is this a stimulus or a response? ________________________________________________________________ Question 2: Is this response learned or unlearned? ________________________________________________________________ Now select the right term: Stimulus Response Learned CS CR Unlearned UCS UCR You should have selected the following: blinking your eyes is a UCR the piece of cake is a CS your heart speeding up is a CR the loud noise is a UCS Learning CHAPTER 5 -62- 10. Negative reinforcement and punishment are often confused. In negative reinforcement, something bad is taken away. In punishment by removal, something good or desirable is taken away. Most people would enjoy being negatively reinforced but would be upset about being punished. Work through the following scenarios to determine whether the person is being negatively reinforced or punished. The first one has been completed for you. Behavior Consequence Is something good or bad taken away? Is this negative reinforcement or punishment? Will the behavior increase or decrease? Taking an aspirin for a headache. Headache goes away. bad negative reinforcement increase Running a red light. Driver?s license is taken away. Cleaning your room so that you are no longer grounded. You are no longer grounded. Drinking coffee in the morning when you are very tired. You no longer feel tired. Staying out past your curfew. Your parents ground you. Getting in a fight with a friend. Your friend will not talk to you anymore. Fastening your seatbelt when the buzzer is making a noise. The buzzer stops. Driving your car until it runs out of gas. You can?t drive your car anymore. Your boyfriend nags you until you take him out to dinner. The nagging stops. Learning CHAPTER 5 -63- Suggested answers Behavior Consequence Is something good or bad taken away? Is this negative reinforcement or punishment? Will the behavior increase or decrease? Taking an aspirin for a headache. Headache goes away bad negative reinforcement increase Running a red light. Driver?s license is taken away. good punishment decrease Cleaning your room so that you are no longer grounded. You are no longer grounded. bad negative reinforcement increase Drinking coffee in the morning when you are very tired. You no longer feel tired. bad negative reinforcement increase Staying out past your curfew. Your parents ground you. good punishment decrease Getting in a fight with a friend. Your friend will not talk to you anymore. good punishment decrease Fastening your seatbelt when the buzzer is making a noise. The buzzer stops. bad negative reinforcement increase Driving your car until it runs out of gas. You can?t drive your car anymore. good punishment decrease Your boyfriend nags you until you take him out to dinner. The nagging stops. bad negative reinforcement increase Learning CHAPTER 5 -64- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5.1 What does the term learning really mean? 5.2 How was classical conditioning first studied, and what are the important elements and characteristics of classical conditioning? 5.3 What is a conditioned emotional response, and how do cognitive psychologists explain classical conditioning? 5.4 How does operant conditioning occur, and what were the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner? 5.5 What are the important concepts in operant conditioning? 5.6 What are the schedules of reinforcement? 5.7 How does punishment differ from reinforcement? 5.8 What are some of the problems with using punishment? 5.9 How do operant stimuli control behavior, and what kind of behavior is resistant to operant conditioning? 5.10 What is behavior modification, and how can behavioral techniques be used to modify involuntary biological responses? 5.11 How do latent learning, learned helplessness, and insight relate to cognitive learning theory? 5.12 What occurs in observational learning, including findings from Bandura?s classic Bobo doll study and the four elements of observational learning? 5.13 What is a real-world example of the use of conditioning? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the questions. 1. __________ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. a) Learning b) Adaptation c) Memory enhancement d) Muscle memory 2. The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was a) Skinner. b) Tolman. c) Kohler. d) Pavlov. 3. Which of the following correctly describes the process of classical conditioning? a) pairing a stimulus that naturally causes a certain response with a second stimulus that naturally causes the same response b) pairing a stimulus that naturally causes a certain response with a second stimulus that does not naturally cause that response c) presenting a pleasurable stimulus after the occurrence of a specific response d) presenting an unpleasant stimulus after the occurrence of a specific response 4. When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The salivation was a(n) a) unconditioned response. b) unconditioned stimulus. c) conditioned response. d) conditioned stimulus. Learning CHAPTER 5 -65- 5. Judy would sometimes discipline her puppy by swatting its nose with a rolled-up newspaper. One day she brought the newspaper into the house still rolled up, and her puppy ran from her in fear. By pairing the rolled paper with the swat, Judy?s puppy had developed a(n) ____________ response to the rolled-up paper. a) generalized b) conditioned c) unconditioned d) discriminative 6. You decide you want to try to classically condition your pet dog. What is the correct order that you should use to present the stimuli to your dog? a) unconditioned stimulus ? neutral stimulus b) neutral stimulus ? neutral stimulus c) neutral stimulus ? unconditioned stimulus d) present the unconditioned stimulus only 7. After you successfully classically conditioned your pet dog, you repeatedly presented the conditioned stimulus without ever pairing it with the unconditioned stimulus. Over time, your dog stops performing the conditioned response. What has happened? a) extinction b) spontaneous recovery c) generalization d) stimulus discrimination 8. John Watson offered a live white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the ______________ in this study. a) discriminative stimulus b) counterconditioning stimulus c) conditioned stimulus d) unconditioned stimulus 9. Pavlov discovered classical conditioning through his study of a) cats escaping from a puzzle box. b) primate research into problem solving. c) digestive secretions in dogs. d) lever-pressing responses of rats. 10. Television advertisers have taken advantage of the fact that most people experience positive emotions when they see an attractive, smiling person. This association is an example of a) operant conditioning. b) a conditioned emotional response. c) negative reinforcement. d) punishment. 11. The current view of why classical conditioning works the way it does, by cognitive theorists such as Rescorla, adds the concept of _____________ to the conditioning process. a) generalization b) habituation c) memory loss d) expectancy Learning CHAPTER 5 -66- 12. ?If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.? This is a statement of a) the law of positive reinforcement. b) Rescorla?s cognitive perspective. c) Thorndike?s law of effect. d) Garcia?s conditional emotional response. 13. Kenra has a new pet cat and decides to modify her cat?s behavior by administering pleasant and unpleasant consequences after her cat?s behaviors. Kenra is using the principles of a) observational learning. b) operant conditioning. c) classical conditioning. d) insight learning. 14. A box used in operant conditioning of animals, which limits the available responses and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur, is called a a) trial box. b) response box. c) Watson box. d) Skinner box. 15. A negative reinforcer is a stimulus that is ___________ and thus ________ the probability of a response. a) removed; increases b) removed; decreases c) presented; increases d) presented; decreases 16. The partial reinforcement effect refers to a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses will be a) more resistant to extinction than a response receiving continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response). b) less resistant to extinction than a response receiving continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response). c) more variable in its resistance to extinction than a response receiving continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response). d) totally resistant to extinction unlike a response receiving continuous reinforcement (a reinforcer for each and every correct response). 17. Which example best describes the fixed interval schedule of reinforcement? a) receiving a paycheck after two weeks of work b) receiving a bonus after selling 20 cell phones c) giving your dog a treat when he seems hungry d) giving your dog a treat at least once a day when he comes when you call him 18. Which schedule of reinforcement should you select if you would like to produce the highest number of responses with the least number of pauses between the responses? a) fixed ratio b) variable ratio c) fixed interval d) variable interval Learning CHAPTER 5 -67- 19. When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal and decreases the probability of response, it is known as a) positive punishment. b) punishment by removal. c) negative reinforcement. d) negative punishment. 20. Your child has begun drawing on the walls of your house and you would like this activity to stop. Which of the following actions would, at least temporarily, decrease the occurrence of the behavior in your child? a) use insight learning to get your child to stop drawing on the wall b) use classical conditioning to create a positive association with drawing on the wall c) negatively reinforce your child after she draws on the wall d) punish your child after she draws on the wall 21. An example of a discriminative stimulus might be a) a stop sign. b) the stimulus that acts as a UCS in classical conditioning. c) the white rat in Watson?s Little Albert study of producing phobias. d) none of these. 22. In their 1961 paper on instinctive drift, the Brelands determined that three assumptions most Skinnerian behaviorists believed in were not actually true. Which is one of the assumptions that were NOT true? a) The animal comes to the laboratory a tabula rasa, or ?blank slate,? and can therefore be taught anything with the right conditioning. b) Differences between species of animals are insignificant. c) All responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus. d) All of these were not true. 23. Applied behavior analysis or ABA has been used with autistic children. The basic principle of this form of behavior modification is a) partial reinforcement. b) classical conditioning. c) negative punishment. d) shaping. 24. ___________ is a type of operant conditioning that is used by humans to bring involuntary responses, such as heart rate and blood pressure, under their voluntary control. a) Biofeedback b) Social learning c) Preparedness d) Instinct drift 25. Cognition refers to a) behavior that is observable and external. b) behavior that is directly measurable. c) the mental events that take place while a person is behaving. d) memories. Learning CHAPTER 5 -68- 26. The idea that learning occurs, and is stored up, even when behaviors are not reinforced is called a) insight. b) latent learning. c) placebo learning. d) innate learning. 27. A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of a) learned helplessness. b) stimulus discrimination. c) aversive conditioning. d) vicarious learning. 28. The "aha!" experience is known as a) latent learning. b) insight learning. c) thoughtful learning. d) serial enumeration. 29. If you learn how to fix your car by watching someone on TV demonstrate the technique, you are acquiring that knowledge through a) latent learning. b) operant conditioning. c) classical conditioning. d) observational learning. 30. In Bandura?s study with the Bobo doll, the children in the group that saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of a) latent learning. b) operant conditioning. c) classical conditioning. d) insight learning. 31. In Bandura?s study of observational learning, the abbreviation AMIM stands for a) attention, memory, imitation, motivation. b) alertness, motivation, intent, monetary reward. c) achievement, momentum, initiative, memory. d) achievement, motivation, intellectual capacity, memory. 32. Which of the following real-world situations is using the principles of classical conditioning? a) giving a child a star for completing her homework assignment b) sending a child to time-out for stealing his friend?s toy truck c) grounding a child until she gets her room cleaned d) a hungry child smiling at the sight of the spoon her dad always uses to feed her lunch Learning CHAPTER 5 -69- PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a This is the definition of learning given in the textbook and restated in the summary. 2. d Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning, and both Kohler and Tolman focused on cognitive learning. 3. b Classical conditioning occurs when you pair a neutral stimulus (NS) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). After repeated pairings, the NS now causes a response similar to the naturally occurring response. The stimulus is now called a conditioned stimulus and the response is the conditioned response. 4. a An unconditioned response is a response that occurs naturally and does not have to be learned. When food is placed in a dog?s mouth, the dog will naturally begin to salivate. 5. b A conditioned response is a response that has been learned through association. Originally, the rolled-up newspaper did not cause a response of fear in the puppy, but after repeated pairings with a swat, it now causes the fear response. 6. c For classical conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus must be repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus. In addition, the neutral stimulus must be presented before the unconditioned stimulus. 7. a Extinction occurs when the CS is continuously presented without the UCS. 8. c First, decide whether the rat is a stimulus or a response. Obviously, the rat is a stimulus. Then figure out if the rat naturally, or instinctively, will cause the response of fear or if the response needs to be learned. If it needs to be learned, then the stimulus is a conditioned stimulus. 9. c Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who won a Nobel prize for his study of the digestive system in dogs. It was during this research that he observed the phenomenon of classical conditioning and devoted the rest of his years in research to the study of classical conditioning. 10. b The association between attractive people and feelings of happiness is learned through classical conditioning and is specifically referred to as a conditioned emotional response because it deals with a response of emotion. Notice that all the other choices were related to operant conditioning. 11. d Expectancy is the idea that the conditioned stimulus has to provide some information about the upcoming unconditioned stimulus, so that we are expecting the UCS to occur. 12. c Thorndike developed this principle through his study of animals escaping from puzzle boxes. 13. b This is a modified form of the definition of operant conditioning. 14. d The Skinner box was designed by B. F. Skinner and typically included an apparatus for the animal to move (such as a lever to press) and a mechanism for delivering a reward to the animal. 15. a Always start with the fact that reinforcement always increases the response. Negative reinforcement occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is removed, making a the correct choice. 16. a A response that is resistant to extinction that means that the person will continue making the response even when it is not followed by a reinforcer. 17. a Fixed means that the reinforcement will always be presented after the same period of time or number of responses. Interval means that you are dealing with the passage of time. 18. b The ratio schedule produces the most rapid responses because the reward depends on making a certain number of responses. The variable schedule reduces the pauses after receiving the reinforcer because the next reward could be given at any time. Learning CHAPTER 5 -70- 19. b Remember that punishment decreases behavior and reinforcement increases behavior. The question is asking about a behavior decrease, so it must be talking about punishment. Removing a stimulus is described as punishment by removal. 20. d Once again, you would like the behavior to decrease so you should select punishment. 21. a A discriminative stimulus is defined as a stimulus that provides a cue that a response might lead to reinforcement. It is a term used with operant conditioning. 22. d The Brelands questioned all three of these assumptions. 23. d ABA rewards closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior, which is the definition of shaping. 24. a Biofeedback uses feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses under voluntary control. It is a type of operant conditioning. The change in physiological state is the response and the light or tone serves as the reinforcement. 25. c Cognitive psychologists focus on our thought process and mental activities. 26. b The word latent means something that?s present but not visible. 27. a Learned helplessness was studied by Seligman as a potential animal model of depression. 28. b With this type of learning, you have a sudden realization or ?insight.? 29. d Observational learning occurs when you learn a new behavior or new knowledge through the observation of a model. 30. a Latent learning occurs when a new behavior has been acquired but the behavior is not performed, as the children in Bandura?s experiment did not imitate the model until they were encouraged and rewarded to do so. 31. a All the selections match the abbreviation, so try to think about what skills would be needed to learn by observation. First of all, you need to watch the person you are trying to learn from, and you realize that observational learning can occur without any rewards being offered. 32. d Except for the hungry child, the examples are of operant conditioning, rather than classical conditioning. CHAPTER GLOSSARY applied behavior analysis (ABA) modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response. behavior modification the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior. biofeedback using biofeedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control. biological preparedness referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning. classical conditioning learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex. cognitive perspective modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus. conditional emotional response (CER) emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person. Learning CHAPTER 5 -71- conditioned response (CR) learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus (CS) stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus. conditioned taste aversions development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association. continuous reinforcement the reinforcement of each and every correct response. discriminative stimulus any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement. extinction the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning). fixed interval schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same. fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same. higher-order conditioning occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus. insight the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly. instinctive drift tendency for an animal?s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns. latent learning learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful. law of effect law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend to not be repeated. learned helplessness the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past. learning/performance distinction referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior. negative reinforcement the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. neurofeedback form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior. neutral stimulus (NS) stimulus that has no effect on the desired response. observational learning learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior. operant any behavior that is voluntary. operant conditioning the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses. partial reinforcement effect the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction. positive reinforcement the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasure stimulus. primary reinforcer any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch. punishment any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again. Learning CHAPTER 5 -72- punishment by application the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus. punishment by removal the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus. reflex an involuntary response, one that is not under personal control or choice. reinforcement any event or stimulus that, when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again. reinforcers any events or objects that, when following a response, increase the likelihood of that response occurring again. secondary reinforcer any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars. shaping the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior. spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred. stimulus discrimination the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus. stimulus generalization the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response. stimulus substitution original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together. successive approximations small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior. token economy type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens. unconditioned response (UCR) an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus. unconditioned stimulus (UCS) a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response. variable interval schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event. variable ratio schedule of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event. vicarious conditioning classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person. Learning CHAPTER 5 -73- Learning CHAPTER 5 -74- CHAPTER 6 ? MEMORY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READ FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Introduce the study of memory including the basic processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval as well as current theories of how memory works. ? Discuss the information-processing theory of memory in detail including the concepts of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. ? Identify the basic mechanisms and limitations in the retrieval of information including false memories. ? Describe Ebbinghaus?s work on forgetting and proposed explanations for forgetting. ? Explain the biological processes thought to underlie memory and the deterioration of memory. ? Discuss Alzheimer?s disease and its effects on memory. RAPID REVIEW Memory can be thought of as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it, and then retrieves information from storage. All the current models of memory involve the three processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. Three models or theories about memory are discussed in the text. One is the levels-of-processing model, which proposes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the depth to which it was processed. A second model is the parallel distributed processing model, which proposes that memories are created and stored across a network of neural circuits simultaneously, or in other words, in a parallel fashion. The third and currently most accepted model of memory is the information- processing model, which proposes that memory is divided into three components: sensory, short term, and long term. Sensory memory is the first stage of memory and involves information from our sensory systems. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory and was studied extensively by George Sperling through the use of the partial report method. The capacity of iconic memory is everything that can be seen at one time and the duration is around half a second. Eidetic imagery, also known as photographic memory, is the ability to access visual sensory memory over a long period of time. Iconic memory is useful for allowing the visual system to view the surroundings as continuous and stable. Echoic memory is the memory of auditory information and has the capacity of what can be heard at any one moment and has a duration of about two seconds. The information-processing model proposes that information moves from sensory memory to short- term memory through the process of selective attention. This process explains the phenomenon of the cocktail party effect, when you are at a party and hear your name in a conversation across the room. Another name for short-term memory is working memory, and some researchers propose that short-term memory consists of a central control process along with a visual ?sketch pad? and auditory ?recorder.? George Miller studied the capacity of short-term memory using the digit-span memory test and discovered that people can store an average of seven chunks of information (plus or minus two) in their short-term memory. More recently, researchers have found that younger adults can hold about 3 to 5 items of information at a time if a strategy of some type is not being used. Chunking is the process of reorganizing the information into meaningful units. The duration of short-term memory is 10?30 seconds without rehearsal. Maintenance rehearsal describes the process of continuing to pay attention to a piece of information, such as reciting a name over and over again in your head. Long-term memory is the third stage of memory proposed by the information-processing theory and has an essentially unlimited capacity and duration. Information may by encoded into long-term memory through elaborative rehearsal, a way of transferring information by making it meaningful. Long-term memories can be divided into two types, procedural and declarative. Procedural, or nondeclarative, memories are memories for skill and habits, in other words, memories for things people can do. Declarative memories are memories of facts, or things people can know. There are two types of declarative memories, semantic and episodic. Semantic memory is memory for the meanings of words Memory CHAPTER 6 -75- and concepts while episodic memory is the memory of events or ?episodes.? Procedural memories appear to be stored in the cerebellum and amygdala, while declarative memories most likely involve the frontal and temporal lobes. Procedural memory is sometimes referred to as implicit memory, and declarative memory can be thought of as explicit memory. Explicit memories are easily verbalized, while implicit memories are nearly impossible to state in words. It is not entirely clear how the brain organizes information in long-term memory. The semantic network model suggests that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with related concepts physically close to each other. Retrieval describes the process of pulling memories out of long-term memory. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that aids in the process of remembering. When the environment in which you learned an item serves as a retrieval cue, it is referred to as encoding specificity. If an emotional state serves as a retrieval cue, it is called state-dependent learning. Information can be retrieved through the process of recall, such as filling in the blanks, or recognition, such as multiple choice questions in which the correct answer only needs to be ?recognized.? Not all information can be recalled equally well. The serial position effect describes the finding that information at the beginning and end of a list is more likely to be remembered than the information in the middle. The primacy effect proposes that the information at the beginning of the list is remembered due to rehearsal, while the recency effect proposes that the information at the end of the list is remembered due to the fact that it is still in short-term memory. Recognition is usually a much easier task than recall because the retrieval cue is the actual piece of information you are trying to remember, yet retrieval errors are still made when using recognition. A false positive occurs when someone recognizes a piece of information as a memory even though it did not happen. For example, a witness says they saw broken glass at the scene of an accident, when there was no glass broken in the accident. Elizabeth Loftus spent more than 30 years investigating the reliability of eyewitness memories and found that what people see and hear about an event after the fact can affect the accuracy of their memories for that event. Automatic encoding is a term used to describe the memory process when we aren?t actively paying attention to the information. A flashbulb memory is a specific type of automatic encoding that occurs when an unexpected and often emotional event occurs. Flashbulb memories typically contain a great deal of information including many details but might not be as accurate as they appear. The retrieval of memories is a much more constructive process than most people assume. Several factors affect the accuracy of information retrieval. One factor is the misinformation effect in which false information presented after an event influences the memory of that event. When suggestions from others create inaccurate or false memories, this is referred to as the false memory syndrome. The false memory syndrome has frequently been observed while people are under hypnosis. Research by Loftus has suggested that in order for an individual to interpret a false event as a true memory, the event must seem plausible and the individual should be given information that supports the belief that the event could have happened to them personally. Hindsight bias is the tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have been able to accurately predict a result. Herman Ebbinghaus was one of the first scientists to systematically study the process of forgetting. Using lists of nonsense syllables, he discovered that most forgetting occurs in the initial hour after the material is learned. He presented his findings in a visual graph called the curve of forgetting. There are at least four different causes for forgetting. Encoding failure occurs when the information does not make it past the initial encoding process and never really becomes a memory. Another possible cause of forgetting is the decay (or disuse) of the memory trace in short-term memory or the disuse of the information in long-term memory. The final two causes of forgetting discussed in the textbook have to do with interference. Proactive interference occurs when information from the past disrupts newly learned information. Retroactive interference occurs when the newly learned information interferes with the memories of the information from the past. Ebbinghaus found he could greatly improve memory if he spaced out his study sessions, a technique called distributed practice, as opposed to ?cramming? or trying to learn all the information the night before the exam. It is still unclear exactly how memories are physically stored in the brain. In general, strong evidence suggests that long-term procedural memories are stored in the cerebellum, while long-term declarative memories are stored in the frontal and temporal lobes. Storage of short-term memories has been Memory CHAPTER 6 -76- associated with the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. The process of physically storing a memory in your brain is called consolidation and could consist of a number of changes including an increase in receptor sites, increased sensitivity at the synapse through repeated stimulation (called long-term potentiation), changes on the dendrites, or changes in proteins in the neuron. Recently, researchers have identified a specific protein (4E-BP2), which may control the production of new proteins within the mammalian nervous system. It is thought that this protein may play a role in memory consolidation. The hippocampus has been found to play an important role in the formation of new memories. This fact was mainly discovered by observing patients with damage to the hippocampus and noting their inability to form any new memories. A man named H. M. was the most famous of these patients. H. M.?s hippocampi were removed during a surgical procedure to reduce the severity of his epileptic seizures. After the surgery, H. M. could not form any new declarative memories. H. M. could, however, still form new procedural memories. Amnesia is a disorder characterized by severe memory loss, such as that of H. M.?s and can take one of two forms. Retrograde amnesia is an inability to retrieve memories from the past, while anterograde amnesia is an inability to form any new memories. An inability to remember events from the first few years of life has been described as infantile amnesia and may be due to the implicit, or nonverbal, nature of those memories. Alzheimer?s disease is one type of dementia that is associated with severe memory loss. Anterograde amnesia tends to be the primary memory problem in the beginning of the disease process. Memory loss may be rather mild at first but becomes more pronounced over time. The cause for Alzheimer?s disease is not completely understood, and there is currently no cure. STUDY HINTS 11. Two of the most important concepts presented in this chapter consist of a three-part model. One concept is the basic processes involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. The other concept is the information-processing model of memory, which consists of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. Students often get these ideas confused. To help you clarify the concepts, correctly identify the components of the information-processing model in the following diagram. Remember that encoding, storage, and retrieval can happen at each of these stages. List an example of encoding, storage, and retrieval for each stage. Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: Encoding: Storage: Retrieval: Memory CHAPTER 6 -77- 12. Long-term memory can be divided into two basic types of memory: procedural and declarative. Declarative memories can be further broken down into episodic and semantic. To help you understand the difference between these types of memories, come up with a specific memory from your own life and write it in the appropriate box. Suggested answers for Study Hint 1 Suggested answers for Study Hint 2 Long-Term Memories Procedural Memories Declarative Procedural Semantic MemoriesEpisodic Memories Long-Term Memories Procedural Memories Declarative Episodic Memories Semantic Memories Procedural Knowing how to serve a tennis ball The day that I went to pick up my dog Ozzy ?Obrigado? is the word for ?thank- you? in Portuguese Encoding: input to sensory systems Storage: ½ second for visual system, 2 sec. for auditory Retrieval: info to STM Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Encoding: STM to LTM Storage: by level of processing Retrieval: recall or recognition Encoding: sensory info to STM Storage: maintenance and elaborative rehearsal Retrieval: recognition or recall or to LTM Memory CHAPTER 6 -78- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5.14 What are the three processes of memory and the different models of how memory works? 5.15 How does sensory memory work? 5.16 What is short-term memory, and how does it differ from working memory? 5.17 How is long-term memory different from other types of memory? 5.18 What are the various types of long-term memory, and how is information stored in long-term memory organized? 5.19 What kinds of cues help people remember? 5.20 How do the retrieval processes of recall and recognition differ, and how reliable are our memories of events? 5.21 How are long-term memories formed, and how can this process lead to inaccuracies in memory? 5.22 What is false memory syndrome? 5.23 Why do we forget? 5.24 How and where are memories formed in the brain? 5.25 How does amnesia occur? 5.26 What are the facts about Alzheimer?s disease? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. ____________ is the active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. a) Classical conditioning b) Operant conditioning c) Learning d) Memory 2. _____________ is retention of memory for some period of time. a) Encoding b) Storage c) Retrieval d) Evaluation 3. Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam, a question asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers that fifth point but it is too late. Janie had a problem with a) encoding. b) storage. c) retrieval. d) evaluation. 4. The processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of the ____________ model of memory. a) information-processing b) levels-of-processing c) parallel distributed processing d) All of the above are correct. Memory CHAPTER 6 -79- 5. The levels-of-processing concept of Craik and Lockhart suggests that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog? a) ?Does it rhyme with blog?? b) ?Is it in capital letters?? c) ?Is it written in cursive?? d) ?Would it be found in a pond?? 6. The three parts of the information-processing model of memory include a) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. b) CS, UCS, UR, CR. c) encoding, storage, retrieval. d) shallow, medium, deep processing. 7. Which memory system provides us with a brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment? a) primary memory b) sensory memory c) long-term memory d) short-term memory 8. Your friend asks you a question, and just as you say ?What?? you realize what the person said. Which part of your memory was maintaining your friend?s words? a) iconic sensory memory b) echoic sensory memory c) short-term memory d) long-term memory 9. Someone a short distance away, to whom you have been paying no attention, quietly speaks your name, and suddenly you are attending to that conversation. This is an example of a) Broadbent's process of selective memory. b) the Phi phenomenon. c) the cocktail party phenomenon. d) cue-controlled inhibition. 10. Your professor asks you to get up in front of the class and repeat a long list of numbers that she reads to you. If you are not given a chance to repeat the numbers to yourself as she reads them, what is the longest list of numbers you will most likely to be able to remember, according to the classic work of Dr. George Miller? a) 2 b) 7 c) 12 d) 25 11. You try to remember a phone number by repeating it over and over to yourself. What type of rehearsal are you using? a) condensed b) permanent c) elaborative d) maintenance Memory CHAPTER 6 -80- 12. Long-term memories are encoded in terms of a) sounds. b) visual images. c) meanings of words and concepts. d) all of the above. 13. Procedural memories are to __________ memories as declarative memories are to ________ memories. a) implicit; explicit b) explicit; implicit c) general knowledge; personal facts d) personal facts; general knowledge 14. Which of the following types of LTM are forms of explicit memory? a) procedural b) semantic c) episodic d) both semantic and episodic 15. As a young child, you spent hours on your skateboard. After several years of not skating, you jump on your board as if you never missed a day. The long-term memory of how to skate is an example of what type of memory? a) explicit b) episodic c) semantic d) procedural 16. As you are skating down the street on your skateboard, you think back to the day you accidentally skated into a parked car and had to go the hospital to get stitches. The memory of this event would be described as a(n) __________________ memory. a) procedural b) implicit c) episodic d) semantic 17. According to the semantic network model, it would take more time to answer ?true? to which sentence? a) ?A salmon is an animal.? b) ?A salmon is a fish.? c) ?A canary is a bird.? d) All of these would take the same time. 18. Which of the following concepts describes why it is best to take a test in the same room in which you learned the material? a) state-dependent learning b) encoding specificity c) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon d) cocktail party effect Memory CHAPTER 6 -81- 19. While you were studying for your history final, you were angry at your roommate for playing her music too loud. If you wanted to maximize your ability to remember the information on the final, what mood should you be in while you are taking the final? a) happy b) sad c) angry d) surprised 20. Under most circumstances, when you are intentionally trying to remember an item of information, _______________ is an easier task than _______________. a) recognition; recall b) recall; recognition c) priming; the savings method d) the savings method; priming 21. The test you are taking right now requires which type of memory retrieval process? a) recall b) recognition c) encoding d) echoic 22. Is eyewitness testimony usually accurate? a) Yes, because seeing is believing. b) No, because eyewitnesses are not usually honest. c) Yes, because eyewitnesses are very confident about their testimony. d) No, because there is a great possibility of a ?false positive? identification. 23. In this view, memories are literally ?built? from the pieces stored away at encoding. This view is called a) constructive processing. b) hindsight bias. c) adaptation of memory traces. d) flashbulb integration. 24. Which of the following phenomena provides support for the concept that memories are reconstructed as they are retrieved or remembered? a) tip of the tongue b) hindsight bias c) cocktail party effect d) retrograde amnesia 25. Which of the following is an example of the misinformation effect? a) forgetting where you left your keys b) falsely remembering that a friend was wearing a jacket after being asked what color your friend?s jacket was c) remembering a traumatic event from childhood d) telling someone a lie Memory CHAPTER 6 -82- 26. Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten a) more rapidly as time goes by. b) gradually at first, then increasing in speed of forgetting. c) quickly at first, then tapering off gradually. d) most quickly one day after learning. 27. Retroactive interference as used in the study of memory refers to when a) older information already in memory interferes with the retrieval of newer information. b) newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information. c) the information is not attended to and fails to be encoded. d) information that is not accessed decays from the storage system over time. 28. Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her history test, all she can remember is French! Shalissa?s memory is suffering from a) cue-dependent forgetting. b) proactive interference. c) decay. d) retroactive interference. 29. In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer a) pay attention to specific stimuli. b) retrieve memories. c) form new memories. d) make sense of memories. 30. The physical processes that occur when a memory is formed are called a) consolidation. b) actuation. c) potentiation. d) depolarization. 31. When a person?s ____________is damaged or removed, anterograde amnesia results. a) hippocampus b) prefrontal lobe c) amygdala d) Cerebellum PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. d Memory involves the three processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. The other choices deal with the process of learning. 2. b When you store something, you keep it (or retain it) for a certain period of time. In the study of memory, the term storage involves keeping or retaining information for a certain period of time. 3. c Retrieval is the process of pulling information back out of memory. 4. d Encoding, storage, and retrieval are the basic processes for memory and are a component of ALL the theories on exactly how memory works. 5. d The levels-of-processing model proposes that the ?deeper? the level of processing, the more likely it is to be remembered. This means that the more meaning or significance you can give to a piece of information, the better you remember it. Associating a frog with the place it lives is the most meaningful association of the four choices. Memory CHAPTER 6 -83- 6. a All models of memory include the concepts of encoding, storage, and retrieval. The aspects of the information-processing model that make it unique are the concepts of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory. 7. b Sensory memory is the briefest of all the memory stages proposed by the information-processing model. Visual sensory memory lasts only about one-half a second. 8. b Echoic memory is the memory of sounds. It should be easy to remember if you just think of an ?echo? for echoic. 9. c The cocktail party effect is a demonstration of our selective attention abilities. Obviously, you are processing all of the information but you are only ?attending to? a small portion of it. One place this phenomenon is likely to occur is at a party, thus the name ?cocktail party effect.? 10. b The amount of information we can retain in short-term memory was studied by George Miller and presented in a paper called ?The magic number 7 plus or minus two.? 11. d Maintenance rehearsal is one of the most basic methods to remember something and involves simply repeating the information over and over. Elaborative rehearsal is more complex and involves forming an association with the information. 12. d Memories are encoded in terms of all these components. One theory suggests that each component of a memory is actually stored in a different place in the brain. 13. a Procedural memories (such as how to ride a bike) are hard to verbalize just as implicit memories are hard to verbalize. If something is explicit, that means it is very clear and obvious, just as declarative memories (like the memory of your first kiss) are very easy to identify. 14. d Semantic memories are memories of facts such as the capital of the United States. Episodic memories are memories of episodes, such as your last birthday celebration. 15. d Procedural memories are memories for procedures (or habits and skills). 16. c This is a memory of a specific episode. 17. a For this answer, you need to move across two categories: salmon to fish to animal. 18. b Encoding specificity refers to your physical surroundings and how they can act as retrieval cues for information. 19. c State-dependent learning refers to your emotional state and how being in the same mood during retrieval as you were during the encoding process can help you remember more information. 20. a Recognition simply requires ?recognizing? the right answer. This means you are given all the options and you simply select the correct choice. 21. b You are given the right answer and you simply have to select it from choices a?d. 22. d Although eyewitness testimony can be accurate, there is always the possibility of false positives. 23. a Constructive processing assumes that all the pieces of a memory are stored in different locations and ?re-assembled? every time the memory is retrieved. 24. b In hindsight bias, our memory of a past event is influenced by new information. 25. b The misinformation effect occurs when a leading question or statement actually alters your memory of an event. 26. c Most forgetting occurs within the first hour after the material is learned. 27. B Retroactive interference occurs when the new information gets in the way or ?interferes? with the already learned material. 28. B Proactive interference occurs with the already learned material interferes with the new information. 29. c After H. M?s hippocampus was removed, he lost the ability to move memories from short-term to long-term memory. Memory CHAPTER 6 -84- Memory CHAPTER 6 -85- 30. a The term consolidation refers to the physical basis of memories. Researchers are still working to determine the precise details of consolidation. 31. a Anterograde amnesia is described as the inability to form any new memories. Just like the case of H. M., when a person?s hippocampus is removed or damaged, anterograde amnesia is often the result. CHAPTER GLOSSARY anterograde amnesia loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories. autobiographical memory the memory for events and facts related to one?s personal life story. automatic encoding tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or no effortful encoding. consolidation the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an memory is formed. constructive processing referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information. curve of forgetting a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually. decay loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used. declarative memory long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known. distributed practice spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods. disuse another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear. echoic memory the brief memory of something a person has just heard. eidetic imagery the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more. elaborative rehearsal a method of transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way. encoding set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert it into a form that is usable in the brain?s storage systems. encoding failure failure to process information into memory. encoding specificity the tendency for memory to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) that is available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved. episodic memory type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events. explicit memory memory that is consciously known, such as declarative memory. false positive error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory. flashbulb memory type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it. hindsight bias the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event. iconic memory visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second. implicit memory memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory. infantile amnesia the inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3. information-processing model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory model storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory, in a series of three stages. levels-of-processing model model of memory that assumes information that is more ?deeply processed,? or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time. long-term memory (LTM) the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently. maintenance rehearsal practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one?s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory. memory an active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, and organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. memory trace physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed. misinformation effect the tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself. parallel distributed processing (PDP) model a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections. primacy effect tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows. proactive interference memory problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the learning or retrieval of newer information. procedural (nondeclarative) memory type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior. recall type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be ?pulled? from memory with very few external cues. recency effect tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it. recognition ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact. retrieval getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used. retrieval cue a stimulus for remembering. retroactive interference memory problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information. retrograde amnesia loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past. selective attention the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input. semantic network model model of memory organization that assumes that information is stored in the brain in an connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related. sensory memory the very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems. serial position effect tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information. short-term memory (STM) the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used. storage holding onto information for some period of time. working memory an active system that processes the information in short-term memory. Memory CHAPTER 6 -86- CHAPTER 7 ? COGNITION: THINKING, INTELLIGENCE, AND LANGUAGE YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Introduce the concept of cognition, as it relates to mental images, concepts and problem solving. ? Describe creative thinking and the differences between convergent and divergent thinking. ? Discuss the measurement of intelligence including the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler intelligence tests, test construction issues, and the determination of developmental delay. ? Describe several prominent theories of intelligence including the concepts of giftedness, intellectual disability, heredity, and environment. ? Explain the basis of language and the relationship between language and thought processes. RAPID REVIEW Thinking, or cognition, can be defined as mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information. Cognition includes both verbal and nonverbal processes. Two examples of cognition are mental images, which are picture-like representations that stand in for objects or events, and concepts, or ideas that represent a class of objects. Concepts can be ranked from general to specific by applying the terms superordinate, basic level type, and subordinate. Formal concepts are defined by specific rules, while natural concepts are formed as a result of experience. A prototype is a specific example of a concept that closely resembles the defining features of a concept. Concepts are formed through experience and culture and have an impact on our thinking. Problem solving involves using our thoughts or cognitions to reach a goal and consists of at least four different techniques. Trial-and-error problem solving makes use of mechanical solutions. When someone uses algorithms to problem-solve they are following step-by-step procedures to solve the problem. Heuristics are general ?rules of thumb? that can be applied to many situations. Representative heuristics are assumptions that any object (or person) that shares characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category. Availability heuristics refer to the act of estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples. Means?end analysis is an example of one type of heuristic where the difference between where you are and where you want to be is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference. Insight consists of solving the problem by having a sudden moment of inspiration or ?aha!? moment. Some factors that interfere with problem solving include the following: Functional fixedness occurs when a person thinks about objects only in terms of their typical uses. Mental sets are tendencies to use the same problem-solving strategies that worked in the past. Confirmation bias refers to the act of searching for evidence that fits your beliefs while ignoring any contradictory information. Creativity occurs when a person solves a problem by combining ideas and behaviors in a new way. Many methods of problem solving utilize convergent thinking, which assumes that one single answer exists for the problem. Divergent thinking is the opposite process of convergent thinking. When an individual uses divergent thinking, he or she starts from one point and comes up with many possibilities or ideas based on that point. Intelligence can be defined as the ability to learn from one?s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems. Currently, there is still much disagreement on exactly what is meant by the term intelligence. In 1904, Charles Spearman proposed that intelligence was split between two abilities. The first ability was a general intelligence, labeled the g factor, and the other was a specific intelligence referred to as the s factor. Spearman believed that both the g and s factors could be measured using standardized intelligence tests. Howard Gardner, on the other hand, proposed that at least nine different kinds of intelligence exist. Robert Sternberg proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence, which states that intelligence can be divided into three types: analytical, creative, and practical intelligence. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -87- In France in 1916, Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed the first formal test for intelligence in order to determine a child?s mental age. The Stanford-Binet test used a ratio of mental age to chronological age to determine an individual?s intelligence quotient or IQ. In the United States, the Wechsler intelligence tests are now used more frequently that the Stanford-Binet, and IQ scores are now based on individual deviation IQ scores rather than a ratio. The Wechsler tests are designed for specific age groups and can be administered individually. To determine the quality of a psychological test, you need to look at the test?s validity, reliability, and procedure used to obtain the norms. Validity refers to how well the test measures what it claims to measure. Ecological validity is the extent to which an obtained score accurately reflects the intended skill or outcome in real life situations, not just the testing or assessment situation. Reliability indicates the test?s ability to produce the same result when given to the same person under similar conditions. Norms are determined by the standardization group selected by the researchers and should be a representative sample of the population who will be taking the test. All psychological tests should also be examined for the cultural biases. Adrian Dove created an intelligence test called the Dove Counterbalance General Intelligence Test (also known as the Chitling Test) to demonstrate the cultural biases present in many of the intelligence tests currently in use. Intellectual disability, which may also be referred to as developmental delay (formerly known as mental retardation), occurs in about 3 percent of the U.S. population and is defined by an IQ score of 70 (two standard deviations below the mean on the normal curve) or lower along with adaptive behaviors significantly below the expected level for the person?s age group. Diagnosis of intellectual disability is determined by the person?s intellectual and adaptive behavior skills, psychological and emotional levels, physical health considerations, and environmental factors. Recent recommendations from the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities also require deficits in more than one of these areas. Intellectual disability is classified from mild to moderate, severe, and profound. Environmental conditions during a child?s development can affect brain function and may influence the development of intellectual disability. The three most common biological causes of intellectual disability are Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Individuals who receive scores of 130 or above on intelligence tests are referred to as gifted. Lewis Terman conducted a longitudinal study of the traits and behaviors of more than 1,500 gifted children. The children were known as Terman?s Termites and his findings showed that many of the common myths about the ?nutty genius? were unfounded. More recently, the concept of emotional intelligence has been suggested as an important factor for success in life. Further research in this area is still needed. The role of a person?s environment, or nurture, and heredity, also referred to as nature, on the development of intelligence continues to be debated. Studies of identical and fraternal twins raised together and apart have provided one method for investigating the role of nature and nurture. Language is defined as a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others. Language can be analyzed at many levels. Semantics is the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences. Phonemes are the most basic units of sounds used in a specific language, and morphemes combine the units of sound into the smallest units that have meaning. Grammar includes all the rules for combining morphemes into words, and syntax is the rules for combining words into sentences. Pragmatics deals with the practical aspects of communicating with others. The relationship between language and thought has been studied extensively. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, also known as the linguistic relativity hypothesis, proposes that the words people use determine how they think about themselves and the world. An opposing theory, known as cognitive universalism, proposes that certain ways of thinking are shared among all groups of people and influence the development of language in similar ways. Animals other than humans demonstrate a diverse ability to communicate but it is unclear whether they have the capability for language as demonstrated by the ability to use abstract symbols to communicate. Kanzi, a bonobo chimpanzee, has demonstrated an ability to understand about 150 spoken English words. However, none of the animals studied to date appear to have been able to use and comprehend syntax. In recent years, a number of computerized brain training programs and devices have been marketed to the public as a means to improve cognitive function. However, the most recent research suggests that, Cognition CHAPTER 7 -88- although practicing certain mental skills through cognitive exercises appears to help with those same skills when tested later, these benefits don?t appear to transfer to untrained areas. In other words, cognitive exercises may result in very specific improvements that do not necessarily translate to enhanced cognitive performance in the real world. STUDY HINTS 13. In this chapter, you were presented with four different approaches to problem solving. In order to better understand how these approaches differ from each other, take the following problem and come up with an example of how you could solve the problem using each of the four different approaches. Problem: You are packing up to move to college and you have one more box to fit in the trunk of your car but it looks like there is simply no room left. You don?t want to leave the box behind. How will you solve this problem? Approach Solution trial-and-error algorithm heuristics insight 14. The two most commonly used methods to assess any psychological test are to determine the validity and reliability of the test. Examine the following test descriptions and determine whether the test has a potential problem with its reliability or validity. Example Validity or Reliability Issue? A personality test gives a very different score for the same person when he retakes it six months later. An individual takes an online IQ test that measures how long she can hold her breath. A 5-year-old child is diagnosed as developmentally delayed based on his IQ scores, but when he is brought back and given the same test, his scores fall in the above average range. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -89- Suggested answers to Question 1 Approach Solution trial-and-error Keep placing the box in various places and positions in your car until you find one that works. algorithm Go online and find a website that deal with physics. Enter in the dimensions of your car and the exact dimensions of every box and item that you are trying to fit in your car. Get a printout of the optimal placement for each box and follow it step by step to fit everything in. heuristics Think back to how your mom always told you to pack the big things first and then squeeze the little ones in. Take your boxes out and pack them again using this general rule of thumb to guide you. insight Sit back with your friends for a few minutes and relax. As you are talking with your friends, all of a sudden you remember that your family has a ?Big Mac? container that will attach to the top of the car. Strap the container on, place your box in the container, and take off for school. Suggested answers to Question 2 Example Validity or Reliability Issue? A personality test gives a very different score for the same person when he retakes it six months later. reliability ? the scores are not consistent over time for the same person An individual takes an online IQ test that measures how long she can hold her breath. validity ? does holding your breath give a very accurate assessment of your IQ? A 5-year-old child is diagnosed as developmentally delayed based on his IQ scores, but when he is brought back and given the same test, his scores fall in the above average range. This question illustrates that without reliability a test will also lack validity. The test scores are inconsistent over time, which indicates that the test is not really measuring what it claims to measure when we assume that intelligence is a fairly constant factor. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5.27 How are mental images and concepts involved in the process of thinking? 5.28 What are the methods people use to solve problems and make decisions? 5.29 Why does problem solving sometimes fail, and what is meant by creative thinking? 5.30 How do psychologists define intelligence, and how do various theories of intelligence differ? 5.31 How is intelligence measured, and how are intelligence tests constructed? 5.32 What is intellectual disability and what are its causes? 5.33 What defines giftedness, and does being intellectually gifted guarantee success in life? 5.34 What is the influence of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence? 5.35 How is language defined, and what are its different elements and structure? 5.36 Does language influence the way people think, and are animals capable of learning language? 5.37 What are some ways to improve thinking? Cognition CHAPTER 7 -90- PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. Mental images a) represent abstract ideas. b) have a picture-like quality. c) consist entirely of unconscious information. d) are always prototypes. 2. If three people used mental images to tell you how many windows they each had in their individual houses, which person would take the longest to answer? a) the person with two windows in his or her house b) the person with eight windows in his or her house c) the person with twelve windows in his or her house d) They would all take the same amount of time to answer. 3. Concepts are ideas that represent a) a class or category of objects, events, or activities. b) thoughts, images, muscle patterns of behavior. c) higher-order conditioning and secondary reinforcers. d) representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picturelike quality 4. A very general form of a concept, such as ?vegetable? represents which concept level? a) subordinate b) superordinate c) basic level d) hyperordinate 5. The trial-and-error method of solving problems is also known as a) the use of a heuristic device. b) the use of algorithms. c) the mechanical solution. d) the A.I. Solution. 6. Zach could not remember the four-digit combination needed to open the lock on his bicycle. After struggling to figure out what to do, he turned to start the long walk home and all of a sudden he remembered the combination to the lock. The problem-solving strategy Zach used would be best described as a) trial-and-error. b) algorithm. c) a heuristic. d) insight. 7. The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past is known as a) mental set. b) confirmation bias. c) creativity. d) divergent thinking. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -91- 8. Luann needs to hammer a nail into the wall but the only tool she can find in the house is a screwdriver. Luann?s inability to see how the handle of the screwdriver could be used as a hammer, best represents the concept of a) functional fixedness. b) confirmation bias. c) creativity. d) artificial bias. 9. The ability to produce solutions to problems that are unusual, inventive, novel, and appropriate is called a) creativity. b) insight. c) heuristics. d) latent learning. 10. Which of the following activities would not increase your creativity? a) keeping a journal b) brainstorming c) subject mapping d) convergent thinking 11. The ability to understand the world, think rationally or logically, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges or problems, or the characteristics needed to succeed in one?s culture is the psychologist?s working definition of a) divergent problem solving. b) creative thinking. c) heuristic usage. d) intelligence. 12. Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. It is roughly____ years old. a) 50 b) 100 c) 200 d) 500 13. An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________. a) 8; 80 b) 8; 125 c) 10; 100 d) 10; 125 14. Because of the need to measure the IQ of people of varying ages, newer IQ tests base their evaluation of IQ on a) mental age alone. b) deviation scores from the mean of the normal distribution. c) giving extra points for older folks to compensate for their slower processing times. d) none of these. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -92- 15. If a test consistently produces the same score when administered to the same person under identical conditions, that test can be said to be high in a) reliability. b) validity. c) accuracy. d) norms. 16. George is a successful organic farmer. On which of Gardner's nine types of intelligence would George be most likely to have a high score? a) Verbal/linguistic b) Movement c) Intrapersonal d) Naturalist 17. Which two of the following aspects are included in the definition of intellectual disability? a) IQ scores and adaptive behavior b) age and socioeconomic status c) race and country of origin d) Only IQ scores are considered. 18. Which of the following statements about the gifted is true? a) They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses. b) They are physically weaker than nongifted persons. c) They are often skilled leaders. d) They are socially unskilled. 19. Which was not a finding of the Terman and Oden (1974) study of gifted kids? a) They were socially well-adjusted. b) They were more resistant to mental illness. c) They were clearly much more likely to be females. d) They were average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness. 20. Sternberg has found that __________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life, but has a low relationship to ___________ intelligence. a) practical; analytical b) practical; creative c) analytical; practical d) academic; creative 21. What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence? a) global, intuitive, and special b) general, global, and specific c) analytical, creative, and practical d) mathematical, reasoning, and verbal 22. The ?g? in Spearman?s g factor of intelligence stands for a) gifted intelligence. b) general intelligence. c) graded intelligence. d) The g does not stand for anything. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -93- 23. If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores? a) fraternal twins b) identical twins c) brothers and sisters d) parents and children 24. If a researcher believed that nature was the most important factor in determining an individual?s intelligence level, she would most closely agree with which of the following statements? a) Intelligence is largely inherited from your parents. b) Intelligence has no relationship to your biological family. c) The environment is the most important factor in determining a child?s intelligence level. d) A child?s intelligence can be greatly increased by providing stimulating toys throughout infancy. 25. Language, by definition, a) is symbolic. b) can be written, spoken, or signed. c) is capable of an infinite set of meaningful utterances. d) includes all of these characteristics. 26. The basic units of sound are called a) morphemes. b) phonemes. c) semantics. d) syntax. 27. Syntax is a) a system of rules for combining words and phrases to form sentences. b) the smallest units of meaning within a language. c) the basic units of sound. d) the rules to determine the meaning of words. 28. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that a) one's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world. b) one's thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one's language. c) we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible, given the facts at hand. d) perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence. 29. Which theory would support the idea that certain concepts are shared by all people regardless of the language spoken? a) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis b) linguistic relativity hypothesis c) cognitive universalism d) heuristic theory Cognition CHAPTER 7 -94- 30. Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research? a) Dolphins have been shown to master syntax. b) Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old. c) Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established. d) None of these are true. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. b Mental images are mental representations of objects that have a picture-like quality. 2. c Research has found that if the individuals used mental images to answer the question, they would actualize visualize the house and have to count the windows, so the person with the most windows would take the longest time to answer. 3. a The definition for concepts is that they are ideas that represent a class or category of objects or events. 4. b Superordinate is the highest or most general level of a concept. Basic level is the level most commonly used (such as potato or lettuce), subordinate is the most specific such as a russet potato or romaine lettuce. 5. c Trial-and-error problem solving tries one solution after another until one that works is found. 6. d Insight problem solving occurs when you get a sudden inspiration that leads you to the solution to your problem. 7. a A mental set exists when someone continues to use the same approaches that worked in the past. Confirmation bias occurs when someone pays attention to information that confirms his ideas and ignores any contradictory input. 8. a Functional fixedness occurs when an individual is fixed on only one function of a particular object. 9. a This is the definition of creativity. 10. d Convergent thinking occurs when you assume there is only one single answer or solution to a problem. Typically, convergent thinking decreases creative ability. 11. d As can be seen, intelligence is a broad idea that can be difficult to define. 12. b Alfred Binet started testing children in France in 1916. 13. d The IQ is based on a mental age of 10 divided by a chronological age of 8 and multiplied by 100. This gives an IQ = 125. 14. b Deviation IQ scores are based on the norms of a representative sample of the population (also known as the standardization group). 15. a Reliability indicates a test consistency, while validity indicates accuracy, or how well the test measures what it says it measures. 16. d Naturalist intelligence is the ability to recognize the patterns found in nature, which would help to make George a successful organic farmer. 17. a The diagnosis of intellectual disability is based on IQ scores as well as how well the individual is able to function in day-to-day life. 18. c Skilled leaders often are gifted individuals; the other three statements are myths that have not been supported by research. 19. c Slightly more males than females were selected for the Terman study. 20. a Sternberg has found that practical intelligence is a good predictor of success in life, but has a low relationship to analytical intelligence. 21. c Sternberg proposed that intelligence should actually be broken down into three components that can be thought of as book smarts, street smarts, and creativity. 22. b Spearman proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence. The g factor was for general intelligence and the s factor was for specific intelligence. 23. b Identical twins should show the strongest correlation since they share 100 percent of Cognition CHAPTER 7 -95- the same genes. 24. a Nature refers to the influence of heredity on behaviors and traits. 25. d The definition of language includes all three of these attributes. 26. b Phonemes are the basic units of sound. 27. a Syntax refers to the rules we use to form meaningful sentences. 28. a Linguistic relativity hypothesis (also referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis) states that our thought processes are relative to the language (or linguistic setting) in which we grew up. 29. c Cognitive universalism proposes that our basic thought processes, or cognitions, are universally shared by all people. 30. d Chimpanzees have demonstrated a vocabulary equal to a 2-year-old child, but no animal to date has demonstrated the ability to use and comprehend syntax. CHAPTER GLOSSARY algorithms very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems. analytical intelligence the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. availability heuristic estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples. basic level type an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as ?dog,? ?cat,? or ?pear.? cognition (thinking) mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information, and communicating information to others. cognitive universalism theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language. concepts ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. confirmation bias the tendency to search for evidence that fits one?s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs. convergent thinking type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic creative intelligence the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems. creativity the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways. deviation IQ score a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15. divergent thinking type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. emotional intelligence the awareness of and ability to manage one?s own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled. formal concepts concepts that are defined by specific rules or features. functional fixedness a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions. g factor the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence. gifted the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above. grammar the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language. heuristic an educated guess based on experiences that help narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a ?rule of thumb.? Cognition CHAPTER 7 -96- intellectual disability condition in which a person?s behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; may also be referred to as developmentally delayed. This condition was formerly known as mental retardation. intelligence the ability to learn from one?s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems. intelligence quotient (IQ) a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one?s mental age by one?s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100. language a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others. Lewis Terman 1877?1956. Cognitive psychologist well known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, affectionately referred to as Terman?s Termites. linguistic relativity hypothesis the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language. means?end analysis heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference. mental images mental representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picturelike quality. mental set the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past. morphemes the smallest units of meaning within a language. natural concepts concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world. nurture the role a person?s environment plays in his or her development. phonemes the basic units of sound in language. practical intelligence the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful. pragmatics aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social ?niceties? of language. problem solving process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways. prototype an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept. reliability the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people. representative heuristic assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category. s factor the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence. semantics the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences. subordinate concept the most specific category of a concept, such as one?s pet dog or a pear in one?s hand; subordinate refers to lowest in status or standing. superordinate concept the most general form of a type of concept, such as ?animal? or ?fruit?; superordinate refers to highest in status or standing. syntax the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences. thinking (cognition) mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information, and communicating information to others. Cognition CHAPTER 7 -97- Cognition CHAPTER 7 -98- trial and error (mechanical solution) problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found. triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg?s theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical. validity the degree to which a test actually measures what it?s supposed to measure. CHAPTER 8 ? DEVELOPMENT ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Introduce the research methods and major issues in developmental psychology, including the nature versus nurture controversy. ? Describe the stages of prenatal development and potential hazards. ? Discuss the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky with regards to cognitive development. ? Describe the physical and cognitive development in infancy and childhood including language development. ? Explain the concept of personality including the idea of temperament, attachment theory, and Erikson?s psychosocial model. ? Identify the major stages of development in adolescence and adulthood. ? Discuss three theories of aging and Kübler-Ross?s stages of dying. ? Understand cross-cultural views on death. RAPID REVIEW Human development is the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception to death. Because age cannot be directly manipulated by a researcher, developmental psychologists have had to develop alternative methods to investigate the effects of aging on psychological processes. Three common methods used are longitudinal, cross-sectional, and cross-sequential studies. Longitudinal studies have the advantage of following the same subject across time but are limited due to the amount of time and money required to complete the study and the problem of attrition. Cross- sectional studies are cheaper, faster, and easier to conduct because they gather information from different age groups at one particular period of time; however, results from these studies may be confounded due to individual and history differences. Cross-sequential studies are a combination of longitudinal and cross- sectional techniques and often represent an ideal compromise. One of the biggest debates among developmental psychologists is the question of nature versus nurture. Nature refers to the influence of everything you inherit genetically from your biological parents and nurture refers to the influence of your environment on your development. More recently, the question of interest has switched from nature versus nurture to the interaction of nature and nurture. Behavioral genetics is the field of science that studies the interactions of nature, or genes, and nurture, or the environment. Genetics is the science of heredity and involves the study of DNA, genes, and chromosomes. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the smallest unit of the three and is composed of strands of molecules linked together like a twisted ladder. The links are made up of amines and their names are abbreviated with the letters A, T, G, and C. The next largest unit is the genes, which are sections of the ladder containing instructions on how to make a specific protein. One way to think of genes is as individual recipes for proteins. The biggest unit is the chromosomes, which are long strands of DNA twisted together and wound up in coils. The chromosomes are found in the nucleus of all the cells of your body except red blood cells. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes, 23 from the mother?s egg and 23 from the father?s sperm. Each chromosome from the mother matches a chromosome from the father to form 23 pairs. Both chromosomes in the pair have the same genes (for example, each chromosome contains a gene for hair color). Even though they contain the same gene, the instructions on that gene might be slightly different; for example, one of the genes may have the instructions for blonde hair while the other gene may contain the instructions for brown hair. The first 22 pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes, and the last pair (the 23rd) is called the sex chromosomes and contains the instructions for determining sex. Dominant genes are the genes that are more likely to influence the trait. Recessive genes are not as strong and will only get their instructions carried out if the other chromosome in the pair also contains a recessive gene. In reality, almost all traits are determined by multiple gene pairs. This is called polygenic inheritance. Some diseases result from problems with recessive genes and are only expressed when both parents have the recessive gene, while some disorders result from the wrong number of chromosomes in the fertilizing Development CHAPTER 8 -99- egg or sperm. Some examples of chromosomal abnormalities include Down syndrome (e.g., Trisomy 21), Klinefelter?s syndrome (e.g., XXY), and Turner?s syndrome (e.g., a single X chromosome). Many people believe that conception represents the beginning of life. Fertilization occurs when the sperm penetrates the egg (or ovum). The result is a single cell with 46 chromosomes (23 from the sperm and 23 from the egg). This cell is called a zygote. Monozygotic (or identical) twins result from the zygote splitting into two separate masses early in the division process. Dizygotic (or fraternal) twins result from two eggs being fertilized by two separate sperm. Conjoined twins result from an incomplete separation of the zygotic mass. Abby and Brittany Hensel are an example of conjoined twins. The germinal period of pregnancy is the first two weeks after fertilization during which the zygote migrates down to the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall. The placenta and umbilical cord both begin to develop during this period. The embryonic period lasts from about 2 weeks to 8 weeks, after which the embryo is about one inch long with primitive eyes, nose, lips, teeth, arms and legs. Critical periods are times in development during which an environmental influence can impact the development of the fetus. Different organs and structures have different critical periods. The environmental influences that can negatively impact the development of the fetus are called teratogens. The fetal period lasts from the eighth week after conception to the end of the pregnancy. Tremendous growth of the fetus occurs during this time. A baby born before the 38th week of pregnancy is considered preterm and may need life support to survive, especially if he or she weighs less than 5½ pounds. Most miscarriages, also called spontaneous abortions, occur in the first three months of a pregnancy. Infants have a large number of capabilities even immediately after birth. Most infants are able to perform five innate reflexes: the grasping reflex, the startle reflex, the rooting reflex, the stepping reflex, and the sucking reflex. In an infant, touch is the most well-developed sense, followed by smell and taste. Vision is the least functional of the senses. In terms of photoreceptors, the rods are developed at birth but cones must develop over a six-month time period. At birth, an infant?s vision is most clear seven to ten inches from their face. Infants appear to show a preference for the human voice and human faces. The visual cliff experiment provides evidence that infants may also possess depth perception. The brain triples in weight during the first two years of life due to the expansion of existing cells not the growth of new ones. Jean Piaget believed that the primary factor in the development of a child?s cognitive abilities was the child?s interactions with objects in the environment. Piaget believed that children form mental concepts or schemes as they experience new situations and events. He proposed four stages of cognitive development from infancy to adolescence. The sensorimotor stage, lasting from infancy to age 2, involves the use of the senses and muscles to learn about the environment and includes the development of object permanence and symbolic thought. The preoperational stage lasts from age 2 to 7 and involves language and concept development through the process of asking questions. Children in this stage display the ability of symbolic thought through make-believe play and also display characteristics of egocentrism, centration, and irreversibility. The concrete operational stage lasts from age 7 to 12 and includes the development of concepts such as conservation and reversible thinking. However, children in this stage are still unable to deal with abstract concepts such as freedom. The formal operational stage is the final stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, and lasts from the age of 12 on. During this stage abstract, hypothetical thinking develops. Research suggests that only about one-half of the adults in the U.S. reach this stage of cognitive development. Piaget?s concepts have been successfully applied in schools but have also been criticized for their emphasis on distinct stages of development, overemphasis on egocentrism, and failure to mention the role of the family or social environment in the child?s development. Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who felt the primary factor in development was the social environment. He proposed a concept called scaffolding in which a more highly skilled person gives the learner help and then stops as the learner develops on his or her own. Vygotsky believed that each child has a zone of proximal development or ZPD, which is the difference between what a child can do alone and what he or she can do with the help of a teacher. Vygotsky?s principles have been applied in the classroom through the use of cooperative learning and reciprocal teaching. Psychologists interested in information-processing theory have investigated the memory capabilities of the developing infant and have found that infants demonstrate memory from birth. Four- to 5-year-olds Development CHAPTER 8 -100- appear to be able to store about three items in their short-term memory and have both episodic and procedural components of long-term memory. Language development appears to be an important step in cognitive development and facilitates the development of symbolic thinking. The stages of language development experienced by all speakers include cooing around 2 months of age, babbling at 6 months of age, one-word speech or holophrases around 1 year of age, telegraphic speech at around a year and a half, and then whole sentences. Temperament refers to the behavioral and emotional characteristics observed in infancy. Several researchers have suggested the existence of three types of temperaments, easy, difficult, and slow to warm up. Attachment is the emotional bond between an infant and caregiver. Mary Ainsworth and others studied attachment using the Strange Situation and observed four attachment styles, secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized/disoriented. Harry Harlow studied the nature of attachment behaviors by observing Rhesus monkeys interact with two different ?surrogate? mothers. He found that contact comfort was an important factor in attachment. Erik Erikson, who originally trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst, proposed an eight-stage theory of development that occurred over the entire life span. Each stage involved an emotional crisis in the individual?s social interactions. The first four stages occurred during infancy and childhood and consisted of the crises of trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiation versus guilt, and industry versus inferiority. Most children begin to understand gender differences around the age of 2 and begin to develop their own gender identity. Although a person?s sex is defined by the physical characteristic of being male or female, a person?s gender is the behavior associated with being male or female. One?s gender identity is influenced by cultural expectations as well as biology. Adolescence is the period of time from around age 14 to the early 20s and is most clearly identified by the physical changes that occur in puberty. Mentally, many adolescents are moving into Piaget?s formal operational stage of development, which includes the ability to think in the abstract and to consider hypothetical situations. At the same time, adolescents still demonstrate a considerable amount of egocentric thinking as can be seen in the thought processes of the personal fable, in which adolescents feel they are different from all others, and the imaginary audience, where the adolescent is convinced that everyone is looking at him or her. Lawrence Kohlberg proposed a theory about the development of moral thinking and divided the development into three levels, preconventional, during which the individual conforms to social norms; conventional, during which time the consequences determine morality; and postconventional, during which a person?s individual moral principles determine right and wrong. The social crisis proposed by Erikson for the period of adolescence is that of identity versus role confusion. Adulthood can be roughly identified as the time period from the early 20s until death. Middle age is often associated with an increase in health problems and includes the events of menopause for women and andropause for men. Cognitive abilities do not decline overall but the speed of processing does appear to slow down and people tend to have greater difficulty retrieving specific information from their memory. Erikson proposed three psychosocial developmental stages for adulthood. The stages are intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and ego integrity versus despair. The term ego integrity refers to a sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and possessing the ability to let go of regrets. Parenting is a significant part of many people?s adulthood. Diana Baumrind proposed three basic parenting styles, authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative. Permissive parents can either be permissive neglectful or permissive indulgent. A number of theories explain why our bodies physically age. The cellular clock theory suggests that cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce. The wear-and-tear theory proposes that aging is a result of outside stressors such as physical exertion and bodily damage. The free radical theory states that as people get older, more and more free radicals accumulate in their bodies. Socially, the activity theory suggests that elderly people adjust more positively to aging when they remain active in some way. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross proposed a well-known theory of the dying process. Based on her work with dying patients, Kübler-Ross felt that people experienced a series of five different emotions including denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. Others see dying as more of a process rather than a series of stages. In addition, different cultures may vary in the way that they deal with death. For instance, Development CHAPTER 8 -101- within the Hindu culture in India, family members may have extensive contact with the deceased. In contrast, the Navajo tribal culture dictates that Native Americans should severely limit their contact with the dead and dying. STUDY HINTS 15. Perhaps the most influential theory on cognitive development is Jean Piaget?s theory. He proposed four stages of cognitive development. To enhance your learning of these stages, fill in the following chart. Try to fill it in as much as possible without going back to your notes and/or the textbook. The first stage has been filled in as an example. Stage Age Characteristics How would you test to see if someone is in this stage? Sensorimotor 0?2 years ? Children explore using their sensory and motor systems. ? Develop object permanence. Hide a toy under a blanket and see if the child looks under the blanket for the toy. Development CHAPTER 8 -102- 2. Another major theory of development is the theory proposed by Erik Erikson. Erikson?s theory focuses more on the development of personality, with each stage marked by a crisis that needs to be resolved. The crisis typically involves the social interactions of the individual and is represented by the two extremes of the possible outcomes (for example, industry versus inferiority). One way to keep track of these stages is to realize that the labels follow a pattern of ?desirable outcome versus undesirable outcome.? Also, they reflect the social activities that are typically going on at that age. Fill in the following chart to help you understand Erikson?s theory of development. Age Social Activities Desirable Outcome Undesirable Outcome 0?1 years being fed, taken care of by someone else sense of trust sense of mistrust Development CHAPTER 8 -103- Suggested answers for Study Hint 1 Stage Age Characteristics How would you test to see if someone is in this stage? Sensorimotor 0?2 years ? Explore using sensory and motor systems. ? Develop object permanence. Hide a toy under a blanket and see if the child looks under the blanket for the toy. Preoperational 2?7 years ? A lot of egocentric thinking. ? Represent objects mentally. ? Engage in make-believe play. ? Do not understand concepts of conservation. ? Tend to focus on one aspect of an object. Ask the child if she would rather have two quarters or five pennies (she will probably want the five pennies). See if the child can play a make-believe game. Concrete Operational 7?12 years ? Show an understanding for the principles of conservation. ? Demonstrate logical thinking and can solve analogies. ? Focus mostly on concrete objects and ideas. Divide a string of clay into five pieces and see if the child thinks there is as much clay in the five pieces as there was in the one string. Formal Operational 12 years and on ? Can use abstract reasoning to solve problems. ? Able to consider hypothetical situations. Ask the child an abstract question and see how he responds. An example of a question could be ?What if snow was black?? Development CHAPTER 8 -104- Suggested answers for Study Hint 2 Age Social Activities Desirable Outcome Undesirable Outcome 0?1 years being fed, taken care of by someone else sense of trust sense of mistrust 1?3 years learning to walk, talk, dress yourself, etc. sense of autonomy (feeling that you are in control of your own body) sense of shame and doubt 3?5 years going to preschool, being responsible to obey family rules, learning your role as a member of a family sense of initiative sense of guilt or irresponsibility 5?12 years going to school, completing school assignments, participating in social activities with peers sense of industry (feeling capable of completing your work) sense of inferiority or incompetence 12?18 years deciding ?what you want to be when you grow up,? choosing a career path, selecting your own group of friends sense of identity feeling of role confusion, unsure of who you are 18?40 years finding a partner to form a life-long commitment, succeeding in a career sense of intimacy, feel comfortable forming close relationships sense of isolation, not able to form close ties with others 40?60 years focusing on career and family (perhaps grandchildren begin to enter the picture), begin thinking of the legacy that you will leave for your children and/or the future generation sense of generativity, or succeeding in creating something that will benefit others in the future sense of stagnation, or feeling that you have done nothing for the next generation 60 years and on dealing with retirement from your career, family might be more involved in their own lives, facing the fact of death among those in your social group sense of ego integrity, or a sense of acceptance of your life and acceptance of death sense of despair about your life and a fear of your inevitable death Development CHAPTER 8 -105- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5.38 What are some of the special research methods used to study development? 5.39 What is the relationship between heredity and environmental factors in determining development? 5.40 How do chromosomes, genes, and DNA determine a person?s characteristics or disorders, and what causes multiple births? 5.41 What happens during the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of pregnancy, and what are some hazards in prenatal development? 5.42 What kind of physical changes take place in infancy and childhood? 5.43 What are two ways of looking at cognitive development, and how does language help? 5.44 How do infants and children develop personalities and form relationships with others, and what are Erikson?s stages of psychosocial development for children? 5.45 What are the physical, cognitive, and personality changes that occur in adolescence, including concepts of morality and Erikson?s search for identity? 5.46 What are the physical, cognitive, and personality changes that occur during adulthood and aging, including Erikson?s last three psychosocial stages and patterns of parenting? 5.47 How do psychologists explain why aging occurs, and what are the stages of death and dying? 5.48 What are some cross-cultural differences in views of death and dying? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the ______ method. a) cohort design b) longitudinal design c) behavior genetics design d) cross-sectional design 2. Which of the following is an example of a longitudinal study? a) observing three groups of children (ages 2, 6, and 12) for a two-hour period b) observing three groups of children (ages 2, 6, and 12) for a two-week period c) observing a group of 30 children at age 2 and again at age 6, and once more when the children turn 12 years of age d) surveying a group of middle-aged adults, half male and half female 3. What relatively new field investigates the influence of genes and heredity on behavior? a) psychobiology b) neuropsychology c) behavioral genetics d) psychoanalysis 4. When a researcher discusses the contributions of ?nature? on development, she is referring to the effects of a) environment. b) heredity. c) social interactions. d) teratogens. Development CHAPTER 8 -106- 5. Which of the following is a special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism? a) DNA b) gene c) chromosomes d) amines 6. Which of the following is essentially a ?recipe? or set of instructions for making a protein? a) DNA b) a chromosome c) a gene d) an enzyme 7. Dizygotic twins are formed from one egg and two sperm. a) True b) False 8. Monozygotic twins a) are genetically identical. b) are genetically different. c) will be of a different sex. d) are more likely to occur when a woman is taking fertility drugs. 9. Brittany and Abby Hensel are a type of twin referred to as a) nonidentical. b) dizygotic. c) fraternal. d) conjoined. 10. The specialized organ that provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby is called the a) placenta. b) uterus. c) umbilical cord. d) embryo. 11. What are some of the common consequences to a child if the mother smoked while pregnant? a) increased birth weight and lethargy b) lower birth weight and short stature c) severe hearing loss and heart defects d) severely deformed limbs and muscle spasms 12. The longest prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional is called a) germinal. b) embryonic. c) fetal. d) gestational. Development CHAPTER 8 -107- 13. In the ______ reflex, the baby moves its head toward any light touch to its face. a) Sucking b) Startle c) rooting d) grasping 14. Which sense is the most well developed at birth? a) taste b) touch c) sight d) hearing 15. Your little sister picks up objects, feels every part of them, and then puts them in her mouth. What stage of Jean Piaget's model of cognitive development does this behavior suggest? a) concrete operations b) sensorimotor c) preoperational d) formal operations 16. A theory that looks at the way people deal with the information that comes in through the senses is called a) information-processing theory. b) sensorimotor intelligence. c) habituation. d) metamemory. 17. Which of the following would a child in Piaget?s preoperational stage of cognitive development be unable to do? a) mentally represent an object b) play make-believe c) see the world from someone else?s perspective d) use symbolic thought 18. Vygotsky?s idea that children develop cognitively when someone else helps them by asking leading questions and providing examples is called a) scaffolding. b) centration. c) conservation. d) metamemory. 19. The first noticeable signs of language development in infants is a) babbling. b) cooing. c) telegraphic speech. d) holophrases. 20. By about 12 months, most infants a) begin to use intonation in their language. b) build a vocabulary of one-word phrases, or holophrases. c) begin to distinguish, in their language, between themselves and others. d) begin to form two- and three-word sentences. Development CHAPTER 8 -108- 21. Infants in different cultures and of different languages experience a different series of stages in language development. a) True b) False 22. If an infant in Mary Ainsworth?s Strange Situation was unwilling to explore, became very upset by the stranger, and demanded to be picked up by his mother but then kicked to get away, he would most likely be classified as a) secure. b) avoidant. c) ambivalent. d) disorganized?disoriented. 23. Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He really doesn't like when new people pick him up and hold him, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. What temperament does he exhibit? a) active b) slow-to-warm-up c) difficult d) easy 24. Erikson?s theory of social development viewed the ages of 3 to 6, his third stage, as being characterized by the major challenge of a) identity versus role diffusion. b) industry versus inferiority. c) initiative versus guilt. d) autonomy versus shame and doubt. 25. According to Erikson, when children between the ages of 5 and 12 succeed at learning new skills, they develop a sense of _____________; and if they fail to develop new abilities, they feel _____________. a) shame; doubt b) trust; guilt c) industry; inferior d) identity; despair 26. The growth spurt for boys typically begins at age a) 9. b) 12. c) 10. d) 15. 27. Fifteen-year-old Todd is writing an impassioned novel about growing up in America. In his novel he describes his experiences in a way that portrays him as unique and special, such that no one has ever thought such deep thoughts or experienced such ecstasy before. Todd?s writings most clearly reflect a) his sense of autonomy. b) the personal fable. c) the period of rebellion common to all adolescents. d) his developing sense of conscience. Development CHAPTER 8 -109- 28. Which of the following questions would an adolescent who has not reached Piaget?s stage of formal operations have trouble thinking about? a) What date did Columbus arrive in America? b) How many 2-inch pieces can a 10-inch rope be cut into? c) What if you had been born to different parents? d) What is the definition of democracy? 29. Jeremy is 17 years old. According to Erikson, his chief task will be acquiring a sense of a) identity. b) intimacy. c) generativity. d) autonomy. 30. The cessation of menstruation and ovulation is called a) climacteric. b) perimenopause. c) menopause. d) andropause. 31. Which of the following reasons does not explain why middle adults experience changes in memory? a) stress b) more information to remember c) more information stored in memory d) hardening of the arteries 32. A young adult who is having difficulty trusting others is most likely still trying to resolve Erikson?s stage of a) autonomy versus shame and doubt. b) ego integrity versus despair. c) industry versus inferiority. d) intimacy versus isolation. 33. Which of the following is an example of generativity? a) completing a crossword puzzle b) becoming a mentor c) getting married d) finding your own identity 34. The _______theory of aging suggests that unstable oxygen molecules cause damage to the structure of cells, increasing with age. a) wear-and-tear b) cellular clock c) disengagement d) free radical Development CHAPTER 8 -110- 35. Several weeks of diagnostic tests revealed the cancer has spread throughout Barry's body. His physician suggested that he "take care of important matters." Barry realizes his family's home needs repairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planning his funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry told his minister he has a good life and just wants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kübler- Ross called a) denial. b) acceptance. c) bargaining. d) depression. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. d Cross-sectional design studies several different age groups at the same time. 2. b A longitudinal study involves the study of a group of individuals at two or more time points in their lives. It may be helpful to remember that a longitudinal study takes a long time to complete. 3. c Genetics is a field that investigates the effects of genes and environmental influences on behavior, whereas psychobiology is the study of the biological bases of behavior. 4. b Nature refers to everything a person inherits biologically. Nurture refers to the effects of a person?s surroundings, or environment. 5. a DNA, genes, and chromosomes all contain the genetic material of an organism, but DNA is the only molecule listed. 6. c A gene is a section of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins. Chromosomes are large strands of DNA that contain many genes. 7. b ?Di? means two, and zygotic is referring to the zygote, which is formed when the egg and sperm unite. Dizygotic (or fraternal) twins are formed from two eggs and two sperm. 8. a Monozygotic twins are formed from one egg and one sperm (?mono? means one). After the egg and sperm unite they split to form two zygotes. Because all the DNA comes from the same egg and sperm, monozygotic twins are genetically identical. 9. d Conjoined twins (commonly referred to as Siamese twins) are physically joined due to the fact that the zygotes do not completely separate from each other. 10. a The placenta provides protection and nourishment to the fetus. 11. b Multiple studies have found that babies of mothers who smoked are smaller in weight and height than babies from mothers who didn?t smoke. 12. c The fetal period is the longest and last stage of prenatal development and is when the most growth occurs in the fetus. 13. c The rooting reflex is thought to help the baby with breast-feeding. 14. b Touch and taste are fairly well developed at birth, with touch being the most highly developed. The sense of sight takes the longest to fully develop after birth. 15. b The sensorimotor stage involves exploring the world through the use of the sensory and motor systems. During the sensorimotor stage infants interact deliberately with objects by chewing, grasping, and tasting them It is the first of Piaget?s four stages of cognitive development. 16. a Information-processing theory looks at the way in which people deal with the information that comes in through the senses. Metamemory is one?s knowledge about the workings of memory and memory strategies. 17. c In the preoperational stage of development, children are still very egocentric and have a hard time seeing the world from someone else?s viewpoint. Development CHAPTER 8 -111- 18. a Scaffolding is the process of helping a child develop by providing the framework for learning. 19. b Cooing is the first visible sign of language development in infants, followed by babbling, holophrases, and then telegraphic speech. 20. b By about 1 year of age, children are communicating one-word ?phrases.? Telegraphic speech, which consists of two- or three-word sentences, usually develops around 1½ to 2 years of age. 21. b It appears that all infants experience the same stages of language development. 22. c The ambivalent child exhibits ambivalent behaviors towards his or her mother. An example is begging to be picked up by the mother and then struggling to get away from the mother once he or she is picked up. 23. c Difficult babies tend to be irritable, are not comfortable with change, and have irregular schedules. 24. c Initiative versus guilt is Erikson?s third stage of development. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage, and industry versus inferiority is the fourth stage. 25. c Industry versus inferiority is Erikson?s fourth stage of development and corresponds closely with the primary school years. 26. b Boys show a growth spurt around age 12, whereas girls typically show a growth spurt earlier, around age 10. 27. b The personal fable describes a phenomenon commonly seen in adolescents in which they feel that no one else has experienced the emotions or thoughts that they are currently experiencing. 28. c The key to Piaget?s fourth and final stage of cognitive development is the ability to consider hypothetical and abstract situations. 29. a Erikson believed most of the adolescent years involved the crisis of identity versus role confusion. 30. c Menopause is the correct answer. Perimenopause is the term used to describe the period of 5?10 years during which a woman?s reproductive system begins to decline. 31. d Memory changes during middle age have not been found to be associated with physical decline. 32. d Erikson proposed the stage of intimacy versus isolation for young adults as they try to form intimate relations with others and learn to trust in someone other than themselves. 33. b Generativity involves helping a younger generation and engaging in activities that will leave a legacy. 34. d Radicals are oxygen molecules in the cells that are thought to cause damage. 35. b Kübler-Ross described the stage of acceptance as an emotional state of acknowledging one?s impending death and being at peace with the idea. CHAPTER GLOSSARY activity theory theory of adjustment to aging that assumes older people are happier if they stay active in some way, such a volunteering or starting a hobby. adolescence the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult. andropause gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of middle-aged males. attachment the emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver. authoritarian parenting style of parenting in which a parent is rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child. Development CHAPTER 8 -112- authoritative parenting style of parenting in which parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits on a child?s behavior. centration in Piaget?s theory, the tendency of a young child to focus on only one feature of an object while ignoring other relevant features. chromosome tightly wound strand of genetic material or DNA. cognitive development the development of thinking, problem solving, and memory. concrete operational stage Piaget?s third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking. conservation in Piaget?s theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object?s nature. conventional morality second level of Kohlberg?s stages of moral development in which the child?s behavior is governed by conforming to society?s norms of behavior. critical periods times during which some environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant. cross-sectional design research design in which several different participant age-groups are studied at one particular point in time. cross-sequential design research design in which participants are studied by means of a cross- sectional design but are also followed and assessed longitudinally. dizygotic twins often called fraternal twins, occurs when two eggs each are fertilized by separate sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism. dominant referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait. ego integrity sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and possessing the ability to let go of regrets; the final completion of the ego. egocentrism the inability to see the world through anyone else?s eyes. embryo developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilization. embryonic period the period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop. fertilization the union of the ovum and sperm. fetal period the time from about 8 weeks after conception until the birth of the baby. fetus developing organism from 8 weeks after fertilization to the birth of the baby. formal operational stage Piaget?s last stage of cognitive development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking. gender the behavior associated with being male or female. gender identity perception of one?s gender and the behavior associated with that gender. gene section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements. generativity providing guidance to one?s children or the next generation, or contributing to the well-being of the next generation through career or volunteer work. genetics the science of inherited traits. germinal period first 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining. human development the scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception until death. identity versus role confusion stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self. Development CHAPTER 8 -113- Development CHAPTER 8 -114- imaginary audience type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescent?s thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are. intimacy an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining a sense of self. irreversibility in Piaget?s theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action. longitudinal design research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time. menopause the cessation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman?s reproductive capability. monozygotic twins identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo. nature the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions. nurture the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions. object permanence the knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight. ovum the female sex cell, or egg. permissive parenting style of parenting in which the parents make few, if any demands on a child?s behavior. permissive indulgent permissive parenting style in which parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without set limits. permissive neglectful permissive parenting style in which the parents are uninvolved with the child or child?s behavior. personal fable type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm. postconventional morality third level of Kohlberg?s stages of moral development in which the person?s behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms. preconventional morality first level of Kohlberg?s stages of moral development in which the child?s behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior. preoperational stage Piaget?s second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world. puberty the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak. recessive referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene. scaffolding process in which a more skilled learner helps a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable. scheme a mental concept formed through experiences with objects and events. sensorimotor stage Piaget?s first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment. temperament the behavioral characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as ?easy,? ?difficult,? and ?slow to warm up.? teratogen any factor that can cause a birth defect. zone of proximal development (ZPD) Vygotsky?s concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher. zygote cell resulting from the uniting of the ovum and sperm. CHAPTER 9 ? MOTIVATION AND EMOTION YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Introduce the concept of motivation and discuss the major theories proposed to explain motivated behavior. ? Discuss the specific motivation of hunger and examine the physiological and social components in addition to common eating disorders. ? Describe the three elements of emotion and present six theories on how emotions are processed. RAPID REVIEW Motivation is the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. When motivation comes from outside the self it is called extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, if a person does something because it is satisfying in some internal manner, the motivation is called intrinsic motivation. Several theories have been proposed to explain the process of motivation, including the theories of instinct, drive-reduction, needs, arousal, incentive, humanistic, and self-determination. Instincts are biologically determined innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals; thus, instinct approach theory suggests that people are motivated by biologically determined internal forces. Unfortunately, instinct theory only describes behavior and is unable to explain why people do what they do. The drive-reduction approach proposes that a need, or requirement, produces a drive, or psychological tension and physiological arousal, and that people act in order to reduce these drives. The drives can be primary drives such as hunger and thirst or acquired (secondary) drives such as the need for money. The rationale for drive-reduction includes the idea that the body has a tendency to try to maintain a steady state referred to as homeostasis. When the body is out of balance, a need develops and the tension provides the drive to reduce the need and return the body to a state of balance. Drive-reduction theory, however, cannot explain why people would increase their internal tension by doing things like parachuting out of an airplane. Need theory attempts to explain motivation by understanding three specific needs, the need for achievement (nAch), need for affiliation (nAff), and need for power (nPow). Arousal theory suggests that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal or tension. The level of arousal is achieved by increasing or decreasing stimulation and is driven by a proposed stimulus motive. The Yerkes-Dodson law demonstrates that for an easy task, performance is best when arousal is a little higher than average, whereas for a difficult task, performance is best when arousal is a little below average. Individuals who consistently seek out high levels of arousal have been labeled as sensation seekers. According to incentive approaches of motivation, individuals? actions are determined by the rewards or incentives for their behaviors. Expectancy-value theories are a subset of incentive theories and assume that the expectancies or beliefs of an individual need to be taken into account in order to understand his or her motivation. Abraham Maslow was a major proponent of the humanistic approach to motivation and proposed a hierarchy of needs that individuals must fulfill before they can reach the highest need of self- actualization, where a person reaches his or her fullest potential. According to Maslow, basic needs such as hunger and thirst must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be achieved. Also, Maslow referred to the times in which self-actualization is attained as peak experiences. Another theory of motivation similar to Maslow?s is the self-determination theory, which proposes humans work to satisfy three inborn and universal needs. These needs are the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. One specific area of motivation that has been studied extensively is the motivation to eat, also known as hunger. The hunger drive can be divided into physiological and social components. Physiologically, insulin and glucagons are hormones that regulate the level of glucose in the bloodstream. Insulin increases blood sugar levels, which leads to feelings of hunger. Several areas in the hypothalamus also play an important role in regulating eating behavior, perhaps by influencing the specific weight that our bodies try to maintain, known as the weight set point. Another factor that influences the weight set point is the basal metabolic rate, which decreases as we age, causing a corresponding increase in the weight set point. The social factors that influence hunger include the times of day when a person typically eats, Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -115- using food to reduce stress or provide comfort, and the appeal of a tempting dessert item. One problem associated with eating behaviors is obesity, in which a person weighs 20 percent over his or her ideal weight. Studies have shown that heredity plays a major role in the development of obesity; however, low exercise rates and overeating are also major contributors to weight gain. Recent research also suggests that a hormone called leptin may play a role in controlling how hungry an individual feels. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are two eating disorders associated with weight loss, rather than gain. Emotions can be defined as the ?feeling? aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior, and an inner awareness of feelings. As can be seen in the definition, emotions can be divided into three components: physiology, behaviors, and subjective experience. Different emotions have been found to be associated with different physiological reactions. The amygdala has been found to play a role in the regulation of emotions in humans as well as other animals. Much of what we know about the amygdala?s role in emotion comes from the work of Dr. Joseph LeDoux and colleagues. For instance, recent research suggests that emotional stimuli travel to the amygdala by both a fast, direct (subcortical) route and a slow, indirect (prefrontal cortex) route. The direct route allows for quick responses to stimuli that are possibly dangerous, whereas, the awareness provided by the indirect route can override the direct route to take control of our emotional responses. In this way, higher brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex can take control of our implicit responses to emotional stimuli. Research also suggests that, in individuals with emotional disorders, the indirect route may be unable to effectively control the more automatic activity of the direct route. In this situation, a person may exhibit poor regulation of their emotions. Three common strategies for regulating one?s emotions include distraction, reappraisal, and controlling the influence of emotions on decision making. Research suggests that distraction involves activation of the anterior cingulated cortex, and reappraisal is supported by activity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Both distraction and reappraisal are accompanied by lower activity in the amygdala. The behaviors of emotions include facial expressions, body movements, and other actions. Research has supported the idea that at least seven basic facial expressions are recognized and mimicked in cultures around the world. However, the display rules, or exactly when, where, and how these emotions can be expressed, appears to differ across cultures. The subjective experience of emotions involves the cognitive process of assigning a label, such as happy, to your feelings. Several theories have been developed in an attempt to explain the process humans use to label our emotions. Common sense theory suggests that a stimulus causes a particular emotion to occur, which then leads to the behavioral and physiological response. The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that a stimulus leads to a particular physiological response, which then leads to the subjective experience of an emotion. The Cannon-Bard theory suggests that the physical and subjective experience of emotions occur at the same time. A stimulus leads to activation of the thalamus, which then simultaneously activates the sympathetic nervous system and higher cortical areas that interpret the signal as a particular emotion. Schachter and Singer proposed the cognitive arousal theory in which a stimulus occurs and then our body has a physical reaction and we make a cognitive appraisal of the situation. Based on feedback from both these sources, we then come up with a subjective label for the emotion we are experiencing. The facial feedback hypothesis assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain regarding the emotion being expressed and can then intensify or even cause the emotion. Lazarus?s cognitive-mediational theory of emotion suggests that following a stimulus, we engage in a cognitive appraisal of the situation that triggers a subjective experience of an emotion followed by a physiological response. Author David Allen has written extensively on the importance of time- or task-management systems that may help people to keep track of commitments and to accomplish specific tasks and general goals. Using such systems may help to reduce stress and decrease negative emotion. Allen?s hints for getting things done include (1) physically collect all items that require your attention in one place, such as a folder; (2) process and define what you can take action on and identify concrete steps toward those goals; (3) organize information and reminders into categories or contexts based on how and when you need them; (4) complete weekly reviews of your projects, next actions, and new items; and (5) do all of your next actions in the appropriate context or time frame for doing so. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -116- STUDY HINTS 16. By far, the most confusing concept of this chapter is keeping track of the theories of emotion. The following hints are designed to help you work through this process. To start with, try filling in the following table correctly. Remember when we are discussing emotions, we are interested in several components. The theories vary according to which component comes first. The components are ? physiological experience of emotion (increased heart rate, sweating, etc.) ? subjective experience of emotion (the ?feeling? of happiness, sadness, or anger) ? cognitive appraisal (using your thought process to assess the situation) ? subcortical brain activity (not considered cognitive types of action) Using these key components, fill in the following table. The first row has already been filled in for you. Theory Event 1st response 2nd response 3rd response Common Sense stimulus (dog barking) subjective experience (fear) physiological experience (increased heart rate) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Cognitive Arousal Theory Facial Feedback Hypothesis Cognitive- mediational Theory Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -117- 17. Now look over the chart you just completed. Which of the theories are similar and which are different? Can you come up with a way to group the theories together based on similarity? As you learned in the chapter on memory, processing the information in this manner will help you better retain the material and make retrieval for the exam an easier process. Try grouping the theories into the following three categories: Category 1: Physiological experience occurs after you ?feel? the emotion _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Category 2: ?Feeling? the emotion occurs after the physiological changes _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Category 3: ?Feeling? the emotion and the physiological changes occur at the same time _______________________________________________________ Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -118- Suggested answers for Question 1 Theory Event 1st response 2nd response 3rd response Common Sense stimulus (dog barking) subjective experience (fear) physiological experience (increased heart rate) James-Lange Theory stimulus (dog barking) physiological (increased heart rate) subjective (fear) Cannon-Bard Theory stimulus (dog barking) subcortical brain activity physiological and subjective at the same time Cognitive Arousal Theory stimulus (dog barking) physiological response (increased heart rate) cognitive appraisal (there is a scary- looking dog barking at me) subjective experience (fear) Facial Feedback Hypothesis stimulus (dog barking) facial expression of fear subcortical brain activity subjective experience (fear) Cognitive- mediational Theory stimulus (dog barking) cognitive appraisal (there is a scary- looking dog barking at me) subjective experience (fear) physiological experience (increased heart rate) Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -119- Suggested answers for Question 2 Category 1: Physiological experience occurs after you ?feel? the emotion ______common sense theory_______________________________ ______cognitive-mediational theory_________________________ Category 2: ?Feeling? the emotion occurs after the physiological changes ______James-Lange theory_________________________________ _______ cognitive arousal theory ___________ ________facial feedback hypothesis________________________ Category 3: ?Feeling? the emotion and the physiological changes occur at the same time ________Cannon-Bard theory____________________________________ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5.49 How do psychologists define motivation, and what are the key elements of the early instinct and drive-reduction approaches to motivation? 5.50 What are the characteristics of the three types of needs? 5.51 What are the key elements of the arousal and incentive approaches to motivation? 5.52 How do Maslow?s humanistic approach and self-determination theory explain motivation? 5.53 What happens in the body to cause hunger, and how do social factors influence a person?s experience of hunger? 5.54 What are some problems in eating behavior, and how are they affected by biology and culture? 5.55 What are the three elements of emotion? 5.56 How do the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion differ? 5.57 What are the key elements in cognitive arousal theory, the facial-feedback hypothesis, and the cognitive-mediational theory of emotion? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called a) motivation. b) emotion. c) achievement. d) synergy. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -120- 2. Which statement about motivation is true? a) A motive energizes and directs behavior. b) We are always aware of motivational processes. c) Different motives always lead to different behaviors. d) Two people motivated by the same factor will satisfy that motive through similar means. 3. In the early twentieth century, psychologists were inclined to explain motivated behavior by attributing it to a) emotions. b) incentives. c) learned responses. d) instincts. 4. Each of the following is a valid criticism of instinct theories of motivation EXCEPT a) human behavior is rarely rigid, inflexible, and found throughout the species. b) instinct theories name behaviors without pinpointing their origins. c) they were the dominant explanation for human behavior early in the twentieth century. d) description is less important than explanation. 5. Salmon swimming upstream to spawn are an example of a) incentives. b) motives. c) instinct. d) needs. 6. Drives serve to activate responses that are aimed at reducing the drive, thereby returning the body to a more normal state called a) stability. b) equilibrium. c) homeostasis. d) physiological balance. 7. Some psychologists believe that behavior is motivated by the body's attempts to achieve a state of balance in which the body functions effectively, or in a) reciprocity. b) acquiescence. c) propinquity. d) homeostasis. 8. Primary drives are a) exceptions to the drive-reduction principle. b) learned. c) influenced by stimuli within the body. d) influenced by stimuli outside the body. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -121- 9. Monica put all her time and energy into getting into the acting club because her main goal in life ?was to be a famous star!? Monica?s drive to be famous was a ______ drive. a) primary b) reflexive c) tertiary d) secondary 10. Which of the following is correct for people high in need achievement? a) They look for careers that make a lot of money. b) They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them. c) They look for careers that require little education. d) They look for careers that will make them famous. 11. According to Carol Dweek, need achievement is closely related to a) genetics. b) geography. c) luck. d) personal factors. 12. In arousal theory, people are said to have a(n) _________ level of tension. a) ultimate b) lower c) optimal d) high 13. Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hidden in dangerous places and guarded by fierce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as _______________ in arousal theory. a) a sensation seeker b) nAff c) fool-hardy d) high nPow 14. As a class assignment you are required to collect advertising slogans and describe how they may be relevant to concepts in psychology. You select the Jell-O slogan, "There's always room for Jell-O," and describe in class that it is relevant to one of the theories of motivation. Which theory? a) instinctive b) incentive c) drive-reduction d) optimum-level 15. One interesting thing about incentive approaches is that incentives a) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. b) exist independently of any need or level of arousal. c) exist inside a narrow collection of internal stimuli. d) only work for adults. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -122- 16. Jill is motivated by money and the things money will bring her. Jack is motivated by doing good things, and his incentives are based on that idea and belief. What theory incorporates both these types of motivational causes? a) sensation-seeking theory b) entity theory c) increment theory d) expectancy-value theory 17. According to Abraham Maslow, developing one's potential to its fullest extent results in a) safety. b) self-esteem. c) belongingness. d) self-actualization. 18. Which of the following fails to show the motivating power of self-actualization? a) Joan wants to live in a house with all the modern conveniences so that she may have more time to seek fulfillment from her career and family. b) Frank feels that he is a good salesman because he likes what he does and knows how to do it well. c) Barbara knows that, as a teacher, she is a good person because she realizes the importance of imparting knowledge to society. d) Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive. 19. Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation? a) the need for affiliation b) intrinsic motivation c) extrinsic motivation d) a mastery goal 20. Intrinsic motivation is defined as a) the pursuit of an activity for external rewards. b) the pursuit of an activity for its own sake. c) the pursuit of an activity to relieve the state of tension caused by deprivation. d) the pursuit of an activity in order to be judged favorably by others. 21. One factor in hunger seems to be the increase in _______ that occurs after we begin to eat. a) cholesterol b) lipoproteins c) insulin d) glucose 22. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be involved in a) increasing hunger. b) decreasing hunger. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -123- 23. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) may be involved in a) stoppage of eating. b) the onset of eating. c) processing low fats. d) food allergies. 24. Anna weighed about 125 pounds most of her adult life. However, it seemed like whenever Anna gained weight it was easy to lose and get back to 125. But when she wanted to go below 125 it took forever and even the slightest deviation from her diet got her back to 125. What explanation would you give Anna? a) Use better diet products. b) Start a reality TV show. c) Her weight, 125, is her set point. Leave it alone. d) Her BMR is causing all the problems. 25. The concept of ?comfort food? suggests that food a) may be influenced by social factors. b) has genetic ways to comfort. c) may release hormones and neurotransmitters that are comforting. d) is reflexive. 26. Which component of hunger is most likely contributing to the fact that sometimes a person who has just had a late breakfast will still feel hungry at noon? a) social b) behavioral c) physiological d) intrinsic 27. Which individual has the highest risk for developing anorexia nervosa? a) lower-class 26-year-old European man b) an upper-class 16-year-old American boy c) a lower-class 26-year-old European woman d) an upper-class 16-year-old American girl 28. An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced vomiting is called a) anorexia nervosa b) bulimia c) Karposi?s anemia d) Huntington?s chorea 29. All of the following statements are correct about bulimia EXCEPT a) individuals with bulimia have a distorted view of how much food is too much food. b) bulimia is not as damaging as anorexia nervosa. c) binge eating and vomiting are common symptoms. d) individuals with bulimia have a distorted body image. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -124- 30. Which of the following describes a hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream by fatty tissue and signals to the hypothalamus that the body has enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full? a) adrenalin b) peptic acid c) leptin d) Lippotor 31. What Latin word connects both motive and emotion? a) emote b) move c) mote d) mate 32. Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion. a) three b) five c) seven d) nine 33. According to Ekman, which of the following is not one of the universal facial expressions? a) disgust b) fear c) contempt d) shame 34. To explain the human universality and variability of emotions, Ekman and his associates a) developed a concept of ?display rules,? which are rules for emotional expression. b) developed an interobserver system to make sure that observers defined expressions reliably. c) interviewed all participants in order to assess unexpressed feelings and motivations. d) monitored the brain waves of participants to determine which hemisphere had higher activation. 35. Which one of the following is not one of the three elements of emotion discussed in the text? a) physiology b) labeling c) behavior d) environment 36. Which theory states that a stimulus triggers physiological changes that produce emotion? a) Cannon-Bard theory b) James-Lange theory c) cognitive arousal theory d) commonsense view of emotions Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -125- 37. Which statement is most consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion? a) ?I run because I'm afraid.? b) ?I'm laughing because I am happy.? c) ?I'm crying because I'm sad.? d) ?I'm anxious because I perspire.? 38. What is the correct sequence of events in emotional response according to the Cannon-Bard theory? a) stimulus ? emotion ? physiological changes b) stimulus ? physiological changes ? emotion c) physiological changes ? stimulus ? emotion d) stimulus ? emotion AND physiological changes (simultaneous) 39. ?I think I?m afraid, therefore I am afraid? is a statement that is most consistent with which of the following theories? a) the James-Lange theory b) activation theory c) cognitive arousal theory d) the Cannon-Bard theory 40. According to the theory of emotion proposed by Schachter and Singer, what is the most important determinant of your subjective experience of emotion? a) physiological reactions b) cognitive appraisal of the situation c) facial expressions d) intensity of the stimulus 41. In the classic study of emotion conducted by Schachter and Singer, after receiving the epinephrine, the subjects placed in the room with the angry man reported feeling a) angry. b) happy. c) both angry and happy. d) no emotions. 42. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, if you would like to make yourself feel more happy you should a) spend time with friends. b) talk to a counselor. c) think about all the positive aspects of your life. d) smile. 43. According to the cognitive-mediational theory, which factor would be most important in determining whether you feel nervous when asked to speak in front of the class? a) your physiological reaction to the request b) activation of subcortical brain activity c) your cognitive appraisal of the situation d) your change in blood pressure Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -126- PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a Motivation encompasses these three activities. 2. a This is simply the definition of motive. 3. d Instinct theory was one of the first proposed theories of motivation in psychology. Be careful not to confuse incentive with instincts! 4. c This is not a criticism but simply a statement. 5. c Instincts are innate, biologically determined behaviors. 6. c Homeostasis is the term psychologists and physiologists use to refer to the body?s state of balance. Equilibrium means the same thing but is not the term used by psychologists. 7. d Homeostasis is a sense of balance. 8. c These internal stimuli would include things such as hunger or thirst. 9. d Secondary drives are drives that we acquire through learning. The drive to be famous is learned. 10. b High achievers need feedback from others. 11. d There was no mention of genetics in her theory, but there was considerable discussion about an individual?s sense of self and views on intelligence. 12. c Arousal theory argues that arousal should be neither too high nor too low. 13. a His actions indicate that he needs a higher level of arousal than most people. 14. b Incentive theory suggests that we often eat food items because of their reward value and not simply because we are hungry. 15. b Incentives motivate behavior regardless of a specific need or arousal level. 16. d Expectancy value theory states that the values of a person determine his or her motivation levels. 17. d Self-actualization is at the top of Maslow?s hierarchy of needs. 18. d This is the only situation in which the person is focusing on basic needs for himself and his family. In all the other examples, the individuals were focused on growth needs. 19. b Self-determination theory is characterized by intrinsic motivations. 20. b All the other motivations are based on external factors. Intrinsic motivation deals with forces within the individual. 21. c Insulin is associated with feelings of hunger and is related to blood sugar levels. 22. b When the ventromedial hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals no longer controlled their eating and became extremely obese. 23. b When the lateral hypothalamus was removed in experimental animals, the animals stopped eating and had to be force-fed food. 24. c The set point is the level of weight the body tends to maintain. 25. a Factors in hunger include the social cues associated with food. 26. a Social factors can have a strong impact on feelings of hunger. 27. d According to government statistics, white upper-class females in the United States show the highest prevalence rates for anorexia. 28. b This is the definition given in the textbook. Note that the vomiting distinguishes bulimia from anorexia. 29. b Although the damage from bulimia is different than that from anorexia, it is still a very dangerous disorder. 30. c Leptin appears to be the hormone that causes you to feel full. 31. b This is the definition given in your textbook. 32. c The research found seven facial expressions that appear to be universal. 33. d Shame was not found in all cultures. The seven facial expressions he did find were anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt. 34. a Ekman found that display rules tend to vary across cultures, whereas the recognition of basic emotions tends to be universal. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -127- 35. d Emotion was broken down into its physical, behavioral, and subjective (or labeling) components. 36. b The James-Lange theory states that the changes in our body come first, followed by our subjective experience of an emotion. 37. d The physiological change comes before the experience of the emotion. 38. d Cannon-Bard believed the subjective and physiological experience occurred simultaneously. 39. c The cognitive aspect (or thinking component) is the factor that determines your emotions according to the cognitive arousal theory. 40. b Schachter and Singer?s theory suggests that one?s appraisal of a situation determines one?s subjective emotional response to a stimulus. 41. a In accordance with Schachter and Singer?s theory, the participants use the environmental cues of an angry co-subject to determine that their own arousal was due to anger as well. 42. d The facial feedback hypothesis proposes that our brain receives feedback on our facial expressions that then serves to enhance whatever emotion we are expressing. 43. c The cognitive-mediational theory states that a stimulus must be interpreted, or appraised, by a person in order to result in a physical response to an emotional situation. CHAPTER GLOSSARY acquired (secondary) drives those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval. amygdala brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear. arousal theory theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation. basal metabolic rate the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time. cognitive arousal theory theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced. cognitive-mediational theory theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction. display rules learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings. drive a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension. drive-reduction theory approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousal. emotion the ?feeling? aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings. expectancy-value theories incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding the beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time. extrinsic motivation type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -128- facial feedback hypothesis theory of emotion which assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion. glucagon hormone that is secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. homeostasis the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state. incentive approaches theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties. incentives things that attract or lure people into action. instinct approach approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals. instincts the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals. insulin a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream. intrinsic motivation type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner. James-Lange theory of emotion theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion. leptin a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full. motivation the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met. need a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism. need for achievement (nAch) a need which involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realistic ones but also challenging ones. need for affiliation (nAff) the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others. need for power (nPow) the need to have control or influence over others. peak experiences according to Maslow, times in a person?s life during which self- actualization is temporarily achieved. primary drives those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst. self-actualization according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential. self-determination theory (SDT) theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action. sensation seeker someone who needs more arousal than the average person. stimulus motive a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity. weight set point the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain. Yerkes-Dodson law law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a high-moderate level whereas more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level. Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -129- Motivation and Emotion CHAPTER 9 -130- CHAPTER 10 ? SEXUALITY AND GENDER YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Discuss physical sex differences between males and females. ? Describe the psychological gender differences between males and females including gender development and gender stereotypes. ? Introduce three of the most influential studies on sexual behavior in the United States. ? Explain the concept of sexual orientation. ? Describe the physical and psychological problems that can lead to sexual dysfunction. ? Discuss the most common sexually transmitted infections in the United States. RAPID REVIEW Sex is defined as the physical differences between males and females. Primary sex characteristics are those physical characteristics that are present at birth and are directly involved in human reproduction. In the female, the primary sex characteristics include the vagina, uterus, and ovaries. In the male the primary sex characteristics include the penis, the testes (also called the testicles), the scrotum, and the prostate gland. In the female embryo, the development of the gonads into ovaries causes the release of estrogens, which leads to the development of the remaining sex organs, while in the male, the development of the gonads into testes leads to the release of androgens and further development of the male sex organs. Secondary sex characteristics develop during puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction. Female secondary sex characteristics include a growth spurt after the first menstrual cycle, enlarged breasts, maturation of mammary glands, wider hips, pubic hair, and fat deposits on the buttocks and thighs. Male secondary sex characteristics include a deepening voice, facial chest and pubic hair, development of coarser skin texture, and a growth spurt. Approximately 1 out of 1,500 children in the United States are born with ambiguous sexual organs, a condition previously referred to as hermaphroditism, but now more commonly called intersexed or intersexual. Many physicians view the condition as an abnormality that should be repaired by sexual reassignment surgery. However, many intersexed individuals feel that the decision regarding surgery should be made by the individual themselves when they are old enough to make their own choice. Gender is defined as the psychological aspects of being feminine or masculine. Gender roles are a culture?s expectation for behavior of a person who is perceived as male or female, and gender typing is the process by which individuals learn their expected gender role. A person?s sense of being female or male is called their gender identity and is influenced by both biology and environment. For example, some researchers believe that exposure to certain hormones during fetal development influences gender identity in addition to the strong environmental pressures of family and friends to behave in the ?expected? manner. Social learning theory proposes that individuals learn their gender identities by observing the behaviors of the people around them and being rewarded for imitating the appropriate gender behavior. Gender schema theory suggests that children acquire their gender role by organizing their own behavior around their internalized schema of ?boy? or ?girl.? A stereotype is a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on superficial, irrelevant characteristics. A gender stereotype is a generalization about males or females that ignores individual differences. Female gender stereotypes often include characteristics such as illogical, emotional, sensitive, nurturing, while male gender stereotypes can include characteristics such as aggressive, logical, decisive, and unemotional. Sexism refers to prejudice about males and females. Benevolent sexism refers to the acceptance of positive stereotypes about males and females that leads to unfair treatment. Psychologist Sandra Bem coined the term androgyny to describe people who display both male and female characteristics. With regard to cognitive differences between gender, men tend to perform better than women on certain spatial tasks, while women tend to perform better than men on tests of perceptual speed. Researchers are still investigating the relative contributions of the environment and heredity on these gender differences. However, more recent research by Else-Quest and colleagues in 2010 indicated that the supposed Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -131- differences in math abilities between boys and girls is likely due to girls? lack of confidence rather than any biological difference in the working of the brain. With regard to communication, women tend to use a ?relate? style of communication while men often use a ?report? style. Three landmark studies have provided much of the information available today in the United States about human sexuality. In 1957, William Masters and Virginia Johnson conducted the first direct observational study on the physical aspects of the human sexual response by recording the physiological reactions of 700 female and male volunteers while they were engaged in sexual intercourse or masturbation. Their research led them to propose four stages of the sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, respectively. It is during the orgasm stage that men release semen, the sperm-containing fluid that is ejaculated from the penis. Men show a refractory period after the fourth phase during which time they cannot achieve erection. The valuable research of Masters and Johnson has helped a tremendous number of individuals but was extremely controversial when it was originally published. In 1948, Alfred Kinsey published his findings from a large survey of adult sexual behavior in the United States. His findings were based on face-to-face interviews with participants and included details about the frequency of behaviors such as masturbation, anal sex, premarital sex, and sexual orientation. Some have criticized the Kinsey study on the basis of methodological issues. The next large- scale study of human sexual behavior was published in 1993 by Samuel Janus and Cynthia Janus. The Janus Report described sexual behaviors based on the survey responses of 3,000 individuals from across the United States. In addition to topics examined previously, The Janus Report also looked at sexual deviance among other new topics. A recent study by Sanders and colleagues in 2010 suggests that surveys of sexual behavior can be problematic because the definition of ?having sex? appears to vary considerably across individuals. Sexual orientation refers to a person?s sexual attraction for members of a particular sex. The term heterosexual refers to people who are sexually attracted to members of the opposite physical sex, and the term homosexual refers to individuals who are attracted to members of their own physical sex. A recent national survey by Mosher and colleagues in 2005 indicated that about 2.3 percent of men and 1.3 percent of women aged 15 to 44 years consider themselves to be exclusively or predominantly homosexual. A person who is bisexual may be either male or female and is attracted to both sexes. Mosher?s national survey indicated that 1.8 percent of men and 2.8 percent of women consider themselves to be bisexual. Many research studies have examined the biology of homosexuality. One of the earliest studies, conducted by Ellis and colleagues in the 1980s, suggested that male children of mothers who experienced severe stress during the second trimester of pregnancy had a significantly higher chance of being homosexual in orientation. A more recent study, conducted by Savic and colleagues in 2005, found that homosexual men and heterosexual women respond similarly, and quite differently from heterosexual men, to a testosterone-based pheromone (glandular chemical) that is secreted in perspiration. A sexual dysfunction is a problem with sexual functioning or the actual physical workings of the sex act and can be caused by a number of factors. Organic or stress-induced dysfunctions are the sexual problems that are caused by physical disorders or by psychological distress. The sexual problems can be in three areas of sexual activity: sexual interest, arousal, and response. Paraphilia is a sexual dysfunction in which the person achieves sexual arousal and fulfillment through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable. A sexually transmitted infection, or STI, is an infection spread primarily through sexual contact. Some common STIs in the United States include chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, genital warts, and AIDS (or acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which wears down the body?s immune system, making the individual highly susceptible to infections. The virus can be transmitted from person to person through exposure to blood, vaginal fluid, semen, and breast milk. There are no documented cases of the spread of AIDS through tears or saliva. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that about 1.1 million adults and adolescents are currently living with HIV in the United States; nearly half a million individuals have developed AIDS. Individuals can protect themselves from STIs by using condoms, having a sexual relationship with one uninfected partner, not sharing needles or other drug equipment, having regular Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -132- exams for STIs, learning the common symptoms of STIs, talking openly with your partner about infections and condom use, and realizing that abstinence is the only 100 percent effective prevention. STUDY HINTS 18. This chapter introduced three of the most important studies on human sexuality conducted to date. Use the following table to help you summarize the details of these studies Researcher(s) Date of Study Method Used Major Findings Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -133- 19. Try matching each of the STIs listed on the left with the correct set of symptoms on the right. chlamydia initial symptoms of a painless open sore that usually appears on the penis or around or in the vagina; if untreated, may go on to more advanced stages, including a transient rash and, eventually, serious involvement of the heart and central nervous system syphilis infection caused by the herpes simplex virus, which causes a painful rash of fluid-filled blisters on the genitals gonorrhea affects the genitals of both sexes, causes burning or difficulty with urination, itching, and a yellow or green discharge; easily treated with antibiotics genital herpes lesions produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and transmitted through sexual contact; the lesions may be raised and bumpy, or flat and almost impossible to see genital warts causes damage to the female and male reproductive systems resulting in infertility; may remain undetected for long periods of time acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) viral disorder that causes deterioration of the immune system and eventually results in death due to complicating infections that the body can no longer fight Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -134- Suggested Answers for Question 1 Researcher(s) Date of Study Method Used Major Findings Masters and Johnson late 1950s, published in 1957 direct observation in a laboratory four phases of human sexual response. Men and women both go through the four phases but men have a refractory period that is not typically seen in women. Alfred Kinsey 1948 one-on-one personal interviews sexual orientation was seen more along a continuum. Frequency of masturbation, premarital, and extramarital sex was much higher than many people previously thought. Samuel Janus and Cynthia Janus 1993 one-on-one interviews as well as mass questionnaires findings on typical sexual behavior as well as sexual deviance, single people?s sexual behavior, marriage, divorce, and decisions to have children Answers for Question 2 chlamydia initial symptoms of a painless open sore that usually appears on the penis or around or in the vagina; if untreated, may go on to more advanced stages, including a transient rash and, eventually, serious involvement of the heart and central nervous system syphilis infection caused by the herpes simplex virus, which causes a painful rash of fluid-filled blisters on the genitals gonorrhea affects the genitals of both sexes, causes burning or difficulty with urination, itching, and a yellow or green discharge; easily treated with antibiotics genital herpes lesions produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and transmitted through sexual contact; the lesions may be raised and bumpy, or flat and almost impossible to see genital warts causes damage to the female and male reproductive systems resulting in infertility; may remain undetected for long periods of time acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) viral disorder that causes deterioration of the immune system and eventually results in death due to complicating infections that the body can no longer fight Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -135- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 10.1 What are the physical differences between females and males? 10.2 What is gender, and how can biology and learning influence gender role development? 10.3 How do gender roles develop, and how can they be influenced by stereotypes or an emphasis on androgyny? 10.4 How do men and women differ in thinking, social behavior, and personality? 10.5 What happens in the bodies of women and men during sexual intercourse? 10.6 What did the early and most recent surveys of human sexual behavior reveal? 10.7 How do different sexual orientations develop? 10.8 How do physical and psychological sexual problems differ? 10.9 What are sexually transmitted infections, and what can be done to prevent the spread of these disorders? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. The growth spurt in female puberty usually starts at _______ years of age. a) 8?10 b) 10?12 c) 12?14 d) 14?16 2. Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic in males? a) facial and chest hair b) deepening voice c) development of coarser skin texture d) the prostate gland 3. ________ is the process by which people learn their culture's preferences and expectations for proper "masculine" and "feminine" behavior. a) Gender role b) Gender identity c) Gender typing d) Gender stereotyping 4. Whereas _____ can be defined as the physical characteristics of being female or male, ________ is defined as the psychological aspects of being feminine or masculine. a) sex; gender b) gender roles; gender identity c) gender typing; gender d) gender; sex 5. Traditional views of gender roles are more likely found in a) collectivist cultures. b) individualistic cultures. c) countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England. d) cultures where men have less traditional views. Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -136- 6. If an individual?s gender identity was completely determined by the DNA he or she inherited, we would say that gender identity is determined by a) nature. b) nurture. c) both nature and nurture. d) the individual?s temperament. 7. When children observe their same-sex parents behaving in certain ways and imitate that behavior, a psychologist uses which theory to explain the situation? a) Freudian psychoanalysis b) Piaget's theory of development c) gender schema theory d) social learning theory 8. A child who develops her identity and organizes her behavior around a mental concept of ?girl? is relying on a) simple imitation. b) positive reinforcement. c) social pressures. d) a gender schema. 9. Desperate for help with her computer, Dana calls her fiancé, thinking that he will know what to do because he is a man, and men are natural fixers. Dana's thinking in this instance is an example of a) androgyny. b) schema error. c) benevolent sexism. d) negative stereotyping. 10. Stereotypes about males and females consist of only negative characteristics. a) True b) False 11. Psychologist Sandra Bem (1975, 1981) developed the concept of a) androgyny. b) benevolent sexism. c) social learning theory. d) ambiguity. 12. MRI studies have suggested that men listen with a) the right hemisphere of the brain. b) the left hemisphere of the brain. c) both hemispheres of the brain. d) no consistent pattern. 13. One difference that has been reported in the communication styles of men and women is that a) no differences have been found in communication styles. b) men talk more than women. c) men are more likely to switch topics frequently. d) women are more likely to interrupt. Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -137- 14. Approximately how many children in the United States are born with both male and female sex organs? a) 1 out of 100 b) 1 out of 1,500 c) 1 out of 100,000 d) There are currently no estimates of the number. 15. The final phase of the sexual response is a) excitement. b) plateau. c) orgasm. d) resolution. 16. The research of Masters and Johnson represents the first major contribution to our understanding of a) common sexual behaviors. b) prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. c) common sexual disorders. d) the physical response during sexual activity. 17. One seemingly amazing aspect of Masters and Johnson's research program concerning human sexual response was a) their ability to get senior citizens to volunteer as subjects in the first studies. b) that the study was funded by churches open to discovering ways to prevent masturbation. c) that they were able to convince the newspapers to keep the research secret for a long period of time. d) their use of seismographic-like machines to measure the sexual response of volunteers. 18. The Kinsey Report, which was published in 1948 by Alfred Kinsey and reported on common sexual behaviors of adults in United States, was based on what type of research method? a) direct observation b) anonymous surveys c) experimental laboratory studies d) one-on-one personal interviews 19. According to Kinsey, what percentage of husbands reported anal sex with their wives? a) 11 percent b) 14 percent c) 92 percent d) 26 percent 20. The first large-scale study of human behavior to be done after the Kinsey and Masters and Johnson reports was conducted by a) Janus and Janus. b) Hite and Rose. c) Hilton and Paris. d) Erickson and Schlomo. Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -138- 21. According to the Janus report, ______ percent of men and ______ percent of women reported masturbating? a) 80, 70 b) 80, 15 c) 70, 80 d) 15, 80 22. When a person refers to himself or herself as ?heterosexual? or ?homosexual,? the person is referring to his or her a) sexual identity. b) sex. c) gender identity. d) sexual orientation. 23. According to a recent study by Savic and colleagues, both homosexual men and ______ respond similarly to a testosterone-based pheromone (glandular chemical). a) heterosexual women b) heterosexual men c) homosexual women d) None of the above. The pheromone-related response of homosexual men is unique. 24. Jaime enjoys sexual activity with his partner. However, he cannot reach an orgasm during sexual intercourse even though fully aroused. Jaime is suffering from a) male erectile disorder. b) male orgasmic disorder. c) dyspareunia. d) premature ejaculation. 25. Jennie experiences persistent contractions of her vaginal muscles. These contractions cause intercourse to be painful and sometimes even impossible for Jennie. She likely has a condition known as a) vaginismus. b) frotteurism. c) female orgasmic disorder. d) sexual diversion disorder. 26. ______________ is a disorder in which an individual achieves sexual arousal and fulfillment through sexual behavior that is unusual or not socially acceptable. a) Schizophrenia b) Borderline personality disorder c) Gender identity disorder d) Paraphilia 27. Which cause of a sexually transmitted infection is hardest to treat? a) bacterial b) fungal c) viral d) All are equally difficult to treat. Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -139- 28. AIDS can be passed from one individual to the next through each of the following ways EXCEPT a) vaginal fluid. b) semen. c) tears. d) blood. 29. AIDS is caused by a) a bacterial infection. b) an air-borne fungus. c) a viral infection. d) The cause is not yet known. 30. Which cause of a sexually transmitted disease is hardest to treat? a) bacterial b) fungal c) viral d) all are equally difficult to treat PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. b The female growth spurt starts about age 10?12, while the male growth spurt starts about age 12?14. 2. d The prostate gland is a primary sex characteristic in males. 3. c Gender typing is the process of learning proper masculine and feminine behaviors. Gender roles are the actual expectations each culture has for males and females, and gender identity is the individuals? sense of being male or female. 4. a Sex refers to physical differences, and gender refers to psychological and social differences. 5. a Several research studies have supported the idea that collectivist cultures, such as those found in many Asian and South American countries, display more traditional views on gender roles. 6. a Nature refers to inherited, biological differences, while nurture refers to the effects of the environment. 7. d Social learning theory emphasizes observational learning, which is reinforced through attention and positive remarks. 8. d A gender schema is a mental concept of what it means to be a ?boy? or a ?girl.? 9. c Benevolent sexism is the result of thinking that all men or all women have some particular desirable trait, simply because of their sex. 10. b Stereotypes can be both negative and positive. 11. a Androgyny describes people who exhibit both male and female typical behaviors. 12. b Several studies have shown that males listen primarily with the left hemisphere of the brain, while females tend to show activity in both hemispheres while they are engaged in listening activities. 13. c Men are more likely to use a ?report? style of communication which involves switching topics frequently, while women are more likely to use a ?relate? style of communication. 14. b The best estimate to date is that about 1 in every 1,500 children in the United States is born with ambiguous sexual genitalia. 15. d Masters and Johnson labeled the fourth and final phase of the human sexual response as the ?resolution? phase. 16. d Masters and Johnson used direct observations in the laboratory to investigate the Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -140- physical human sexual response. 17. c Masters and Johnson were able to convince the newspapers to keep the research secret for almost 12 years. 18. d Alfred Kinsey traveled across the country with a team of researchers and conducted one-on-one personal interviews to gather data on sexual behavior. 19. a According to Kinsey, 11 percent of husbands reported anal sex with their wives. 20. a The Januses did the first major study on common sexual behaviors after Kinsey. 21. a The Janus study revealed that 80 percent of men and 70 percent of women reported masturbating. 22. d Sexual orientation refers to a person?s attraction for members of a particular sex. 23. a Savic?s recent study suggests that both homosexual men and heterosexual women respond similarly to the presence of a testosterone-based pheromone and that these responses are quite different from those of heterosexual males. 24. b Jaime does get fully aroused, which means he does have erections and is therefore not suffering from an erectile disorder. Instead he has a condition known as male orgasmic disorder. 25. a Jennie has vaginismus. 26. d Paraphilias are a group of disorders in which sexual arousal is achieved through unusual or socially unacceptable methods. 27. c Bacterial infections can normally be treated with antibiotics but viral diseases are very hard to treat. 28. c Currently, there are no documented cases of a person becoming infected with AIDS through exposure to tears. 29. c AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, more commonly referred to as HIV. 30. c Viral infections are the hardest to treat, and they are often incurable CHAPTER GLOSSARY AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome sexually transmitted viral disorder that causes deterioration of the immune system and eventually results in death due to complicating infections that the body can no longer fight. androgens male hormones. androgyny characteristic of possessing the most positive personality characteristics of males and females regardless of actual sex. benevolent sexism acceptance of positive stereotypes of males and females that leads to unequal treatment. bisexual person attracted to both men and women. estrogens female hormones. gender the psychological aspects of being male or female. gender identity the individual?s sense of being male or female. gender roles the culture?s expectations for masculine or feminine behavior, including attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture. gender schema theory theory of gender identity acquisition in which a child develops a mental pattern, or schema, for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that scheme. gender stereotype a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on being male or female. gender typing the process of acquiring gender role characteristics. hermaphroditism the condition of possessing both male and female sexual organs. heterosexual person attracted to the opposite sex. Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -141- Sexuality and Gender CHAPTER 10 -142- homosexual person attracted to the same sex. intersexed, intersexual modern term for a hermaphrodite, a person who possesses ambiguous sexual organs, making it difficult to determine actual sex from a visual inspection at birth. mammary glands glands within the breast tissue that produce milk when a woman gives birth to an infant. menstrual cycle monthly shedding of the blood and tissue that line the uterus in preparation for pregnancy when conception does not occur. organic or stress-induced dysfunctions sexual problem caused by physical disorder or psychological stress. orgasm a series of rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the vaginal walls or the penis, also the third and shortest phase of sexual response. ovaries the female sexual glands. paraphilia a sexual disorder in which the person?s preferred method of sexual arousal and fulfillment is through sexual behavior that is unusual or socially unacceptable. penis the organ through which males urinate and which delivers the male sex cells or sperm. primary sex characteristics sexual organs present at birth and directly involved in human reproduction. prostate gland gland that secretes most of the fluid holding the male sex cells or sperm. refractory period time period in males just after orgasm in which the male cannot become aroused or achieve erection. resolution the final phase of the sexual response in which the body is returned to a normal state. scrotum external sack that holds the testes. secondary sex characteristics sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction. semen fluid released from the penis at orgasm that contains sperm. sexism prejudice about males and/or females leading to unequal treatment. sexual dysfunction a problem in sexual functioning. sexual orientation a person?s sexual attraction and affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex. sexually transmitted infection (STI) an infection spread primarily through sexual contact. stereotype a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on superficial, irrelevant characteristics. testes (testicles) the male sex glands. uterus the womb in which the baby grows during pregnancy. vagina the tube that leads from the outside of a female?s body to the opening of the womb. CHAPTER 11 ? STRESS AND HEALTH YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define stress and identify the external and psychological factors that influence an individual?s experience of stress. ? Discuss the causes of stress. ? Describe the physical reaction to stress and the relation of this reaction to cognitive, personality, and social factors. ? Explain the methods used to cope with stress including those influenced by culture and religion. ? Understand the importance of exercise in reducing the negative physical and psychological effects of stress. RAPID REVIEW Health psychology is a new area of psychology focusing on how physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships affect overall health. Stress is the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are perceived as threatening or challenging. When a person?s stress response is unpleasant or undesirable it is called distress, and when it is an optimal amount that helps a person function it is called eustress. The events that cause stress are called stressors and can be either internal or external events. Stressors can include external events such as catastrophes, major life changes, and hassles, along with internal experiences such as pressure, uncontrollability, and frustration. A catastrophe is an unpredictable event that happens on a large scale such as a tornado, hurricane, or flood. A number of researchers have suggested that any major life change, such as moving, getting married, or getting a new job, would result in stress. Holmes and Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure the amount of change and thus stress in a person?s life. Researchers have found a moderate correlation between scores on the SRRS and physical health. Alternate forms of the SRRS have been designed for specific populations such as the College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS) for college students. A majority of the stressors that people have to deal with are little daily annoyances, or hassles. Surveys that measure the number of hassles an individual has to deal with are actually a better predictor of short-term illnesses than the SRRS. The internal experience of pressure is also considered a stressor. Pressure is the psychological experience produced by demands and expectations from outside sources. Two additional internal causes of stress are uncontrollability, or a lack of control in a situation, and frustration, or being blocked from achieving a desired goal. Typical reactions to frustration include persistence and aggression, or actions meant to harm or destroy. Displaced aggression occurs when a person takes out his or her frustrations on less threatening, more available targets and is a form of displacement. Another possible reaction to frustration is escape or withdrawal. This approach can take the form of leaving, dropping out of school, quitting a job, or ending a relationship. Some people may escape psychologically by withdrawing into apathy, fantasy, or the use of drugs. Others may resort to suicide. Conflict is another source of stress and occurs when a person feels pulled toward two or more goals but can only achieve one of them. Approach?approach conflict occurs when an individual is attempting to choose between two desirable goals. Avoidance?avoidance conflict occurs when someone must choose between two undesirable goals. Approach?avoidance conflict describes a single goal that has both desirable and undesirable outcomes. An individual faced with two options in which each option has positive and negative aspects is dealing with a double approach?avoidance conflict. If there are more than two options, the conflict is called a multiple approach?avoidance conflict. Psychologist Hans Selye was a pioneer in the study of the physical consequences of exposure to stressors. He proposed that the body goes through a sequence of three stages he called the general adaptation syndrome. The initial stage is called alarm and represents the immediate reaction to stress mediated by our sympathetic nervous system. Typical alarm reactions include increased heart rate and blood pressure, and release of sugar into the blood stream. As the stress continues, the body enters the Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -143- resistance stage during which time the sympathetic nervous system works overtime to give the body more energy. When the body?s resources have been exhausted, the parasympathetic nervous system is activated and the body enters the exhaustion stage. Selye believed that it was the prolonged release of stress hormones during the resistance stage that led to the breakdown of the body?s immune system and the onset of the stress-related physical conditions. Researchers in the field of psychoneuroimmunology who study the effects of psychological factors on the immune system have found that stress actually causes an increase in the activity of the immune system. High levels of stress have been associated with weight problems and have been linked to increased risk of heart disease and Type 2 diabetes, a type of diabetes that is often related to obesity and is usually diagnosed before the age of 40. Also, stress has been shown to decrease the amount of natural killer (NK) cells, which are the cells responsible for fighting cancerous growths. Recent research suggests that hormones also play a role in helping the immune system fight the effects of stress. In particular, a hormone called dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) aids humans in stress tolerance, perhaps by regulating the effects of stress on the hippocampus. The cognitive-mediational theory of emotions proposed by Richard Lazarus states that the way people think about and appraise a stressor is a major factor in their stress response. The first step in appraising a stressor is called primary appraisal and involves estimating the severity of the stressor and classifying it as a threat, challenge, or loss. In secondary appraisal, an individual determines what resources he or she has available for dealing with the threat or loss. Personality has also been linked to stress-related health risks. In 1974, Meyer Freidman and Ray Rosenman published a book describing the Type A and Type B personalities and their link to heart disease. Based on studies of their own patients, Freidman and Rosenman proposed that individuals with Type A personality (a person who is competitive, ambitious, workaholic, with a constant sense of pressure) were more likely to develop heart disease than someone with a Type B personality. Several studies found that the specific trait of hostility in Type A individuals was the best predictor of future heart problems. A third personality type called Type C (in which a person holds in their emotions and tends to be pleasant) was later identified and is currently being investigated as to its possible link with cancer rates. Recent research on personality traits suggests that individuals who have a high level of neuroticism, or the tendency to worry, be moody, and emotionally intense (especially prevalent among those with Type A personalities), may have an increased risk of an earlier death because people with these traits tend to engage in poor health habits such as poor diet, excessive drinking, smoking, and lack of exercise. Finally, research has suggested a fourth personality type, the hardy personality, which is associated with decreased illness due to stress. An individual with a hardy personality shows commitment, displays a sense of control, and sees stresses as challenges to be met and answered. The tendency for hardiness may have genetic roots. Research by Cole and colleagues in 2010 indicated a biochemical link between feeling miserable and an increased risk of death. There may be a genetic variation in some individuals that severs that link, making the individual more biologically resilient. In addition to personality, links have been found between an individual?s attitude and his or her physical reactions to stress. Specifically, pessimists have been found to have significantly more stress- related health problems than optimists. One way to become an optimist is to recognize any negative thoughts you are having and to work to get rid of them. Social factors also play a key role in the amount of stress an individual experiences. Living in poverty and job stress are two major sources of stress. A serious consequence of job stress is burnout, or negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behaviors as a result of prolonged stress or frustration. Acculturative stress describes the stress an individual experiences when having to adapt to a new culture. The method of adaptation can affect the stress level. Some of the methods of adapting to a new culture include integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. The effects of negative social factors on health can be minimized by a strong social support system, or network of family and friends who can offer help when a person is in need. Coping strategies are actions that people take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors and include both behavioral and psychological strategies. Problem-focused coping occurs when a person tries to eliminate the source of stress or reduce its impact by taking some action, while emotion-focused coping involves changing the way you feel or react to a stressor. Meditation is a series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness. Concentrative Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -144- meditation is a form of meditation in which a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation. In contrast, in receptive meditation, a person attempts to become aware of everything in immediate conscious experience, resulting in an expansion of consciousness. Both concentrative and receptive meditation have been found to be effective coping strategies. Culture and religion have also been found to affect an individual?s level of stress as well as the strategies used to cope with that stress. Exercise can help individuals cope with stress. Exercise has a number of physical effects. It makes the heart healthier, raises the body?s metabolic rate, helps to maintain a healthy weight, raises ?good? and lowers ?bad? cholesterol, strengthens bones, improves sleep quality, reduces tiredness, and increases natural killer cell activity. Exercise has psychological benefits as well. Individuals who exercise report lower levels of anxiety, depression, stress, and anger. STUDY HINTS 20. One important component to understanding this chapter is to understand the difference between a stressor and stress. The stressor is the event that causes us to experience stress. The event can be external, such as getting stuck in traffic, or internal, such as worrying about an upcoming exam. Our reaction to the event is called stress and can be physical, emotional, mental, and behavioral. Try coming up with some examples of events that could be considered stressors along with possible stress reactions. The first example has already been completed for you. Stressor Stress Reaction Having to take an exam increased heart rate ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ 21. Many students find the different types of conflicts confusing. Look over the Rapid Review section to refresh yourself on the meaning of each type of conflict and then try to come up with an example from your own life that illustrates each type of conflict. List your examples in the space below. Approach?Approach Conflict: ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Approach?Avoidance Conflict: __________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -145- Avoidance?Avoidance Conflict: _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ LEARNING OBJECTIVES 11.1 How do psychologists define stress? 11.2 What kinds of external events can cause stress? 11.3 What are some psychological factors in stress? 11.4 How does stress affect the physical functioning of the body and its immune system? 11.5 How do cognitive factors and personality differences affect the experience of stress? 11.6 What social factors influence stress reactions? 11.7 What are some ways in which people cope with stress reactions? 11.8 How is coping with stress affected by culture and religion? 11.9 What are the psychological benefits of exercise? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. The term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are viewed as threatening or challenging is a) stress. b) stressors. c) uncontrollability. d) pressures. 2. The response an individual might have to an unpleasant stressor, such as losing his job, would be called a) eustress. b) distress. c) stress appraisal. d) negative stressors. 3. After we have decided that a certain event is a stressor, we must decide how we will deal with it and what resources are available for coping with the stressor. This process is called a) primary appraisal. b) secondary appraisal. c) stress-related decision. d) hassle-related decision. 4. According to the cognitive-mediational theory of emotions proposed by Richard Lazarus, which of the following would be the best way to reduce the stress of losing a job? a) Try to ignore the problem. b) Try to understand all the negative implications of the loss. c) List all the resources that you do not have available and will need to acquire. d) View the loss as a challenge and opportunity to explore a new career. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -146- 5. Which of the following is an example of a stressor that would be classified as a hassle according to Richard Lazarus? a) getting married b) locking your keys in the car c) losing your house due to a flood d) the death of a family member 6. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) measures stress related to a) positive and negative life events. b) only negative life events. c) only positive life events. d) internal stressors. 7. Gloria is a tax accountant and is very busy from January to April 15, which is the tax return filing deadline. She feels that she must work long hours during this time to meet the April 15 deadline for her clients. Gloria is experiencing a) anxiety. b) pressure. c) overload. d) cognitive dissonance. 8. A woman who had an unpleasant confrontation with her boss and then goes home and yells at the dog would be displaying a) uncontrollability. b) pressure. c) displaced aggression. d) catastrophe. 9. Arnold was repeatedly passed up for a promotion. In reaction to this frustration, Arnold quit his job. Which of the following best describes Arnold?s approach to dealing with frustration? a) displaced aggression b) escape or withdrawal c) downward social comparison d) projection 10. Three students, Fred, Alice and Carl, were all preparing for an important exam. Fred was not at all stressed about the exam and chose to see a movie instead of studying. Fred failed the exam. Alice was somewhat stressed about the exam, so she studied each day for two weeks. Alice passed the exam. Carl was extremely stressed about the exam. Although he?d originally planned to study for four hours each day, each time he sat down to study, Carl had an anxiety attack. Like Fred, Carl ultimately failed the exam. Which student in the above scenario was experiencing eustress, as efined by your textbook? d a) Fred b) Alice c) Carl d) None of the students experienced eustress. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -147- 11. Which of the following is an example of an avoidance?avoidance conflict? a) a person who enjoys the ocean has to choose between retiring in the Bahamas or in Tahiti b) a student has to decide whether to turn in an unfinished paper and receive a failing grade or hand it in late and lose many points c) someone wanting to eat some cake but not wanting the calories d) a person who loves chocolate must choose between chocolate cake or chocolate ice cream 12. Trying to decide on whether to take a trip to the Bahamas, which would be very enjoyable but would severely limit the amount of money you would have to spend on other items, is an example of a(n) a) approach?approach conflict. b) approach?avoidance conflict. c) avoidance?avoidance conflict. d) multiple approach?avoidance conflict. 13. The general adaptation syndrome proposed by Hans Selye describes how we respond to stress with regard to our a) psychological reactions. b) emotional reactions. c) social reactions. d) physical reactions. 14. According to Selye, some people may develop illnesses such as high blood pressure or weakened immune system during the ______ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. a) alarm b) collapse c) exhaustion d) resistance 15. Stress has been shown to be related to a) increased resistance to environmental threats. b) decreased efficiency of the reticular formation. c) increased galvanic skin response. d) decreased efficiency of the body's immune system. 16. When stress levels are elevated, the amount of natural killer cells in the body tends to a) increase. b) decrease. c) stay the same. d) There are not enough data to say at this point. 17. The Type A behavior pattern is a significant predictor of a) mental illness. b) coronary heart disease. c) cancer. d) respiratory illnesses . Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -148- 18. Someone who would be classified as having a Type C personality would be likely to a) openly express his or her anger at someone. b) try to always look on the bright side of a situation. c) display a great deal of hostility when things don?t go his or her way. d) internalize his or her anger so that no one can see his or her true emotion. 19. Which personality type is most likely to strongly agree with the following statement: ?I can relax without guilt??. a) Type A b) Type B c) Type C d) Type F 20. Pepe moved from Argentina to France. He chose not to learn to speak and write French, continues to maintain his old culture's styles of dress and customs, and lives in a neighborhood where only people from Argentina live. Pepe has used which method of entering the majority culture? a) integration b) assimilation c) separation d) marginalization 21. Which method of acculturation would tend to lead to the greatest degree of stress? a) integration b) assimilation c) separation d) marginalization 22. Her mother is ill and Vanna is feeling overwhelmed and sad. To cope with this stress of her mother's illness, Vanna has been writing her feelings down in a journal. Vanna is using a) problem-focused coping. b) emotion-focused coping. c) distraction. d) reappraisal. 23. According to your textbook, which personality type may have the highest risk for developing cancer? a) Type A b) Type B c) Type C d) Type F 24. Stress causes cancer. a) True b) False 25. Research shows that ____________lowers blood pressure in adolescents and adults. a) sensory deprivation b) concentrative meditation c) sublimation d) acculturation Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -149- 26. You are a psychologist working with a new client, an immigrant from China, who is experiencing adjustment problems due to stress. Which of the following are you first going to consider when assessing your client's ability to cope? a) use of meditative strategies b) use of psychological defense mechanisms c) ability to use biofeedback equipment d) cultural background 27. Several studies have found a positive correlation between level of religious commitment and life expectancies. a) True b) False 28. Which of the following statements is false? a) Exercise increases the body?s metabolic rate. b) Exercise increases levels of ?bad? cholesterol. c) Exercise decreases anxiety and depression. d) Exercise increases natural killer cell activity. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a The response itself is called stress and the event that causes the response is called a stressor. 2. b The response to negative stressors is called distress and the response to positive stressors or the optimal level of stressors is referred to as eustress. 3. b Secondary appraisal involves deciding how to deal with a stressor and estimating the resources available for coping with it, while primary appraisal is the first step we take when facing a potential threat; it involves estimating its severity and determining whether it is a challenge or a threat. 4. d The cognitive-mediational theory of emotions suggests that the way we think about or interpret a stressor is the biggest factor in determining our response. 5. b Lazarus focused on the minor daily annoyances, such as losing your car keys, as a significant source of stress in our lives. 6. a The SRRS assumes that any change (either positive or negative) will serve as a stressor in an individual?s life. 7. b Although anxiety may be a result of pressure, Gloria is experiencing pressure as a result of her need to work longer hours to meet a deadline. 8. c Displaced aggression often occurs when the person or object that a person is really angry at is not an accessible target. 9. b Arnold?s approach to dealing with frustration is to escape or withdrawal by leaving his job, the perceived source of his frustration. 10. b Alice experienced eustress, defined as the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being. Fred was not stressed enough about the exam; whereas, Carl was too stressed. 11. b Avoidance?avoidance conflicts involve having to choose between two undesirable outcomes. 12. b Approach?avoidance conflicts focus on one decision that has both positive and negative aspects to it. 13. d The general adaptation syndrome describes our body?s physical reactions to stress. 14. c During the resistance stage, the body uses its resources to fight off the stressor. It is not until the next stage, exhaustion, that bodily resources are so depleted that stress- related diseases can develop. 15. d Stress is related to decreased efficiency of the immune system. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -150- 16. b Natural killer cells are important cells in the body that serve to limit the growth of cancerous cells. During times of stress, the level of natural killer cells tends to decrease, thus increasing the chances of tumor growth. 17. b The original development of the idea of Type A personality was in order to describe and predict the individuals who were at high risk for heart disease. 18. d Type C personalities tend to internalize their emotions. 19. b According to your textbook, Type B personalities are most likely to strongly agree with this statement. 20. c Separation occurs when a person tries to maintain his or her original cultural identity. Assimilation occurs when a person completely gives up his or her old cultural identity and adopts the majority culture's ways. 21. d Marginalization occurs when an individual is not a part of his original culture, nor is he a part of the new culture. This method of acculturation has been found to create the greatest amount of acculturative stress. 22. b Vanna is coping with her stress by focusing on and thinking about her emotions. 23. c Type C people tend to have difficulty expressing negative emotions. They may internalize their anger and are often lonely. These characteristics have been associated with a higher risk of developing cancer. 24. b As stated in the textbook, ??stress itself cannot give a person cancer.? However, stress can have a suppressing effect on the immune system, which makes the unchecked growth of cancer more likely. 25. b Concentrative mediation places one in a state of relaxation and lowers blood pressure. 26. d Psychological defense mechanisms are significant but would not be as important in your initial assessment as would cultural background, especially since the client is from a country with a very different culture. 27. a Although these studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship, they have shown a correlation between religious affiliation and longevity. 28. b Exercise increases levels of ?good? cholesterol but decreases levels of ?bad? cholesterol. All of the other statements are true. CHAPTER GLOSSARY acculturative stress stress resulting from the need to change and adapt one?s ways to the majority culture. aggression actions meant to harm or destroy. approach-approach conflict conflict occurring when a person must choose between two desirable goals. approach-avoidance conflict conflict occurring when a person must choose or not choose a goal that has both positive and negative aspects. avoidance-avoidance conflict conflict occurring when a person must choose between two undesirable goals. burnout negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration. catastrophe an unpredictable, large-scale event that creates a tremendous need to adapt and adjust as well as overwhelming feelings of threat. College Undergraduate Stress Scale (CUSS) assessment that measures the amount of stress in a college student?s life over a one-year period resulting from major life events. concentrative meditation form of meditation in which a person focuses the mind on some repetitive or unchanging stimulus so that the mind can be cleared of disturbing thoughts and the body can experience relaxation. coping strategies actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -151- displaced aggression taking out one?s frustrations on some less threatening or more available target. distress the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors. double approach-avoidance conflict conflict in which the person must decide between two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects. emotion-focused coping coping strategies that change the impact of a stressor by changing the emotional reaction to the stressor. escape or withdrawal leaving the presence of a stressor, either literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug abuse, or apathy. eustress the effect of positive events, or the optimal amount of stress that people need to promote health and well-being. frustration the psychological experience produced by the blocking of a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need. general adaptation syndrome (GAS) the three stages of the body?s physiological reaction to stress, including alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. hardy personality a person who seems to thrive on stress but lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personality. hassles the daily annoyances of everyday life. health psychology area of psychology focusing on how physical activities, psychological traits, and social relationships affect overall health and rate of illnesses. immune system the system of cells, organs, and chemicals of the body that responds to attacks from diseases, infections, and injuries. meditation mental series of exercises meant to refocus attention and achieve a trancelike state of consciousness. multiple approach-avoidance conflict conflict in which the person must decide between more than two goals, with each goal possessing both positive and negative aspects. natural killer (NK) cell immune system cell responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying tumor cells. optimists people who expect positive outcomes. pessimists people who expect negative outcomes. pressure the psychological experience produced by urgent demands or expectations for a person?s behavior that come from an outside source. primary appraisal the first step in assessing stress, which involves estimating the severity of a stressor and classifying it as either a threat or a challenge. problem-focused coping coping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions. psychoneuroimmunology the study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress, emotions, thoughts, and behavior on the immune system. receptive meditation form of meditation in which a person attempts to become aware of everything in immediate conscious experience, or an expansion of consciousness. secondary appraisal the second step in assessing a threat, which involves estimating the resources available to the person for coping with the stressor. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) assessment that measures the amount of stress in a person?s life over a one-year period resulting from major life events. social support system the network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, and others who can offer support, comfort, or aid to a person in need. stress the term used to describe the physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to events that are appraised as threatening or challenging. stressors events that cause a stress reaction. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -152- Type 2 diabetes disease involving failure of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin necessitating medication, usually diagnosed before the age of 40 and can be associated with obesity. Type A personality person who is ambitious, time-conscious, extremely hard-working, and tends to have high levels of hostility and anger as well as being easily annoyed. Type B personality person who is relaxed and laid-back, less driven and competitive than Type A and slow to anger. Type C personality pleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult. Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -153- Stress and Health CHAPTER 11 -154- CHAPTER 12 ? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Describe the role social influence plays on conformity, compliance, and obedience. ? Discuss the issues of social cognition including the formation and development of attitudes, impressions, and attributions. ? Introduce concepts of social interaction including prejudice, discrimination, interpersonal attraction, aggression, and altruism. RAPID REVIEW Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person?s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychology can be broadly divided into the areas of social influence, social cognition, and social interaction. Social influence is the process in which the presence of other people influences the behavior, feelings, and thoughts of an individual. Conformity involves changing one?s own behavior to more closely match the actions of others. In 1951, Solomon Asch conducted a classic experiment on conformity by having subjects judge the length of a line after hearing a group of confederates all report an obviously incorrect answer. Asch found that the subjects conformed to the group answer around one-third of the time and that conformity increased as the group size increased, up to a group of four confederates. In a later study, Asch found that conformity greatly decreased when at least one confederate gave the right answer. Groupthink is a type of conformity in which people feel it is more important to maintain the group?s cohesiveness than to consider the facts more realistically. Social influence can also be used to describe the phenomenon of compliance, which occurs when people change their behavior as a result of another person or the group asking or directing them to change. Consumer psychology is an area of psychology that studies how people get other people to buy things. There are a number of techniques that people use to obtain the compliance of others including the foot-in-the-door technique, in which compliance with a small request is followed by a larger request, and the door-in-the-face technique, which is the process of making a large request that is almost always refused and then a smaller request that is often agreed to. The door-in-the-face technique relies on the norm of reciprocity, which states that if someone does something for you, you should do something in return. Two additional compliance techniques include the lowball technique in which the cost of the commitment is increased after the commitment is already made and the that?s-not-all technique in which an offer is made and before the individual can make a decision, something ?extra? is added to the offer. In compliance, an individual changes his or her behavior because someone asks him or her; in obedience, an individual changes his or her behavior because an authority figure gives an order to him or to her. Stanley Milgram conducted one of the most famous experiments on obedience in which he measured the number of volts a participant would administer to another participant simply because the experimenter instructed him or her to do so. In reality, no electrical shocks were being administered. Milgram found that about two-thirds of the subjects (65 percent) administered electrical shocks up to a lethal level of 450 volts when instructed to do so. Repetition of these experiments in the United States and in other countries has confirmed that between 61 and 66 percent of participants will go all the way if instructed to do so. Interestingly, a study by Slater and colleagues demonstrated that even when participants are given the opportunity to ?shock? a virtual human (one generated by a computer), participants reacted physiologically to the suffering of the virtual human as if the ?person? being shocked were real, even though the participants were fully aware that that they were shocking a computer-generated, virtual human. The presence of others can also influence how well an individual performs a specific task in a process. For instance, group polarization is the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion. A good example of group polarization can occur when a jury tries to Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -155- decide on punitive damages during a civil trial: Studies have found that if members of a jury individually favor a relatively low amount of punitive damages before deliberation, after deliberation the amount usually lessened further. The positive influence of others on performance is called social facilitation, while the negative influence is sometimes called social impairment. If the task is easy, the presence of others seems to improve performance, but if the task is difficult, the presence of others actually has a negative impact on performance. Social loafing describes the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working in a group as opposed to working alone. Social cognition deals with the ways people think about other people and includes attitudes, impressions, and attributions. An attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, person, object, or situation. Attitudes are composed of the way people feel, act, and think. The affective component describes the feelings associated with attitudes, the behavior component describes the actions, and the cognitive component describes the thoughts. Attitudes have been found to be only weak predictors of actual behavior. Attitude formation is a learning process that occurs through direct contact, direct instruction, interaction with others, and vicarious (or observational) learning. Persuasion is the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. Factors that influence the effectiveness of persuasion include the source, the message, and the target audience. The elaboration likelihood model examines how likely it is that an individual will elaborate on a persuasive message and what the outcome of the elaboration will most likely be. When people attend to the content of the message, the model describes it as central-route processing, and when people pay attention to information outside of the message content itself, it is referred to as peripheral-route processing. Cognitive dissonance is a sense of discomfort that occurs when a person?s behavior does not match up with that person?s attitudes. When a person experiences cognitive dissonance, he or she typically changes the conflicting behavior to match the attitude, changes the attitude to match his or her behavior, or forms new cognitions to justify his or her behavior. Impression formation involves the process of forming the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person, in other words, the ?first impression.? One component of impression formation involves social categorization, which is the assignment of a person to a category based on characteristics the person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past. Social categorization can often result in stereotypes, or a set of characteristics that people believe are shared by all members of a particular social category. People often form their own categories based on implicit personality theories, or sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are all related. Most implicit personality theories are formed in childhood. The final aspect of social cognition discussed in the textbook is attribution, or the process of explaining one?s own behavior and the behavior of others. Fritz Heider originally described attribution theory and divided attributions into two categories: situational causes were explanations that relied on external causes, and dispositional causes assume behavior is the result of some internal factor. The fundamental attribution error is the most well-known bias of attribution and is the tendency for some people to almost exclusively use dispositional attributes to explain other people?s behavior. Social interaction, or the relationship between people, is the third main area of study in the field of social psychology. When a person holds an unsupported and often negative attitude about the members of a particular group it is called a prejudice, and when a person acts differently toward a person based on that attitude it is called discrimination. The creation of in-groups and out-groups can often intensify discrimination. The realistic conflict theory states that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict. Jane Elliot used her second-grade classroom to demonstrate the power of prejudice and discrimination by dividing her class based on the color of the students? eyes and observing the effects. Conflicts between groups tend to increase as pressures and stresses increase. Often the prejudice exists because of the need for a scapegoat, a person or group who serves as the target for the frustrations and negative emotions of the group with the prejudiced attitude. Several theories have been proposed to explain the formation and persistence of prejudice. In social cognitive theory, prejudice is seen as an attitude that is formed through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences on learning. Social identity theory suggests that the three processes of social categorization, social identity, and social comparison are involved in the formation of prejudiced attitudes. Stereotype Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -156- vulnerability refers to the effect that a person?s knowledge of someone else?s stereotyped opinion can have on that person?s behavior. The resulting feeling of anxiety is referred to as stereotype threat. The negative impact of stereotype threat on an individual?s performance can actually cause a person to act in the way that the stereotype predicts, thus confirming an outside observer?s prejudiced attitude. Self- fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person acts according to his or her existing beliefs and his or her actions make it more likely that his or her beliefs are confirmed. A recent study by Rydell and Boucher found that some people can overcome feelings of stereotype threat by identifying themselves with a different social identity. Women were able to overcome stereotype threat by identifying with ?college students? when taking a math exam rather than with ?females? (because females are often stereotyped as being math deficient). However, this effect only held for those women with fairly high self-esteem. The best defense against prejudice is becoming informed about people who are different from you. Equal status contact, in which all individuals involved have the same amount of power in the situation, is crucial for reducing prejudice. Educators have attempted to create situations of equal status in the classroom by setting up jigsaw classrooms, in which students have to work together to reach a specific goal. Another area of social interaction discussed in your textbook is interpersonal attraction, or liking or having the desire for a relationship with someone else. Several factors are involved in the attraction of one person to another including physical attractiveness, proximity (or how close a person is to you physically), similarity, and reciprocity of liking (or liking someone who likes you). Robert Sternberg proposed a theory of love that contains three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. He felt that seven types of love could be described by various combinations of these three components. Two of Sternberg?s proposed types of love are romantic love and companionate love. A very different type of social interaction is that of violence. Aggression is defined as any behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. Social psychologists have examined the role of both biology and the environment on aggression. Twin studies have shown a higher correlation of aggression levels in identical twins than in fraternal twins. Certain areas of the brain have been found to control aggressive responses, and testosterone levels are related to aggression. However, a large portion of human aggression is influenced by learning. Several studies have suggested that taking on a particular social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior. One classic study was conducted by the social psychologist Philip Zimbardo at Stanford University in 1971. In this study about 70 young men volunteered to participate for two weeks. They were told that they would be randomly assigned to the social role of either a guard or a prisoner in the experiment. On Day 2, the prisoners staged a revolt (not planned as part of the experiment), which was quickly crushed by the guards. The guards then became increasingly more aggressive, using humiliation to control and punish the prisoners. The staff observing the experiment had to release five of the prisoners who became so upset that they were physically ill. The study, which had originally been scheduled to last for 2 weeks, had to be cancelled on the fifth day. This study highlighted the influence that a social role, such as that of ?guard,? can have on perfectly ordinary people. A number of studies have also supported the link between exposure to violent media and aggression. The final area of social interaction discussed in your textbook is prosocial behavior, or socially desirable behavior that benefits others rather than bringing them harm. Altruism is a specific type of prosocial behavior in which an individual helps someone else with no expectation of reward. Sometimes the presence of other people can decrease the likelihood of prosocial behavior as can be seen in the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility. Bibb Latané and John Darley conducted a series of experiments that found that participants were less likely to respond to an emergency situation where other people were present than when they were alone. Some of the decisions an individual must make when deciding whether to offer help include noticing the situation, defining the situation as an emergency, taking responsibility, planning a course of action, and taking action. Technically, a cult refers to any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identities; however, most people associate the term cult with a group of people whose beliefs are so different from the mainstream that they are viewed with suspicion. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -157- STUDY HINTS 22. The text introduces four common methods that are used to gain the compliance of another person. In order to better understand the differences among these methods, assume that you are trying to get your friend to come pick you up and then go shopping at the mall with you. In the space below, come up with an example of how you might get your friend to comply with your request using each of the techniques listed. Technique Example Foot-in-the-door Door-in-the-face Lowball That?s-not-all Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -158- 23. Social psychology contains a large number of well-known researchers along with the famous studies they carried out. It is important to be able to remember which researcher goes with which study. Next to the researchers listed here, briefly describe the experiment they carried out along with the topic they studied. In the final column, come up with a mnemonic to help you remember the information. Researcher Experiment Topic Mnemonic Solomon Asch Stanley Milgram Jane Elliot Latané and Darley Philip Zimbardo LEARNING OBJECTIVES 12.1 What factors influence people to conform to the actions of others? 12.2 How is compliance defined, and what are four common ways to gain the compliance of another? 12.3 What factors make obedience more likely? 12.4 What are the three components of an attitude, how are attitudes formed, and how can attitudes be changed? 12.5 How do people react when attitudes and behavior are not the same? 12.6 What are social categorization and implicit personality theories? 12.7 How do people try to explain the actions of others? 12.8 How are prejudice and discrimination different? 12.9 Why are people prejudiced, and how can prejudice be stopped? 12.10 What factors govern attraction and love, and what are some different kinds of love? 12.11 How is aggressive behavior determined by biology and learning? 12.12 What is altruism, and how is deciding to help someone related to the presence of others? 12.13 Why do people join cults? Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -159- PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. Vince has always believed children deserve the best prenatal care available. During a class discussion, he hears the first of several speakers express negative attitudes toward spending tax money on prenatal care for the poor. When it is his turn to speak, he voices an opinion more in keeping with the previous speakers. Vince's behavior is an example of a) compliance. b) persuasion. c) conformity. d) obedience. 2. Which of the following researchers conducted a series of studies on conformity that involved having a subject judge the length of three lines after a group of confederates all reported an obviously incorrect answer? a) Jane Elliot b) Stanley Milgram c) Philip Zimbardo d) Solomon Asch 3. _____________ occurs when people begin to think that it is more important to maintain a group?s cohesiveness than to objectively consider the facts. a) Groupthink b) The lowball technique c) Obedience d) Social loafing 4. All of the following are causes for groupthink EXCEPT a) the belief that the group can do no wrong. b) the belief that the group is invulnerable. c) the belief that opposition to the group is unsound. d) openness to differing opinions. 5. At the supermarket, a demonstrator gives away free samples of a new pizza. He also gives each taster a coupon worth $1 off his or her grocery bill. This manufacturer is depending on the social process of ________ to increase sales. a) norm of reciprocity b) deindividuation c) group polarization d) social facilitation 6. Selena is trying to get her boyfriend to wash the dishes for her. To start with, she asks her boyfriend to cook dinner for her. When her boyfriend refuses, she asks, ?Well, will you at least wash the dishes then?? To which he readily agrees. Selena has just used the a) foot-in-the-door technique. b) door-in-the-face technique. c) lowball technique. d) that?s-not-all technique. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -160- 7. Changing one?s behavior due to a direct order of an authority figure is referred to as a) compliance. b) obedience. c) conformity. d) persuasion. 8. Imagine 100 individuals are asked to take part in a replication of Milgram's famous study on obedience. How are these 100 people likely to respond? a) The majority would administer 450 volts as instructed. b) The majority would immediately realize the use of deception and leave. c) Most of the women would refuse to obey, whereas almost all of the men would obey. d) Most of the participants would work together to force the experimenter to end the experiment. 9. A teacher decides against assigning group projects in which all group members get the same grade. What social psychological phenomenon might the teacher be concerned about? a) conformity b) social loafing c) social influence d) social facilitation 10. Ashley has practiced her drum routine over and over. When she gets up to play it at the recital in front of 100 people, she performs it better than she ever has. Her improved performance is an example of a) social compliance. b) persuasion. c) social facilitation. d) social impairment. 11. Which of the following is the best example of the behavioral component of an attitude? a) Bea feels recycling is a great concept. b) Bob is upset when he hears a corporation plans to build a polluting plant near his home. c) Bill struggles to understand the arguments both sides present in a debate over a new manufacturing plant. d) Betty writes a letter to her senator asking for support of a law making corporations responsible for the pollution they cause. 12. Which of the following is not a factor that influences attitude formation? a) direct contact with an individual b) DNA inherited from your parents c) instructions from your parents d) observing someone else?s actions 13. Kerry's positive attitude toward China, even though she has never been there, seems to be related to the fact that her mother is Chinese and talks about China all the time with Kerry. Which method of attitude formation is involved in this example? a) direct contact b) direct instruction c) interaction with others d) classical conditioning Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -161- 14. Which communicator would likely be most persuasive? a) an attractive person who is an expert b) a moderately attractive person who is an expert c) an attractive person who has moderate expertise d) a moderately attractive person who has moderate expertise 15. _____________ describes the situation in which people attend to the content of a message. a) Central-route processing b) Cognitive dissonance c) Social facilitation d) Peripheral-route processing 16. Which of the following was a finding in the classic study by Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)? a) Those who got $1 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $2. b) Those who got $20 to perform a boring task said the task was more interesting than did those who got $1. c) Paid groups said the task was less boring than did nonpaid groups. d) Women performed the tasks for less money than men. 17. Which of the following represents an example of cognitive dissonance? a) A boy learns how to ride a bicycle without the training wheels. b) A father tells his daughter that he will really only be proud of her if she gets all A?s like she did last semester. c) A student stays up all night to study for an upcoming exam. d) A woman argues that it is morally wrong to kill animals for food becomes upset when she is asked to explain why she is wearing a leather belt and leather shoes. 18. What is the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person? a) social interaction b) stereotyping c) impression formation d) interpersonal judgment 19. Toni sees a picture of the new international exchange student and notices that the student looks happy, so Toni automatically assumes that he is also friendly. This automatic assumption about the student?s personality is an example of a) central-route processing. b) implicit personality theory. c) cognitive dissonance. d) discrimination. 20. The process of explaining one?s own behavior and the behavior of other people is called a) stereotyping. b) attribution. c) central-route processing. d) cognitive dissonance . Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -162- 21. "Look, Officer, I didn't see the stop sign back there because the sun was in my eyes." The police officer responds, "You were not paying attention." How would a social psychologist describe this situation? a) Both individuals were making fundamental attribution errors. b) Both individuals were making situational attributions. c) The driver was making a dispositional attribution; the officer was making a situational attribution. d) The driver was making a situational attribution; the officer was making a dispositional attribution. 22. While watching the TV game show Jeopardy, your roommate says, "The game show host, Alex Trebek, knows all the answers. He must be a genius." You tell your roommate she probably would not have said that if she had attended class the day the instructor discussed the topic of a) social facilitation. b) stereotyping illusions. c) internal attribution biases. d) fundamental attribution errors. 23. A bank loan officer thinks people who speak with an accent are lazy; consequently, he refuses to grant them loans. The loan officer's belief is an example of _______. His refusal to grant them loans is an example of __________ . a) discrimination; prejudice b) stereotyping; attribution c) attribution; stereotyping d) prejudice; discrimination 24. The part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, culture, or ethnic group or with gender or other roles in society is called a) the fundamental attribution error. b) self-serving bias. c) ethnocentrism. d) social identity. 25. Which of the following does NOT represent an effective method for reducing prejudice? a) establishing a jigsaw classroom b) bringing diverse groups of people into contact with each other c) learning about people who are different from you d) establishing equal status contact between different groups of people 26. We tend to ___ attractive people more than we do less attractive people. a) like b) dislike c) ignore d) hate 27. When opposites attract it is said that they have __________ characteristics. a) proximal b) complementary c) rewarding d) reciprocal Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -163- 28. Which of the following was NOT a component of Robert Sternberg?s theory of love? a) intimacy b) lust c) passion d) commitment 29. Behavior that is intended to hurt or destroy another person is referred to as a) empty love. b) prejudice. c) aggression. d) dissonance. 30. The fact that a social role can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior points to __________ as a major contributor to aggression. a) biology b) the environment c) DNA d) chemical influences 31. What term refers to helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward? a) altruism b) collectivism c) interdependence d) humanitarianism 32. In a crowded mall parking lot, dozens of people hear a female voice yell, "He's killing me!" Yet, no one calls the police. What is the reason for the lack of action, according to Darley and Latané? a) People are too busy to respond. b) Most people ?do not want to become involved.? c) The fight-or-flight response is not activated when others are in danger. d) There is a diffusion of responsibility. 33. In Latané and Darley?s classic 1969 study, they found that __________ of the participants reported the smoke in the room when the two confederates in the room noticed the smoke but then ignored it. a) all b) three-fourths c) one-half d) one-tenth 34. All of the following are decision points in helping behavior EXCEPT a) noticing. b) defining an emergency. c) taking responsibility. d) diffusion of responsibility. PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. c Conformity involves going along with the group despite one's real opinion. Compliance would be the case if someone had asked him to voice an opinion in keeping with the previous speakers. In this case, Vince did it on his own as a result of internal pressure to conform. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -164- 2. d Asch conducted the well-known studies on conformity. Milgram studied obedience in his famous studies with electrical shock. 3. a Groupthink describes the thought processes that can dominate a group of individuals. 4. d Groupthink results in lack of differing opinions. Believing that the group can do no wrong is actually a cause for groupthink. 5. a The norm of reciprocity involves the tendency of people to feel obligated to give something in return after they have received something. Social facilitation is an increase in performance caused by greater arousal. 6. b The door-in-the-face technique involves asking for a large request that you know will be refused followed up by a smaller request, which many people then agree to. 7. b Obedience involves changing your behavior due to an order from ?above,? while conformity involves changing your behavior to better ?fit in? with others around you. 8. a The Milgram experiment has been repeated at various times, in the United States and in other countries, and the percentage of participants who went all the way consistently remained between 61 and 66 percent. In addition, few differences between males and females have been found. 9. b The teacher knows that some students will slack off if they are not being evaluated for their individual performance, due to a phenomenon known as social loafing. 10. c Social facilitation is the term for the positive effect on one's performance caused by the perception that others are watching. 11. d Writing is an action, or behavior. The fact that Bill struggled to understand indicates that what he is doing is cognitive. 12. b Attitude formation is believed to occur solely through the learning process and is not considered to be something that is inherited biologically. 13. c The fact that Kerry's mother talks about China all the time with Kerry and is Chinese indicates that her attitude is the result of interaction with her mother. 14. a Attractiveness and expertise have been shown to increase persuasiveness. 15. a In central-route processing, an individual pays attention to the content of the message, whereas in peripheral-route processing, an individual focuses on details other than the main content of the message. 16. a The group that got paid less used cognitive dissonance to justify their poor pay for telling a lie. 17. d Cognitive dissonance is an emotional disturbance that occurs when a person?s actions don?t match his or her statements. 18. c Although stereotyping may be a component of impression formation, it is not the term for the process of developing an opinion about another person. 19. b Implicit personality theory represents the automatic associations a person makes about personality traits that are assumed to be related. 20. b An attribute is an explanation for a person?s behavior. Stereotypes are preconceived ideas about a group of people. 21. d The driver attributed his error to something in his situation, the sun; whereas the officer attributed the driver?s error to something internal to him, his lack of attention. 22. d Your roommate attributed something that is situational (Trebek gets the answers ahead of time) to an internal characteristic (genius). Although internal attribution bias sounds correct, it is not a term used in social psychology. 23. d Prejudice is an unsupported, often negative belief about all people in a particular group, whereas discrimination is an action taken that is based on this belief. In this case, the action is the refusal to grant loans. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -165- 24. d Social identity refers to a person?s identity with his or her social group. Ethnocentrism is the process of viewing the world from your own viewpoint and failing to see alternative perspectives. 25. b Simply bringing groups together normally does not reduce prejudice unless all the members of the group have equal status and power in the group. 26. a Social psychologists have found that we tend to like attractive people more than unattractive people. 27. b Things that "complement" each other tend to be opposites. The term proximity refers to nearness. 28. b Sternberg?s theory of love includes the three components of intimacy, passion, and commitment. 29. c Aggression describes a type of behavior, whereas prejudice refers to a person?s attitude. 30. b The impact of the social role points to learning and the influence of the surrounding environment on an individual?s aggressive behavior. 31. a Altruism is defined as helping others for no personal benefit. Humanitarianism means almost the same thing as altruism but is not the term social psychologists use for the helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, with no anticipation of reward. 32. d According to Latané and Darley most people say they do want to become involved, however often diffusion of responsibility occurs. Diffusion of responsibility is what occurs as each person thinks someone else will call for help (i.e., take responsibility). 33. d About one-tenth of the participants reported smoke when the confederates in the room noticed the smoke but did nothing about it. This number was much higher when the participants were in the room alone. 34. d Diffusion of responsibility stops a person from helping and is not considered a decision point. CHAPTER GLOSSARY aggression behavior intended to hurt or destroy another person. altruism prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself. attitude a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation. attribution the process of explaining one?s own behavior and the behavior of others. attribution theory the theory of how people make attributions. bystander effect referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases. central-route processing type of information processing that involves attending to the content of the message itself. cognitive dissonance sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person?s behavior does not correspond to that person?s attitudes. companionate love type of love consisting of intimacy and commitment. compliance changing one?s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change. conformity changing one?s own behavior to match that of other people. consumer psychology branch of psychology that studies the habits of people in the marketplace. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -166- cult any group of people with a particular religious or philosophical set of beliefs and identity. diffusion of responsibility occurring when a person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility. discrimination treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong. dispositional cause cause of behavior attributed to internal factors such as personality or character. door-in-the-face technique asking for a large commitment and being refused, and then asking for a smaller commitment. elaboration likelihood model model of persuasion stating that people will either elaborate on the persuasive message or fail to elaborate on it, and that the future actions of those who do elaborate are more predictable than those who do not. equal status contact contact between groups in which the groups have equal status, with neither group having power over the other. foot-in-the-door technique asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment. fundamental attribution error the tendency to overestimate the influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors. groupthink kind of thinking that occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned group polarization the tendency for members involved in a group discussion to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions when compared to individuals who have not participated in a group discussion. implicit personality theory sets of assumptions about how different types of people, personality traits, and actions are related to each other. impression formation the forming of the first knowledge that a person has concerning another person. in-groups social groups with whom a person identifies; ?us.? interpersonal attraction liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person. jigsaw classroom educational technique in which each individual is given only part of the information needed to solve a problem, causing the separate individuals to be forced to work together to find the solution. lowball technique getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment. norm of reciprocity assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return. obedience changing one?s behavior at the command of an authority figure. out-groups social groups with whom a person does not identify; ?them.? peripheral-route processing type of information processing that involves attending to factors not involved in the message, such as the appearance of the source of the message, the length of the message, and other noncontent factors. persuasion the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation. prejudice negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group. prosocial behavior socially desirable behavior that benefits others. Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -167- Social Psychology CHAPTER 12 -168- proximity physical or geographical nearness. realistic conflict theory theory stating that prejudice and discrimination will be increased between groups that are in conflict over a limited resource. reciprocity of liking tendency of people to like other people who like them in return. romantic love type of love consisting of intimacy and passion. self-fulfilling prophecy the tendency of one?s expectations to affect one?s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to be occur. situational cause cause of behavior attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of the situation. social categorization the assignment of a person one has just met to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past. social cognition the mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around them. social cognitive theory referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world. social comparison the comparison of oneself to others in ways that raise one?s self-esteem. social facilitation the tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task. social identity the part of the self-concept including one?s view of self as a member of a particular social category. social identity theory theory in which the formation of a person?s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. social impairment the tendency for the presence of other people to have a negative impact on the performance of a difficult task. social influence the process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual social loafing the tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task. social psychology the scientific study of how a person?s thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others social role the pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position. stereotype vulnerability the effect that people?s awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior. stereotype a set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category. that?s-not-all technique a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision. CHAPTER 13 ? THEORIES OF PERSONALITY YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define personality according to the various perspectives in psychology. ? Discuss Freud?s psychoanalytical perspective on personality and modifications of his theory by the neo-Freudians. ? Describe the behaviorists? perspective on personality and the social cognitive theory including Albert Bandura?s model. ? Introduce the humanistic perspective of personality including Carl Rogers?s view of the self and concept of unconditional positive regard. ? Discuss trait theory with regard to the description of personality. ? Explain what is known about the role of biology and heredity in personality development. ? Describe major methods of personality assessment including interviews, projective tests, behavioral assessment, and personality inventories. RAPID REVIEW Personality is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life. Two components of personality are character, which refers to value judgments made about a person?s morals or ethical behavior and temperament, or the enduring characteristics a person is born with. Four perspectives regarding personality include the psychoanalytic, behaviorist, humanistic, and trait perspectives. The psychoanalytic perspective originated with the theories of Sigmund Freud and focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts and desires in the development of personality. It is important to take into account the sexually repressed Victorian era in which Freud grew up when evaluating his theory or personality. Freud believed the mind was divided into three parts: the conscious mind contains all the things a person is aware of at any given moment; the preconscious mind contains all the memories and facts that can be recalled with only minimal effort; and the unconscious mind remains hidden at all times. Freud believed the unconscious mind was the most important factor in directing behavior and personality. In addition to the divisions of the mind, Freud also believed that personality could be divided into three components: the id, ego, and superego. The id resides completely in the unconscious mind and represents the most primitive part of the personality containing the basic biological drives such as hunger, thirst, and sex. According to Freud, the id operates on the pleasure principle, which attempts to seek immediate gratification of needs with no regard for consequences. Freud referred to the psychological tension created by a person?s unconscious desires as the libido. The ego represents the mostly conscious and rational aspect of personality, which operates on the reality principle, attempting to satisfy the desires of the id in a way that will minimize negative consequences. The superego is the last part of the personality to develop according to Freud?s theory and represents the moral center of personality. The superego contains the conscience, or the part of personality that makes a person feel good or bad, depending on whether they do the right or wrong thing. According to Freud, the id demands immediate satisfaction, while the superego places restrictions on which behaviors are morally acceptable, and the ego is left in the middle to come up with a compromise. The psychological defense mechanisms are ways of dealing with stress through unconsciously distorting one?s perception of reality. These defense mechanisms were mainly outlined and studied by Freud?s daughter, Anna Freud, who was a psychoanalyst. In order for the three parts of the personality to function, the constant conflict among them must be managed, and Freud assumed that the defense mechanisms were one of the most important tools for dealing with the anxiety caused by this conflict. These mechanisms include denial, repression, rationalization, projection, reaction formation, displacement, regression, identification, compensation (substitution), and sublimation. For Sigmund Freud, the three components of personality develop in a series of psychosexual stages with each stage focused on a different erogenous zone, or area of the body that produces Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -169- pleasurable feelings. Unresolved conflicts at any of the stages of development can lead to fixation and subsequent emotional or psychological problems as an adult. The first stage is called the oral stage because the erogenous zone is the mouth. Fixation can occur in this stage if the baby is weaned from the mother?s breast too soon or too late. The second stage in Freud?s theory is the anal stage, during which time period the anus serves as the erogenous zone and the conflict centers around toilet training. The third stage is the phallic stage and focuses on the child?s own genitals. During this stage the child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, becomes jealous of the same-sex parent, develops anxiety due to the attraction and the jealousy, and resolves the anxiety through sexual repression and identification with the same-sex parent. Freud referred to this process in boys as the Oedipus complex and suggested that girls go through a similar process with their fathers as the target of their affection. The process of identification leads to the development of the superego so that by the end of Freud?s third stage of development, all three components of personality are in place. The fourth stage, known as the latency stage, consists of repressed sexual feelings during which children focus on intellectual, physical, and social development but not sexual development. The final stage occurs around the start of puberty when sexual feelings can no longer be repressed and is referred to as the genital stage. A number of psychologists, referred to as neo-Freudians, agreed with parts of Freud?s theories but not all aspects. Carl Gustav Jung believed that there were two parts of the unconscious, a personal unconscious similar to the unconscious described by Freud and a collective unconscious, which contained universal human memories that Jung called archetypes. Alfred Adler felt that the motivating factor of behavior was not the pleasure-seeking drive of the libido suggested by Freud, but rather the seeking of superiority through defense mechanisms such as compensation. Karen Horney disagreed with Freud?s emphasis on sexuality and thought personalities were shaped more by a child?s sense of basic anxiety, which if unattended to could lead to the development of neurotic personalities. Erik Erikson developed eight psychosocial stages of development that focused on the role of social relationships in the development of personality. Although Freud?s theory has had a significant impact on the culture of modern Western societies, his theory has been criticized on the scientific grounds due to the fact that it was not developed based on scientific experiments but rather on Freud?s personal observations in his private practice as a psychiatrist, and that Freud?s personal observations were limited to a specific group of wealthy Austrian women living in the sexually repressed Victorian era. According to the behaviorists? perspective, personality consists of a set of learned responses or habits. A variation on the behaviorist perspective is that of the social cognitive learning theorists, who emphasize the role of conditioning along with an individual?s thought processes in the development of personality. A strong proponent of the social cognitive view, Albert Bandura, suggested that the environment, behavior, and personal/cognitive factors all act together to determine an individual?s actions in a process Bandura referred to as reciprocal determinism. An important component of the cognitive factors is the person?s sense of self-efficacy, or perception of how effective a behavior will be in a particular context. Julian Rotter proposed that individuals develop a relatively set way of responding and this behavior represented ?personality.? An important determinant of the individual?s response was his or her sense of locus of control. According to Rotter, the individual?s expectancy and the response?s reinforcement value were the two key factors that determined how an individual would react. The humanistic perspective of personality focuses more on qualities that are considered uniquely human such as free will and subjective emotions. Carl Rogers proposed that humans are always striving to fulfill their innate capacities in a process known as the self-actualizing tendency. Rogers defined positive regard as warmth, affection, love, and respect that comes from significant others. In order for an individual to work toward self-actualization, they need to be exposed to a certain level of unconditional positive regard from the significant others in their lives. Rogers felt that conditional positive regard would restrict a person?s ability to become a fully functioning person. Rogers believed an individual?s image of oneself, or self-concept, also played a role in becoming fully functional. The self- concept was based on what an individual is told by others and also his or her own sense of self. According to Rogers, self-concept could be divided into a real self and an ideal self. If the real self and ideal self concept were too far apart, anxiety and neurotic behavior would result. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -170- Trait theories of personality have focused on describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description. A trait is a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Gordon Allport identified approximately 200 traits in the English language that he felt were ?wired? into each person?s nervous system. Raymond Cattell narrowed the number of traits down further by dividing traits into surface traits, such as the 200 traits described by Allport and source traits, or the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits and form the core of personality. Introversion is an example of a source trait. Cattell identified 16 basic or source traits. Later researchers narrowed this list to five source traits and developed the personality model known as the five-factor model, or the Big Five. The five trait dimensions are openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Critics of the five-factor model have argued that the situation plays a more significant role in determining an individual?s behavior than is suggested by trait theory and have proposed a theory that includes a trait- situation interaction. The field of behavioral genetics studies the role of inherited traits in personality. Twin studies have found that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins or unrelated people in certain aspects of personality such as intelligence, leadership, tendency to follow rules, assertiveness, and aggressiveness. Adoption studies have supported some of these findings and have suggested a biological basis for shyness and aggressiveness. In an attempt to describe ?national personalities,? Geert Hofstede conducted a cross-cultural study for IBM that resulted in a description of each country along four basic dimensions. The dimensions Hofstede observed were individualism/collectivism, power distance, masculinity/femininity, and uncertainty avoidance. Methods for assessing personality have been developed based on specific theories of personality as well as the various goals of classification, self-insight, and the diagnosis of psychological disorders. An interview is a method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer in either a structured or unstructured manner. Interviews are limited by the fact that clients can lie, intentionally or unintentionally, and the interviewers can bring their own biases into their interpretations including the halo effect, which is the tendency of a person?s first impression to influence later assessments. Psychoanalysts have developed projective tests in an attempt to assess a person?s unconscious conflicts or desires by having them projected onto an ambiguous visual stimulus. Two of the most commonly used projective tests are the Rorschach inkblot test and the Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT. Projective tests are highly subjective and have been found to have low reliability and validity. A behaviorist would be more likely to measure personality by directly observing an individual?s actions. In direct observation, the psychologist would observe an individual in a specific setting and record his or her behaviors through the use of a rating scale or a frequency count. Critics of this approach have pointed out the possibility for both the observer effect and observer bias. Trait theorists would be most likely to use a personality inventory, which consists of a questionnaire that has a standard list of questions that require specific answers such as ?yes? or ?no.? Examples of commonly used personality inventories include Cattell?s 16 PF, the Neuroticism/Extraversion/Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MPTI), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Version II (MMPI-2). The advantage of personality inventories is that they are scored objectively, which eliminates the possibility of observer bias, and they have been found to have high reliability and validity scores. However, the inventories are still based on self-report. Questions may be interpreted in different ways by different individuals and are likely to be subject to cultural influences. A large number of personality tests are accessible over the Internet; however, the results of such tests should be interpreted with an appropriate level of skepticism. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -171- STUDY HINTS 24. Students often confuse the levels of awareness suggested by Freud with his three components of personality. The next two exercises should help you keep them straight. To start with let?s think about your levels of awareness. For each of the levels listed, list at least three examples of the information or memories that would be found there. Start with the conscious level. My conscious level of awareness might contain the following: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ My preconscious level of awareness might contain the following: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ My unconscious level of awareness might contain the following: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -172- 25. Now think about the three components that Freud suggested make up an individual?s personality: the id, the ego, and the superego. For each of the situations listed below, describe how a person?s id, ego, and superego might respond. The first example has been completed for you. Notice how the ego always represents the compromise between the two extremes. Situation Id Ego Superego Someone cuts you off in traffic as you are driving down the freeway. Speed up, cut in front of them, and then slow way down. I?ll yell a few words at the driver from my own car but remain driving at the speed limit. It?s wrong to break the law, and we don?t know what is happening with that person?maybe they have an emergency. Your alarm goes off for school but you still feel completely exhausted. Your co-worker asks you to work her shift for you so that she can have the night off to go to a concert. Your roommate just made a batch of chocolate chip cookies and said he is going to take most of them to work with him tomorrow. You just finished watching two hours of TV and still have a lot of homework to do for tomorrow but you don?t feel like doing it. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -173- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 12.1 What is personality, and how do the various perspectives in psychology view personality? 12.2 How did Freud?s historical view of the mind and personality form a basis for psychodynamic theory? 12.3 How did Jung, Adler, Horney, and Erikson modify Freud?s theory? 12.4 How does modern psychoanalytic theory differ from that of Freud? 12.5 How do behaviorist and social cognitive theorists explain personality? 12.6 How do humanists such as Carl Rogers explain personality? 12.7 What are the history and current views of the trait perspective? 12.8 What part do biology, heredity, and culture play in personality? 12.9 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the following measures of personality: interviews, projective tests, behavioral assessment, personality inventories, and online personality tests? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. The unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life is called a) character. b) personality. c) temperament. d) the unconscious. 2. One limitation of the trait perspective compared to the other perspectives is there is not much a) description. b) research. c) material. d) explanation. 3. Many have compared Freud's idea of the mind to an iceberg. If that were the case and you were standing on the deck of a ship in Alaska, what part of the mind would you see above the water? a) ego b) superego c) id d) preconscious 4. Information that cannot be recalled even when a person makes a determined effort to retrieve it would be said by Freud to be residing in the a) conscious. b) preconscious. c) unconscious. d) superego. 5. In Sigmund Freud's theory, the _____ operates according to the pleasure principle. a) id b) ego c) thanatos d) superego Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -174- 6. According to Freud, the last component of an individual?s personality to develop is the a) ego. b) superego. c) id. d) libido. 7. What is Freud's term for the executive of the personality that has a realistic plan for obtaining gratification of an individual's desires? a) id b) ego c) superego d) preconscious 8. Freud called the developmental stage in which the Oedipus complex occurs the a) oral stage. b) anal stage. c) phallic stage. d) latency stage. 9. Freud believed that the personality characteristics of overeating, gum chewing, being too dependent or overly optimistic developed due to fixation during the a) oral stage. b) anal stage. c) phallic stage. d) latency stage. 10. Which neo-Freudian viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the feelings of inferiority all people share? a) Carl Jung b) Alfred Adler c) Carl Rogers d) Karen Horney 11. Karen Horney disagreed with Freud about the unconscious force that influences behavior. She believed the force was not sexual desire, but rather a) feelings of inferiority. b) basic anxiety. c) the collective unconscious. d) self-regard. 12. Which of the following is not a current criticism of Freud?s psychoanalytic theory? a) the significant impact it has had on culture b) the lack of empirical evidence c) observations based on Freud?s personal clients d) role of women in Freud?s theory Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -175- 13. Albert Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment is known as a) self-efficacy. b) locus of control. c) phenomenology. d) reciprocal determinism. 14. A baseball player's son is quite talented; he has received lots of awards over the years. When he gets up to bat he expects to get a hit, and when he is in the field he expects to make every catch. According to Bandura, what characteristic does this young man seem to have? a) self-regard b) self-centeredness c) self-efficacy d) self-actualization 15. _____________ theory is called the third force in personality theory. a) Psychoanalytic. b) Behaviorist c) Cognitive d) Humanistic 16. In Carl Rogers's theory, our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is known as a) personality. b) self-regard. c) self-esteem. d) self-concept. 17. Which of the following represents an example of unconditional positive regard? a) a mother telling her son that she hopes he becomes an engineer like his father b) a father telling his daughter that he will really only be proud of her if she gets all As like she did last semester c) an owner only pays attention to her dog when he is well-behaved d) a parent telling his son he loves him even though he just wrecked the family car 18. What did Gordon Allport think about traits? a) He thought they were like stages. b) He thought they were wired into the nervous system. c) He thought they were learned. d) He thought they were the result of cognitive modeling. 19. How many source traits did Raymond Cattell discover through the process of factor analysis? a) 5 b) 16 c) 200 d) 4,500 Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -176- 20. What psychoanalytic theorist most notably influenced the Big Five theory of personality? a) Freud b) Jung c) Erikson d) Horney 21. The fact that an outgoing extravert might be very talkative at a party but very quiet at a funeral is an example of a) trait-situation interaction. b) cross-cultural similarities. c) source trait reliability. d) neuroticism. 22. What major conclusion about personality traits emerged from the Minnesota twin study? a) Identical twins are more similar than any other type of sibling. b) Siblings reared apart were much more similar than identical twins. c) Fraternal twins reared together were much more similar than identical twins. d) Personality scores for twins were not related in either case. 23. Which of the following countries would not be considered a collectivist country according to the studies by Geert Hofstede? a) Japan b) United States c) Mexico d) Korea 24. Which of the following terms describes the cultural personality of the United States according to Hofstede's dimensions of cultural personality? a) individualistic b) high in power distance c) low in individualism d) high in uncertainty avoidance 25. Which of the following is considered an advantage in the use of interviews for personality assessment? a) halo effect b) answers are based on self-report c) bias of the interviewer d) natural flow of the questions 26. Which personality test relies on the interpretation of inkblots to understand personality? a) MMPI b) 16PF c) TAT d) Rorschach 27. Which of the following is not a criticism of projective tests? a) They are a projection of the person?s unconscious concern. b) They are low in reliability. c) Their interpretation is more an art than a science. d) They lack validity. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -177- 28. The most commonly used personality inventory is the a) MMPI-2. b) MBTI. c) TAT. d) CPI. 29. Which of the following is an advantage to using personality inventories? a) observer bias b) their standardization c) biases of interpretation d) their reliance on self-report 30. Darla tries to save money by bringing her lunch to work. However, on four out of five work days last week, she threw away her sandwich from home and instead went out to lunch with her work colleagues. To justify the added expense of the restraunt meals, Darla tells herself that the time spent "networking" with her colleagues will help to improve her chances for promotion at work. Which of the following psychological defense mechanisms best describes Darla's behavior? a) Projection b) Displacement c) Rationalization d) Repression PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. b Temperament and character are both part of personality. Character refers to value judgments made about a person?s morals, and temperament refers to the enduring characteristics that a person is born with. 2. a Trait theories are descriptive and deal with the actual end result of personality. 3. a The ego is the part of the mind that is conscious and in view. 4. c Freud thought that information sometimes seeped out of the unconscious through our dreams or slips of the tongue, but for the most part, the information was not readily available to our conscious awareness. 5. a According to Freud, the id represents the most basic part of the personality and operates on the pleasure principle. The ego operates on the reality principle. 6. b Freud?s theory states that the superego develops during the phallic stage or when an individual is 5?6 years old. 7. b The ego is in charge of reality and decisions and the superego is there for moral judgments, but the ego makes the decisions. 8. c The Oedipus complex leads to the development of the superego and occurs during the phallic stage. 9. a Freud described those personality traits as resulting from fixation during the oral stage of development. 10. b Adler viewed personality disturbances as resulting from the feelings of inferiority all people share. Jung focused on archetypes in the collective unconscious. 11. b Horney believed that basic anxiety was the unconscious driving force behind many of the behaviors people exhibited. 12. a The impact of Freud?s theory on culture is not considered a criticism. 13. d Self-efficacy refers to one's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance, whereas reciprocal determinism is Bandura's notion that people are affected by their environment but can also influence that environment. 14. c Self-efficacy refers to one's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance. Self-actualization has to do with self-fulfillment and reaching one's full potential. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -178- 15. d Humanistic theory is called the third force in personality theory; the first two are psychoanalytic theory and behaviorist theory. 16. d Self-esteem has more to do with one's sense of worth. 17. d Rogers defined unconditional positive regard as being love, affection, and respect with no strings attached. 18. b Allport thought traits were not learned, but rather were wired into the nervous system. 19. b Cattell proposed that there were 16 source traits of personality. 20. b Freud's views are not involved in trait theory, but Jung's theory mentioned extroversion, which is one of the Big Five traits. 21. a The trait-situation interaction focuses on the interaction of source traits with the specific environment or situation that a person is in. 22. a Identical twins, who share the same genes, are more similar in personality than are any other type of siblings. 23. b The Hofstede study found that the United States could be described as more of an individualistic culture. 24. a Americans expect power to be well-distributed rather than held by an elite few; democracies are typically low in power distance. 25. d The natural flow of the interview process is one of the advantages of this method. 26. d The Rorschach is a projective test that relies on the use of inkblot interpretation. 27. a The reason a psychologist would use a projective test is to get a ?projection? of that individual?s unconscious concerns. 28. a The MMPI-2 is used more than any other inventory. 29. b The fact that personality inventories are standardized represents one of the greatest advantages to using this assessment technique. 30. c The psychological defense mechanism of rationalization is defined as making up acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior. CHAPTER GLOSSARY agreeableness the emotional style of a person which may range from easy-going, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant. anal stage second stage occurring from about 1 or 1.5 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. archetypes Jung?s collective, universal human memories. basic anxiety anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults. behavioral genetics field of study devoted to discovering the genetic bases for personality characteristics. character value judgments of a person?s moral and ethical behavior. collective unconscious Jung?s name for the memories shared by all members of the human species. compensation (substitution) defense mechanism in which a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area. conditional positive regard positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish. conscience Part of the superego that produces guilt, depending on how acceptable behavior is. conscientiousness the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others, dependability. denial psychological defense mechanism in which a person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation. direct observation assessment in which the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day behavior in either a clinical or natural setting. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -179- displacement redirecting feelings from one threatening target to a less threatening one. ego part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational and logical. expectancy a person?s subjective feeling that a particular behavior will lead to a reinforcing consequence. extraversion dimension of personality referring to one?s need to be with other people. extraverts people who are outgoing and sociable. five-factor model (Big Five) model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions. fixation disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage. frequency count assessment in which the frequency of a particular behavior is counted. fully functioning person a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings. habits in behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic. halo effect tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the client?s behavior and statements. humanistic perspective the ?third force? in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice. id part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious. ideal self one?s perception of who one should be or would like to be. identification defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety. interview method of personality assessment in which the professional asks questions of the client and allows the client to answer, either in a structured or unstructured fashion. introversion dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation. introverts people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention. latency fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways. locus of control the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives. neo-Freudians followers of Freud who developed their own, competing psychodynamic theories. neurotic personalities personalities typified by maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney?s theory. neuroticism degree of emotional instability or stability. Oedipus complex/Electra complex situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same sex-parent. Males develop an Oedipus complex and females develop an Electra complex. openness one of the five factors, willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences. oral stage first stage occurring in the first year of life, and in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. personal unconscious Jung?s name for the unconscious mind as described by Freud. personality the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -180- personality inventory paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test. phallic stage third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. pleasure principle principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences. positive regard warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one?s life. projection psychological defense mechanism in which unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulse or feelings. Also defined as a defense mechanism involving placing, or ?projecting,? one?s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts actually belonged to those others and not to oneself. projective tests personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind. psychoanalysis Freud?s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it. psychological defense mechanisms unconscious distortions of a person?s perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety. psychosexual stages five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child. rating scale assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale. reaction formation psychological defense mechanism in which a person forms an opposite emotional or behavioral reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others. real self one?s perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities. reality principle principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not result. reciprocal determinism Bandura?s explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior. regression psychological defense mechanism in which a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations. repression psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind. Rorschach inkblot test projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli. self an individual?s awareness of his or her own personal characteristics and level of functioning. self-actualizing tendency the striving to fulfill one?s innate capacities and capabilities. self-concept the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one?s life. self-efficacy individual?s perception of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance. social cognitive learning theorists theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people?s behavior and of a person?s own expectancies of learning. social cognitive view learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models. source traits the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality. Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -181- Theories of Personality CHAPTER 13 -182- subjective referring to concepts and impressions that are only valid within a particular person?s perception and may be influenced by biases, prejudice, and personal experiences. sublimation channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior. superego part of the personality that acts as a moral center. surface traits aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person. temperament the enduring characteristics with which each person is born. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) projective test that uses twenty pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli. trait a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving. trait theories theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior. trait-situation interaction the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed. unconditional positive regard positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached. unconscious mind level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness. CHAPTER 14 ? PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define abnormality and briefly discuss the historical and cultural impact on defining psychological disorders. ? Present the biological and psychological models of psychopathology. ? Discuss the diagnosis and prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the United States. ? Describe specific categories of psychological disorders including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. RAPID REVIEW The study of abnormal behavior, or psychopathology, can be traced to at least as early as 3000 B.C. from evidence of trepanning, or the drilling of holes in the skull. Today, abnormal behavior is considered to be any behavior that is rare, deviates from the social norm within the situational context, causes subjective discomfort, or is maladaptive. Psychological disorders are defined as a pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life. In the sociocultural perspective of abnormality, abnormal behavior (as well as normal behavior) is seen as the product of behavioral shaping within the context of family influences, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist. This is an important issue for psychological professionals who are attempting to assess and treat members of a culture different from their own. Cultural relativity refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with a disorder was nurtured to be able to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder. For example, a recent research study by Mejia and McCarthy revealed that college students of Mexican heritage with migrant farming backgrounds reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression as compared to nonmigrant college students of Mexican heritage, suggesting that the nature of migrant farming poses stressors different from those faced by nonmigrant families. Culture-bound syndromes are certain psychological disorders that are only found in particular cultures. For example, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are most often found in Western societies. Three perspectives on abnormality are highlighted in the chapter. First, the biological model of psychopathology proposes that psychological disorders are caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body. Second, the psychological models propose that disordered behavior is the result of various forms of emotional, behavioral, or thought-related malfunctioning. This perspective includes cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic theories. Cognitive psychologists study the way that people think, remember, and mentally organize information. These psychologists have proposed the cognitive model of psychopathology, which describes psychological disorders as resulting from faulty thinking patterns. Third, the biopsychosocial model proposes that abnormal behavior is the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. Currently in the United States, psychological disorders are assessed by referring to the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version 4, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), which provides information for about 250 different disorders, including common symptoms, prevalence rates, and criteria for diagnosis. The individual is assessed in five different categories, or axes. Axis 1 contains all the psychological disorders except personality disorders. Axis II includes personality disorders and mental retardation. Axis III includes an assessment of any physical disorders that affect a person psychologically. Axis IV consists of problems in a person?s environment that may be affecting his or her psychological functioning, and Axis V is an assessment of a person?s overall (or global) level of functioning ranging from 0 to 100. In a given year, about 26 percent of adults over 18 years of age in the United States could be diagnosed with a mental disorder. Labeling psychological disorders provides a common language for the mental health community to use. However, labels can also be dangerous, as shown by researcher David Rosenhan?s classic study in which healthy participants (?pseudo-patients?) were asked to enter psychiatric hospitals and complain that Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -183- they were hearing voices. All of the pseudo-patients were admitted to the hospitals and diagnosed with either schizophrenia or manic depression. Once admitted, the pseudo-patients stopped pretending to be ill and acted as they normally would, but the hospital staff?s interpretation of this normal behavior was skewed by the label of mental illness. The labels stuck, even when actual symptoms of mental illness disappeared. Rosenhan concluded that psychological labels are long lasting and powerful, affecting not only how other people see mental patients but also how patients see themselves. Anxiety disorders include all disorders characterized by excessive or unrealistic anxiety. Free- floating anxiety is the term given to anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic, known factor. Phobias are a specific form of anxiety disorder defined as an irrational and persistent fear of something and include social phobias; specific phobias such as claustrophobia and acrophobia; and agoraphobia, or fear of being in a place that would be difficult to escape from if something happened to go wrong. Panic disorder is characterized by frequent occurrences of panic attacks or sudden onsets of extreme panic. If a fear of having panic attacks prevents an individual from going to public places it is called panic disorder with agoraphobia. Obsessive-compulsive disorder involves a reoccurring thought (or obsession) that causes extreme anxiety and leads to some repetitive or ritualistic behavior (or compulsion). Acute stress disorder (ASD) results from exposure to a major stressor with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to ?relive? the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also results from exposure to a major stressor and has similar symptoms (anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems), but differs from ASD in that it lasts for more than 1 month. Individuals diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder display excessive anxiety and worries with no real source that can be pinpointed as leading to the anxiety. Cognitive psychologists believe that anxiety disorders are caused by illogical thinking that includes maladaptive thinking process such as magnification, all-or-nothing thinking, overgeneralization, and minimization. Evidence also supports biological factors, such as an imbalance in neurotransmitter levels, particularly serotonin and GABA, as playing a role in anxiety disorders. Other research suggests a possible defect in the way serotonin binds to its receptors in the nervous system. More recently, studies with mice have indicated that an area of the hippocampus known as the ventral hippocampus may help control anxiety by communicating with the medial prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain important in processing emotional awareness. Mood disorders, also referred to as affective disorders, represent a disturbance in emotion. Two mild forms of mood disorders include dysthymia, a chronic depression that lasts for at least two years or more, and cyclothymia, a cycle of sadness and happiness that also persists for two or more years. The most common mood disorder is major depression, which is characterized by prolonged feelings of extreme sadness. Bipolar disorder involves all the symptoms of major depression in addition to brief periods of extreme mania, or excessive excitement, energy, and feelings of happiness. Learning theorists attribute depression to learned helplessness. In the social cognitive view, depressed people continually have negative, self-defeating thoughts about themselves, which depress them further in a downward spiral of despair. A recent study by Strunk and colleagues revealed that when therapists focus on helping clients to change their way of thinking, depression improves significantly when compared to therapy that focuses only on changing behavior. Biological explanations have focused on the role of brain chemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Some people find that they only get depressed at certain times of the year, particularly during the winter months. These individuals may be experiencing seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a mood disorder that is caused by the body?s reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months The two primary types of eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia. Anorexia nervosa, often called anorexia, is a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below expected body weight or more is the result. At a weight loss of 40 percent below expected body weight, hospitalization is necessary. Compared to other demographic groups, individuals who are young and females are most likely to develop anorexia. The causes of anorexia are not fully understood but are thought to involve biological issues and/or psychological factors such as sexual abuse, family dysfunction, and perfectionism with a desire to control as many aspects of one?s life as possible. Bulimia Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -184- nervosa, often called bulimia, is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of ?binging? or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain. Some of these methods include ?purging? behaviors such as deliberate vomiting after the binge or misuse of laxatives. Other methods include fasting the day or two after the binge or engaging in excessive exercise. Bulimia is similar to anorexia in that the victims are usually female, are obsessed with their appearance, diet excessively, and believe themselves to be fat even though they are not. Bulimia differs from anorexia in that victims are typically a little older than those with anorexia at the onset of the disorder (early 20s rather than early puberty), and they often maintain a normal weight, making the disorder more difficult to detect. The most obvious difference between the two disorders is that bulimic individuals will eat; in fact, they will binge to excess. In a typical binge, a bulimic may consume 3,500 to 50,000 calories in one sitting. Dissociative disorders involve a break, or dissociation, in a person?s sense of identity. In dissociative amnesia, an individual cannot remember information contained in long-term memory such as her own name or where she lives. A dissociative fugue occurs when a person suddenly travels away from his home and afterwards cannot remember the trip or even his own identity. In dissociative identity disorder, formerly referred to as multiple personality disorder, a person seems to experience at least two or more distinct personalities. Within the psychological perspective, behaviorists believe that ?not thinking? about certain events can be negatively reinforced by reducing anxiety and unpleasant feelings, while cognitive psychologists focus on the feelings of guilt, shame, or anxiety that may be avoided through ?thought avoidance.? Biological explanations for dissociative disorders also exist. Researchers have found that individuals with depersonalization disorder also have lower brain activity in areas of the brain responsible for our sense of body awareness. Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder in which the person is not able to distinguish fantasy from reality and experiences disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception. Many people with schizophrenia experience delusions (false beliefs about the world), hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not really there), and flat affect (the display of little or no emotion). If an individual experiences delusions alone they would more likely be diagnosed with a type of delusional disorder. Schizophrenia can be divided into five basic categories: disorganized, characterized by confused speech along with frequent and vivid hallucinations; catatonic, in which the individual may sit without moving for hours or may move about wildly; paranoid, identified by hallucinations and delusions; undifferentiated, in which the individual does not fit in one of the three categories already mentioned; and residual, in which a person is in a state of recovery from the symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia can also be classified according to the kind of symptoms displayed. Positive symptoms reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions, such as hallucinations, whereas negative symptoms reflect a decrease of normal functions. Medication appears to be more effective in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The causes of schizophrenia have been attempted to be explained with the biological model. Increased levels of dopamine and brain structural defects are currently the two explanations with the strongest support. In addition, the stress-vulnerability model proposes that individuals may have a biological sensitivity that is then made worse by environmental stress. Recent imaging research has indicated that two areas of the brain, the cingulum bundle (CB, consisting of fibers underlying the cingulate gyrus linking parts of the limbic system) and the uncinate fasciculus (UF, neural fibers linking the frontal lobe to the temporal lobe), have significantly less myelin coating on their axons. This makes these areas of the brain less efficient in sending neural messages to other cells, resulting in decreased memory and decision-making ability. The CB may be associated with attention problems in schizophrenia; whereas lower white matter integrity in the areas of the frontal lobe might be associated with genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. Disorders that affect a person?s entire life adjustment are referred to as personality disorders. The DSM-IV-TR recognizes ten different personality disorders. An individual with antisocial personality disorder typically feels no remorse and often behaves in an impulsive manner with no regard for the consequences. Borderline personality disorder is defined by moody, unstable behaviors in which the individual lacks a clear sense of identity. As an explanation for personality disorders, cognitive and learning theorists focus on how specific behaviors are learned and reinforced over time. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -185- Although it is not yet recognized as a clinical disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, test anxiety is a problem for countless students. Test anxiety is the personal experience of possible negative consequences or poor outcomes on an exam or evaluation accompanied by a cluster of cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms. To decrease the impact of test anxiety, one should try to find some internal motivation to do well on the exam rather than simply relying on extrinsic reasons. Next, one should develop some type of strategy for controlling cognitive state and behavior before and during the exam. Recent research suggests that competence-priming, or imagining a person who is successful at a related task, lowers the relationship between test anxiety and test performance. Finally, instead of focusing on the whole exam, take control and address one question at a time, first answering the questions you know. STUDY HINTS 26. Six different categories of psychological disorders are presented in this chapter. In order to help organize the new terms, try creating a table of the different disorders that includes a general description of each category and the specific disorders within the category. The first category has been completed for you as an example. Disorder Type General Description Specific Examples Anxiety disorders a psychological disorder in which the main symptom is an intense fear or anxiety social phobias, specific phobias, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder Dissociative disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenia Personality disorders Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -186- 27. In addition to understanding the disorders themselves, it is important to understand the different theories as to the causes of each disorder. Your textbook discusses three theories of abnormality: the biological, psychological (including cognitive, behavioral and psychodynamic perspectives), and biopsychosocial models. In order to enhance your understanding of these models, briefly describe how each of them would explain the disorders listed below. Model Depression Schizophrenia Dissociative Identity Disorder Biological Psychological Biopsychosocial Suggested answers for Question 2 Model Depression Schizophrenia Dissociative Identity Disorder Biological brain chemical imbalance (in neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine) chemical imbalance and brain structure abnormalities variation in brain activity between different ?personalities? Psychological negative and self- defeating thoughts severe form of illogical thinking thought avoidance Biopsychosocial genetic susceptibility made worse by a stressful environment unstable family environment triggers biological sensitivity traumatic childhood event causes changes in neural activity Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -187- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 14.1 How has mental illness been explained in the past, how is abnormal behavior defined today, and what is the impact of cultural differences in defining abnormality? 14.2 How can psychological disorders be explained within the biological and psychological models? 14.3 What are the different types of psychological disorders, and how common are they? 14.4 What are the different types of anxiety disorders, their symptoms, and causes? 14.5 What are the different kinds of mood disorders and their causes? 14.6 What are the two primary types of eating disorders, how do they differ, and who are they most likely to affect? 14.7 What are the main symptoms, types, and causes of schizophrenia? 14.8 How do the various personality disorders differ, and what is thought to be the cause of personality disorders? 14.9 What are some of the future directions in psychopathology? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. It is probably accurate to assume that in ancient times signs of mental illness were believed to be caused by a) imbalance of body fluids. b) demons. c) improper diet. d) social forces. 2. What is the primary difficulty with applying the criterion of "social norm deviance" to define abnormal behavior? a) Norms are difficult to enumerate. b) Cultures accept and view all behaviors as normal. c) Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another. d) Norms do not guide behavior except in rare instances. 3. Which of the following is not a criterion used to decide whether a pattern of behavior should be considered a psychological disorder? a) The behavior is physically exhausting. b) The behavior causes subjective distress. c) The behavior goes against the norms of the society. d) The behavior is maladaptive. 4. The biological model views psychological disorders as resulting from a) distorted thought patterns. b) repressed memories. c) underlying behavioral issues. d) physiological causes. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -188- 5. Jennie is in her early twenties. Lately, when she looks in the mirror, she sees an obese woman. In reality Jennie is actually of normal weight. Sometimes Jennie eats large quantities of food in one sitting and then makes herself vomit in order to avoid gaining weight. Taken together, Jennie?s pattern of symptoms suggests that she may have a) schizophrenia. b) bulimia nervosa. c) anorexia nervosa. d) agoraphobia. 6. Alan went to see a psychologist to get some help overcoming his anxiety in public. The psychologist spent a lot of time discussing the specific thoughts Alan has when he is in public and trying to help him change those thought patterns. The psychologist could be best described as adhering to the a) psychological perspective. b) biological model. c) psychoanalytical perspective. d) sociocultural model. 7. Anorexia and bulimia may be considered ______________, as they are most often found in Western societies. a) restricted syndromes b) naturalistic syndromes c) sociocultural disorders d) culture-bound syndromes 8. _______is used to help psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders. a) The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders b) The Physician's Desk Reference c) The Textbook of Psychological Disorders d) The Textbook of Physiological Disorders 9. When a psychologist or psychiatrist is using the DSM-IV-TR as a guide to evaluating a client, he or she would assess the client on each of five a) axes. b) stages. c) phases. d) steps. 10. In any given year in the United States, approximately how many adults over age 18 experience a mental disorder? a) 5 percent b) 26 percent c) 52 percent d) 76 percent 11. Which of the following statements is true about anxiety? a) It is never considered realistic or normal. b) Some anxiety is realistic when its source is obvious and understandable. c) It always manifests itself as a disorder. d) It is unusual for a mentally healthy person to experience anxiety. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -189- 12. Over the past few years, Sam has become extremely fearful of going to any public place such as a restaurant, concert, or even the grocery store. On many days, Sam does not even leave his house for fear that he might be caught somewhere that would not be easy to escape from. With which anxiety disorder would Sam most likely be diagnosed? a) a specific phobia b) obsessive-compulsive disorder c) generalized anxiety disorder d) agoraphobia 13. Liza has an anxiety disorder. She is currently seeing a therapist who believes that anxiety disorders are a result of illogical, irrational thought processes. Liza is probably seeking treatment from a a) behavioral psychologist. b) cognitive psychologist. c) psychoanalyst. d) psychologist with a biological perspective. 14. The cognitive process of magnification could be described as a) interpreting a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat. b) making mountains out of molehills. c) giving little or no emphasis to one?s successes or positive events. d) throwing the baby out with the bath water. 15. Disorders characterized by a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination are called a) paraphilias. b) anxiety disorders. c) somatoform disorders. d) dissociative disorders. 16. Dissociative identity disorder is a psychological disorder more commonly known as a) amnesia. b) fugue or flight disorder. c) schizophrenia. d) multiple personality disorder. 17. Which of the following perspectives claims that shaping may play a big role in the development of some cases of dissociative identity disorder? a) psychological b) humanistic c) biological d) psychoanalytic 18. Disorders characterized by disturbances in emotion are known as ______ disorders. a) conversion b) somatoform c) mood d) dissociative Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -190- 19. An individual diagnosed with dysthymia would most likely exhibit which of the following symptoms? a) cycles of being sad then happy then sad b) mild depression over a period of several years c) severe depression that appears very rapidly without any apparent reason d) periods of excessive excitement followed by days or weeks of severe depression 20. Which of the following is the biological explanation for mood disorders? a) They are a result of learned helplessness. b) They are a result of anger turned inward on oneself. c) They are a result of distortions in thinking. d) They are a result of an imbalance of brain chemicals. 21. A person suffering from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, and hallucinations, who is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality, is likely suffering from a) schizophrenia. b) bipolar disorder. c) a dissociative disorder. d) passive-aggressive personality. 22. The condition in which a person shows little or no emotion is referred to as a) flat affect. b) hallucinations. c) delusions. d) disorganization. 23. The primary feature of ______ schizophrenia is severe disturbance of motor behavior. a) disorganized b) catatonic c) residual d) paranoid 24. Which of the following symptoms would not be considered a negative symptom of schizophrenia? a) lack of affect b) poor attention c) social withdrawal d) hallucinations 25. Sal has decreased levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine in his prefrontal cortex. Which disorder might he be at risk of experiencing? a) antisocial personality disorder b) agoraphobia c) schizophrenia d) dissociative fugue 26. Disorders that affect the entire life adjustment of a person are referred to as a) somatoform disorders. b) dissociative disorders. c) mood disorders. d) personality disorders. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -191- 27. A person with antisocial personality disorder would be likely to engage in which of the following behaviors? a) lying to other people without worrying about the consequences b) display excessive and inappropriate emotions c) report hallucinations d) completely withdraw from society 28. Which of the following statements represents the biological view of personality disorders? a) They are due to an inadequate resolution of the Oedipus complex. b) They are a type of learned behavior. c) They have physiological causes. d) They are due to disturbances in family relationships. 29. __________is a mood disorder that is caused by the body's reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months. a) Panic disorder b) Bipolar disorder c) Dysthymic disorder d) Seasonal affective disorder PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. b People of ancient times perceived signs of mental illness as caused by demons. Hippocrates, a Greek physician, viewed the imbalance of body fluids as the cause of mental illness, but Hippocrates? time period is not considered ?ancient times.? 2. c Behavior that is considered disordered in one culture may be acceptable in another. Most people do allow social norms to guide much of their behavior. 3. a The three main criteria for a behavior to be considered a psychological disorder are that it deviates from social norms, is maladaptive, and causes the individual personal distress or discomfort. 4. d The biological model emphasizes physiological or physical causes for psychological disorders. The other three choices represent the psychological models of cognitive, psychoanalytical, and behavioral. 5. b Bulimia nervosa is similar to anorexia in that victims see themselves as being overweight when they are not. However, bulimia differs from anorexia in that it typically begins in the victim?s early twenties rather than during puberty. Also, bulimics eat and then purge; whereas, anorexics avoid eating altogether. 6. a Within the psychological model, cognitive psychologists tend to treat disorders by attempting to change the person?s thought patterns. 7. d Anorexia and bulimia may be considered culture-bound syndromes, as they tend to occur primarily in Western cultures. 8. a The DSM helps psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders, while the Physician's Desk Reference is used by medical professionals to diagnose physiological problems. 9. a The DSM-IV-TR uses a system of five different axes for evaluations. 10. b According to recent studies, approximately 26 percent of the U.S. adult population experiences a mental disorder in a given year. 11. b This statement is true because some types of anxiety are normal. 12. d Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by an extreme fear of going in public places that would be difficult to escape from if necessary. 13. b Cognitive psychologists view anxiety disorders as a result of distorted thought processes. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -192- 14. b Magnification is the tendency to interpret a situation as being far more harmful, dangerous, or embarrassing than it actually is, or in other words, making a big deal out of something that is actually very small. 15. d Dissociative disorders are characterized by a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination. 16. d Multiple personality disorder is a term no longer used by psychologists but is still very common in the general public. 17. a Within the psychological model of abnormality, behavioral psychologists emphasize shaping through positive and negative reinforcement as a factor in the development of some cases of dissociate identity disorder. 18. c Mood disorders are characterized by disturbances in emotion, while somatoform disorders take the form of bodily ailments that have no physical cause 19. b Dysthymia can be thought of as a mild version of depression, while cyclothymia more closely resembles a mild version of bipolar disorder. 20. d The biological explanation emphasizes an imbalance of brain chemicals. 21. a Disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality are all symptoms of schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder is characterized by mood swings between depression and mania and does not involve hallucinations or inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality. 22. a The word affect is used to mean emotion or mood. 23. b Severe motor disturbance is a feature of catatonic schizophrenia. Symptoms of residual schizophrenia include negative beliefs, poor language skills, unusual ideas and perceptions. 24. d Negative symptoms of schizophrenia reflect a decrease in normal function (such as lack of social interactions or displays of emotions). Hallucinations represent an excess or addition in normal function and would be classified as a positive symptom of schizophrenia. 25. c Schizophrenia is associated with an imbalance of dopamine. 26. d Personality disorders do not just affect a single aspect of a person?s life but rather affect the person?s entire life adjustment. 27. a Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by an individual who acts ?against society.? For example, an individual might commit a crime without feeling any remorse. 28. c The biological perspective focuses on physiological causes for psychological disorders, and cognitive-learning theorists do believe that the behavior displayed by people with personality disorders is learned through reinforcement, shaping, and modeling. 29. d Seasonal affective disorder occurs primarily during the winter months. Dysthymic disorder consists of similar symptoms but is not seasonal in nature. CHAPTER GLOSSARY acrophobia fear of heights. acute stress disorder (ASD) a disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems in concentration, and moments in which people seem to ?relive? the event in dreams and flashbacks for as long as 1 month following the event. affect in psychology, a term indicating emotion or mood. agoraphobia fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -193- all-or-nothing thinking the tendency to believe that one?s performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure. anorexia nervosa (anorexia) a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs. antisocial personality disorder disorder in which a person has no morals or conscience and often behaves in an impulsive manner without regard for the consequences of that behavior. anxiety disorders disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness. biological model model of explaining behavior as caused by biological changes in the chemical, structural, or genetic systems of the body. biopsychosocial model perspective in which abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. bipolar disorder severe mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes. borderline personality disorder maladaptive personality pattern in which the person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity, and often clings to others. bulimia nervosa (bulimia) a condition in which a person develops a cycle of ?binging? or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain. catatonic type of schizophrenia in which the person experiences periods of statue-like immobility mixed with occasional bursts of energetic, frantic movement and talking. claustrophobia fear of being in a small enclosed space. cognitive psychologists psychologists who study the way people think, remember and mentally organize information. cultural relativity the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place. culture-bound syndromes disorders found only in particular cultures. delusional disorder a psychotic disorder in which the primary symptom is one or more delusions. delusions false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness. depersonalization disorder dissociative disorder in which individuals feel detached and disconnected from themselves, their bodies, and their surroundings. disorganized type of schizophrenia in which behavior is bizarre and childish and thinking, speech, and motor actions are very disordered. dissociative amnesia loss of memory for personal information, either partial or complete. dissociative disorders disorders in which there is a break in conscious awareness, memory, the sense of identity, or some combination. dissociative fugue traveling away from familiar surroundings with amnesia for the trip and possible amnesia for personal information. dissociative identity disorder disorder occurring when a person seems to have two or more distinct personalities within one body. flat affect a lack of emotional responsiveness. free-floating anxiety anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, known source. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -194- generalized anxiety disorder disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, and which lasts six months or more. hallucinations false sensory perceptions, such as hearing voices that do not really exist. magnification the tendency to interpret situations as far more dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are. major depression severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause, or is too severe for current circumstances. maladaptive anything that does not allow a person to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands on life. manic having the quality of excessive excitement, energy, and elation or irritability. minimization the tendency to give little or no importance to one?s successes or positive events and traits. mood disorders disorders in which mood is severely disturbed. negative symptoms symptoms of schizophrenia that are less than normal behavior or an absence of normal behavior; poor attention, flat affect, and poor speech production. obsessive-compulsive disorder disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act (compulsion). overgeneralization the tendency to interpret a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat and failure. panic attack sudden onset of intense panic in which multiple physical symptoms of stress occur, often with feelings that one is dying. panic disorder disorder in which panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life. panic disorder with agoraphobia fear of leaving one?s familiar surroundings because one might have a panic attack in public. paranoid type of schizophrenia in which the person suffers from delusions of persecution, grandeur, and jealousy, together with hallucinations. personality disorders disorders in which a person adopts a persistent, rigid, and maladaptive pattern of behavior that interferes with normal social interactions. phobia an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity. positive symptoms symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) A disorder resulting from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, nightmares, poor sleep, reliving the event, and concentration problems lasting for more than 1 month. psychological disorders any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm others, or harms their ability to function in daily life. psychopathology the study of abnormal behavior. psychotic term applied to a person who is no longer able to distinguish what is real and what is fantasy. schizophrenia severe disorder in which the person suffers from disordered thinking, bizarre behavior, hallucinations, and is unable to distinguish between fantasy and reality. Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -195- Psychological Disorders CHAPTER 14 -196- seasonal affective disorder (SAD) a mood disorder caused by the body?s reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months. situational context the social or environmental setting of a person?s behavior. social phobia fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation. sociocultural perspective perspective in which abnormal behavior (as well as normal behavior) is seen as the product of the learning and shaping of behavior within the context of the family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exist. specific phobias fear of objects or specific situations or events. stress-vulnerability model explanation of disorder that assumes a biological sensitivity, or vulnerability, to a certain disorder will result in the development of that disorder under the right conditions of environmental or emotional stress. subjective discomfort emotional distress or emotional pain. CHAPTER 15 ? PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES YOU KNOW YOU ARE READY FOR THE TEST IF YOU ARE ABLE TO? ? Define two main types of modern treatment for psychological disorders and briefly discuss the history of treatment of the mentally ill. ? Introduce the major types of psychotherapy including psychoanalysis, humanistic, behavior, cognitive, and group therapy. ? Discuss the assessment and effectiveness of the psychotherapy treatments. ? Describe the biomedical approaches of treating psychological disorders including the use of drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery. RAPID REVIEW Therapy for psychological disorders consists of treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively. The two modern ways in which psychological disorders can be treated are psychotherapy, which consists of talking things out with a professional and biomedical therapy, which consists of using biological methods such as medication to treat a psychological disorder. Psychotherapy techniques can be roughly divided into insight therapies, which have the goal of self- understanding and action therapies, which focus on changing an individual?s behaviors. Biomedical therapies consist mainly of the use of drugs, surgical techniques, or electroconvulsive therapy. It is important to note that biomedical therapy often eliminates or alleviates the symptoms of a disorder while psychotherapy addresses issues associated with the disorder. Recent research suggests that, when used together, these two types of therapy facilitate each other. Early treatment of the mentally ill often consisted of fatal attempts to ?rid? the individual of the physical impurities causing the abnormal behavior. It was not until 1793 that Philippe Pinel began the movement of humane treatment of the mentally ill. Psychoanalysis is an insight therapy developed by Sigmund Freud with the goal of revealing the unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires that Freud assumed were the cause of the psychological disorder. Freud utilized a number of techniques in his attempt to reveal the unconscious. Dream interpretation involved an analysis of the actual or manifest content of a dream as well as the hidden or latent content. Freud felt the latent content of dreams could reveal unconscious conflict. In addition, Freud used free association, or allowing the patients to freely say whatever came to their mind, to uncover the repressed material; resistance, in which the patient became unwilling to discuss a topic any further; and transference, in which the therapist became a symbol of a parental authority figure. Today, psychoanalytic therapy is often referred to as psychodynamic therapy and is directive, places more emphasis on transference, and is usually much shorter than traditional psychoanalysis. Individuals with anxiety, somatoform, or dissociative disorders are more likely to benefit from psychodynamic therapy than individuals with other types of disorders. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a psychotherapy developed to address depression. It is an insight therapy focusing on the client?s relationships and the interplay between mood and the events of everyday life. Humanistic therapy is also an insight therapy, but unlike psychoanalysis, humanistic therapy focuses on conscious experiences of emotion and an individual?s sense of self. The two most common humanistic therapies are person-centered therapy and Gestalt therapy. Carl Rogers developed person- centered therapy, which has the goal of helping an individual get his or her real and ideal selves to more closely match up. According to Rogers, the role of the therapist is to provide the unconditional positive regard that was missing in the individual?s life. He felt the therapy should be nondirective with the individual doing most of the work and believed the four key elements of reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity were crucial for a successful person-therapist relationship. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a variation of person-centered therapy that has specific goals to reduce the ambivalence about change and to increase intrinsic motivation to make the change happen. The four goals of a therapist administering MI therapy are as follows: express empathy, develop discrepancy Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -197- between the client?s present behaviors and values, roll with resistance, and support the client?s self- efficacy. Fritz Perls believed that people?s problems arose from hiding important parts of their feelings from themselves and developed another humanistic therapy called Gestalt therapy, a directive form of insight therapy. Gestalt therapy focuses on the client?s feelings and subjective experiences and uses leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing to help the person reveal the feelings they may be hiding from themselves. Humanistic therapies have been found to be more successful with individuals who are able to express their thoughts and feelings in a logical manner and are not necessarily the best choice for individuals with more severe psychological disorders. Behavior therapies use action-based therapy to change behavior based on basic principles of classical and operant conditioning. The abnormal behavior is not seen as a symptom, but rather seen as the problem itself. Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis refers to the use of conditioning techniques to modify behavior. Behavior therapies that rely on classical conditioning include systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, and flooding. Systematic desensitization consists of a three-step process that utilizes counter-conditioning in order to reduce fear and anxiety. First the client learns deep muscle relaxation techniques, then the client creates a list of anxiety-producing events called a hierarchy of fear, and finally the client confronts the anxiety-producing event while remaining in a relaxed state. Aversion therapy uses classical conditioning to decrease a behavior by pairing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus with the stimulus that normally produces the unwanted behavior. Behavioral techniques that introduce the client to situations, under carefully controlled conditions, which are related to their anxieties or fears are called exposure therapies. Flooding involves rapid and intense exposure to an anxiety- producing object in order to produce extinction of the conditioned fear response. Francine Shapiro developed a therapy technique called eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) in which clients attempt to decrease their fears, anxieties, and disturbing thoughts by moving their eyes rapidly back and forth. Although EMDR has been a popular treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, the effectiveness of the treatment has yet to be firmly established and has not been found to be any more effective than other more traditional techniques such as simple muscle relaxation or exposure therapy. Behavior therapies that utilize operant conditioning include participant modeling, token economies, contingency contracts, and extinction techniques such as the use of a time-out. Participant modeling has been used to successfully treat phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorders by having the client watch and mimic a model demonstrating the desired behaviors. In a token economy, clients are reinforced with tokens for behaving correctly and can later exchange the tokens for things they want such as food, candy, or special privileges. A contingency contract is a written statement of specific required behaviors, contingent penalties, and subsequent rewards. Extinction techniques such as time-outs work by removing the reinforcement for a behavior. In adults, simply refusing to acknowledge a person?s behavior is often successful in reducing the frequency of that behavior. Behavior therapies have been effective in the treatment of disorders including overeating, drug addictions, and phobias. Cognitive therapy is an action therapy that focuses on helping people change the distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs that lead to maladaptive behaviors. Common distortions in thought include arbitrary inference (or ?jumping to conclusions?), selective thinking, overgeneralization, magnification and minimization, and personalization. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of cognitive therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically. Albert Ellis developed a version of CBT called rational-emotive behavioral therapy in which clients are taught to replace their own irrational beliefs with more rational, helpful statements. Cognitive therapies have considerable success in treating disorders such as depression, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, and some types of schizophrenia. An alternative to individual therapy is group therapy, in which a group of clients with similar problems gather together and discuss their problems under the guidance of a single therapist. Types of group therapies include family counseling and self-help (or support) groups. The advantages of group therapy are the lower cost, exposure to the ways other people handle the same kinds of problems, the opportunity for the therapist to see how that person interacts with others, and the social and emotional support from the people in the group. Research indicates that an extremely shy person may initially have Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -198- great difficulty speaking up in a group setting but cognitive?behavioral group therapy can be effective for social phobia. The disadvantages are that the person may not feel as free to reveal embarrassing or personal information, the therapist?s time must be shared during the session, and people with severe disorders such as schizophrenia may not tolerate a group setting. Group therapy seems to be most successful as a long-term treatment intended to promote the development of skilled social interactions. The effectiveness of the various psychotherapy techniques is difficult to determine due to various time frames required for the different therapies, alternate explanations of ?effectiveness,? the lack of adequate control groups, experimenter bias, and the inaccuracies of self-report information. Most psychological professionals today take an eclectic approach to psychotherapy, which involves using a combination of methods to fit the particular client?s needs. The most important aspect of successful psychotherapy appears to be the relationship between the client and the therapist, also referred to as the therapeutic alliance. Therapy should also offer clients a protected setting in which to release emotions and reveal private thoughts and concerns. Other common factors in therapy effectiveness are opportunity for catharsis (relieving pent-up emotions), learning and practice of new behaviors, and positive experiences for the client. Differences in culture between the therapist and the client can make it difficult for the therapist to understand the exact nature of the client?s problems. Several studies have found that members of minority racial or ethnic groups drop out of therapy at significantly higher rates than the majority group clients. Barriers to effective psychotherapy include difference in language, culture-bound values, class-bound values, and nonverbal communication. A new form of therapy that is delivered via the Internet, called cybertherapy, is now available. Biomedical therapies directly affect the biological function of the body and include the three categories of drug therapy, shock therapy, and surgical treatments. Psychopharmacology refers to the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of a psychological disorder and is often combined with psychotherapy for a more effective outcome. Psychopharmacological drugs can be divided according to the disorders they treat including drugs for psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, manic symptoms of mood disorders, and depression. Drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors are called antipsychotic drugs and include typical neuroleptics, atypical neuroleptics, and partial dopamine agonists. In general, these drugs work to decrease dopamine levels in the brain. The newer drugs tend to have fewer negative side effects than the older typical neuroleptics. The two kinds of drugs currently used to treat anxiety disorders include the traditional antianxiety drugs such as the minor tranquilizers, or benzodiazepines, including Xanax, Ativan, and Valium and antidepressant drugs to be discussed in more detail shortly. The most common treatment for the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder is the antimanic drug of lithium. The exact mechanism of lithium is still not clearly understood. Antidepressant drugs can be divided into three separate categories: the monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as Marplan and Nardil; tricyclic antidepressants such as Tofranil and Elavil; and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as Prozac and Zoloft. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as shock therapy, is still in use today to treat severe cases of depression, schizophrenia, and mania. The treatment involves delivery of an electric shock to one or both sides of a person?s head, causing a release of neurotransmitters and almost immediate improvement in the individual?s mood. One of the main side effects of ECT is at least a short-term loss of memory. Psychosurgery involves operating on an individual?s brain to remove or destroy brain tissue for the purpose of relieving symptoms of psychological disorders. One of the earliest psychosurgery techniques is the prefrontal lobotomy, which is no longer performed today. The main psychosurgery technique in use today is the bilateral cingulotomy which destroys the cingulated gyrus and has been shown to be effective in about one-third of cases of depression, bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This procedure is only performed with the patient?s full and informed consent after all other treatment options have been exhausted. New noninvasive techniques for effecting changes in the brain include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), where magnetic pulses are applied to the cortex, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tCDS), which uses scalp electrodes to pass very low amplitude direct currents to the brain. These techniques are being evaluated as possible treatment options for PTSD and depression. Deep Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -199- brain stimulation is another technique that is being investigated as a possible treatment for both depression and OCD. STUDY HINTS 28. An important task in this chapter is to understand the differences among the multiple types of therapy. Listed below are several of the psychotherapies discussed in the chapter. For each therapy, indicate the type of therapy (insight or action), the role of the therapist (directive or nondirective), the school of thought most likely to use this technique, and the overall goal of the therapy. The first psychotherapy has been filled in as an example. Therapy Type of Therapy Role of Therapist School of Thought Goal of Therapy Traditional psychoanalysis Insight Nondirective Psychoanalysis Uncover unconscious conflicts Person-centered therapy Gestalt therapy Rational- emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) Systematic desensitization Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -200- Suggested Answers for Question 1 Therapy Type of therapy Role of therapist School of thought Goal of therapy Traditional Psychoanalysis Insight Nondirective Psychoanalysis Uncover unconscious conflicts Person-centered therapy Insight Nondirective Humanistic Bring ideal self and real self into congruence Gestalt therapy Insight Directive Humanistic Increase self-awareness Rational- emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) Action Directive Cognitive- Behavioral Replace irrational beliefs with more rational, helpful statements Systematic desensitization Action Directive Behaviorist Reduce fear and anxiety Which of the therapies listed above would you find most helpful? _______________________ Why? _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -201- 29. Rational-emotive behavioral therapy is commonly used for individuals with depression and anxiety. The therapy is based on the idea that an individual has adopted irrational beliefs that have in turn led to their condition of anxiety and depression. The goal of the therapy is to identify the irrational beliefs and teach the individual how to respond with more rational thought processes. In order to better understand the process, assume you are a therapist using the REBT technique and your client makes the following irrational statements. List a suggestion for a rational belief the client could adopt instead. The first one has already been completed. Irrational Belief Rational Belief a. I must be loved, or at least liked, and approved by every significant person I meet. I want to be loved or liked by some of the people in my life, and I know I may feel disappointed or lonely when that doesn?t happen, but I can cope with those feelings. b. I must be completely competent, make no mistakes, and achieve in every possible way if I am to be worthwhile. c. It is dreadful, nearly the end of the world, when things aren?t how I would like them to be. d. Human unhappiness, including mine, is caused by factors outside of my control, so little can be done about it. e. If something might be dangerous, unpleasant, or frightening, I should worry about it a great deal. f. My problem(s) were caused by event(s) in my past, and that?s why I have my problem(s) now. g. I should be very upset by other people?s problems and difficulties Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -202- LEARNING OBJECTIVES 15.1 What are the two modern ways in which psychological disorders can be treated, and how have they been treated in the past? 15.2 What were the basic elements of Freud?s psychoanalysis, and how does psychoanalysis differ today? 15.3 What are the basic elements of the humanistic therapies known as person- centered therapy and Gestalt therapy? 15.4 How do behavior therapists use classical and operant conditioning to treat disordered behavior? 15.5 How successful are behavior therapies? 15.6 What are the goals and basic elements of cognitive therapies such as cognitive- behavioral therapy and rational-emotive behavioral therapy? 15.7 What are the various types of group therapies and the advantages and disadvantages of group therapy? 15.8 How effective is psychotherapy, and how is the effectiveness of psychotherapy influenced by cultural, ethnic, and gender differences? 15.9 What are the various types of drugs used to treat psychological disorders? 15.10 How are electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery used to treat psychological disorders today? 15.11 How might computers be used in psychotherapy? PRACTICE EXAM For the following multiple choice questions, select the answer you feel best answers the question. 1. Therapies directed at changing disordered behavior are referred to as a) action therapies. b) insight therapies. c) biomedical therapies. d) relationship therapies. 2. Which of the following is the best example of biomedical therapy? a) use of antidepressants to treat depression b) use of insight therapy for social phobia c) psychoanalysis to help treat an anxiety disorder d) flooding treatment for an individual with obsessive-compulsive disorder 3. Approximately how long ago were the first efforts made to treat the mentally ill with kindness, rather than subjecting them to harsh physical treatment? a) 20 years ago b) 100 years ago c) 200 years ago d) 500 years ago 4. Psychoanalysis was a therapy technique designed by a) Alfred Adler. b) Carl Rogers. c) Fritz Perls. d) Sigmund Freud. 5. Freud believed one of the indications that he was close to discovering an unconscious conflict was when a patient became unwilling to talk about a topic. He referred to this response in the patient as a) transference. b) latent content. c) dream analysis. d) resistance. Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -203- 6. Which of the following individuals would be least likely to benefit from psychoanalysis? a) Mary, who has a somatoform disorder b) Kaleem, who suffers from a severe psychotic disorder c) Pasha, who has panic attacks d) Lou, who suffers from anxiety 7. The modern psychoanalyst provides guidance to the patient, asks questions, suggests helpful behaviors, and gives opinions and interpretations. This type of role for the therapist is described as a _____________ approach. a) free association b) directive c) biomedical d) nondirective 8. What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most personal problems and unhappiness? a) reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by many people c) mismatch between an individual's ideal self and real self d) unresolved unconscious conflicts that occur between the id and superego 9. Which of the following was not one of the four key elements Rogers viewed as necessary for a successful person-therapist relationship? a) reflection b) unconditional positive regard c) authenticity d) resistance 10. What is a major goal of the Gestalt therapist? a) to facilitate transference b) to eliminate the client's undesirable behaviors c) to provide unconditional positive regard d) to help clients become more aware of their own feelings 11. Which of the following is a limitation of humanistic therapy? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) There is not enough empirical research to support its basic ideas. c) It cannot be used in a variety of contexts. d) The therapist runs the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client. 12. In the aversion therapy technique known as rapid smoking the client takes a puff on a cigarette every five or six seconds so that the nicotine now produces unpleasant responses such as nausea and dizziness, so that eventually the cigarette itself produces a sensation of nausea in the client. In the terms of classical conditioning, the cigarette functions as the ________ and the nicotine is the ___________. a) UCS; CS b) CS; UCS c) CR; UCS d) CS; UCR Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -204- 13. Which method of treating phobias involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object? a) extinction b) punishment c) token economy d) systematic desensitization 14. In a token economy, what role does the token play in shaping behavior? a) The tokens are used as punishment to decrease the maladaptive behavior. b) The tokens are used to reinforce the desired behavior. c) The token is the actual behavior itself. d) The token represents the written contract between the client and therapist. 15. What is an advantage of using operant conditioning in treating undesirable behaviors? a) The results are usually quickly obtained. b) Clients can get an understanding of the underlying cause of the problem. c) Unconscious urges are revealed. d) Clients can change distorted thought patterns that affect behavior. 16. Which of the following is one of the criticisms of behavior therapy? a) It focuses on the underlying cause of behavior and not the symptoms. b) Therapy typically lasts for several years and is very expensive. c) It focuses too much on the past. d) It only relieves some symptoms of schizophrenia but does not treat the overall disorder. 17. What is the goal of cognitive therapy? a) to help clients gain insight into their unconscious b) to help people change their ways of thinking c) to change a person?s behavior through shaping and reinforcement d) to provide unconditional positive regard for the client 18. Which of these clients is the most likely candidate for Aaron Beck's form of cognitive therapy? a) Albert, who suffers from mania b) Barbara, who suffers from depression c) Robert, who suffers from schizophrenia d) Virginia, who has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder 19. Which approach assumes that disorders come from illogical, irrational cognitions and that changing the thinking patterns to more rational, logical ones will relieve the symptoms of the disorder? a) cognitive-behavioral b) person-centered c) psychoanalytic d) Gestalt Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -205- 20. According to Albert Ellis, we become unhappy and depressed about events because of a) our behaviors. b) our irrational beliefs. c) the events that happen to us. d) other people's irrational beliefs. 21. Which of the following is the best example of an irrational belief that a therapist using rational- emotive behavioral therapy would challenge you to change? a) It is disappointing when things don?t go my way. b) If I fail this test, it will hurt my grade in this class but I will try to make it up on the next exam. c) There must be something wrong with Bob since he turned down my invitation for a date. d) Everyone should love and approve of me and if they don?t, there must be something wrong with me. 22. Which of the following is an advantage of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies? a) Clients do not need to be verbal. b) They treat the underlying cause of the problem. c) They are less expensive and short-term than typical insight therapies. d) The therapist decides which of the client's beliefs are rational and which are irrational. 23. An advantage to group therapy is that groups a) are a source of social support. b) allow countertransference to occur. c) provide unconditional approval to the group members. d) allow antisocial individuals to dominate group discussions. 24. In family therapy, the therapist would most likely a) focus on one individual who has been identified as the source of the problem. b) have each family member come in for therapy individually. c) provide unconditional approval to all the family members. d) focus on the entire family system to understand the problem. 25. Which of the following is not true about self-help support groups? a) Self-help groups do not have leaders. b) Currently, only a limited number of self-help groups operate in the United States. c) Self-help groups are typically not directed by a licensed therapist. d) Self-help groups are usually free to attend. 26. __________ is a controversial form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. a) Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing b) Systematic desensitization c) Eye-memory therapy d) Eye therapy 27. Most psychological professionals today take a(n) ______ view of psychotherapy. a) group treatment b) humanistic c) eclectic d) behavioral Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -206- 28. The most important aspect of a successful psychotherapy treatment is a) the length of the session. b) the specific approach of the therapist. c) the relationship between the client and the therapist. d) the severity of the disorder. 29. Studies that have examined cultural and ethnic factors in the therapeutic relationship have found that a) members of minority racial or ethnic groups are more likely to continue treatment until the problem has been resolved. b) members of the majority racial or ethnic group usually have lower prevalence rates of disorders. c) members of minority racial or ethnic groups drop out of therapy at a higher rate than members of the majority group. d) members of minority racial or ethnic groups rarely or never seek therapy. 30. Which of the following has not been found to be a barrier to effective psychotherapy when the cultural backgrounds of client and therapist are different? a) language differences b) differing cultural values c) nonverbal communication d) severity of the disorder 31. Antipsychotic drugs treat symptoms such as a) hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations. b) excessive worry, repetitive thoughts, and compulsive behavior. c) hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior. d) manipulation, lying, and cheating. 32. In what way is the new class of antidepressants known as the SSRIs an improvement over the older types of antidepressants? a) They work faster. b) They are more effective. c) They target a larger number of different neurotransmitters. d) They have fewer side effects. 33. For which disorder was electroconvulsive therapy originally developed as a treatment? a) panic b) schizophrenia c) bipolar disorder d) cyclothymia 34. Which of the following is the appropriate definition of psychosurgery? a) information given to a patient about a surgical procedure before the surgery in order to prevent anxiety b) surgery that is performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders c) surgery that severs the spinal cord of the patient d) a procedure in which a brief current of electricity is used to trigger a seizure that typically lasts one minute, causing the body to convulse Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -207- PRACTICE EXAM ANSWERS 1. a Action therapy emphasizes changing behavior, whereas insight therapy emphasizes understanding one's motives and actions. 2. a Any medical treatment that is directed at changing the physiological functioning of an individual is classified as a biomedical therapy. All of the remaining choices are types of psychotherapy treatments. 3. c In 1793 Philippe Pinel unchained the mentally ill inmates at an asylum in Paris, France, and began the movement of humane treatment for the mentally ill. 4. d Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, while Rogers developed person-centered therapy. 5. d Resistance occurred when a patient became unwilling to discuss a concept. In transference the patient would transfer positive and negative feelings for an authority figure in their past onto the therapist. 6. b People with severe psychotic disorders are less likely to benefit from psychoanalysis than are people who suffer from somatoform or anxiety disorders. 7. b A directive approach involves asking questions and suggesting behaviors. The more traditional psychoanalyst typically takes a more nondirective approach in which the therapist remains neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client. 8. c Rogers believed the closer the match between a person's ideal and real selves, the happier the person. It was Freud, not Rogers, who viewed unresolved unconscious conflicts between the id and superego as the cause of personal problems. 9. d Rogers felt a therapist must provide the four elements of reflection, unconditional positive regard, empathy, and authenticity in order for successful treatment. 10. d The major goal of Gestalt therapists is to help clients become more aware of their feelings. Providing unconditional positive regard is the primary goal of person- centered therapy, not Gestalt. 11. b The humanistic therapist does not run the risk of having his or her words misinterpreted by the client because the therapist uses reflection as the main means of communication. However, unfortunately at this point there is not enough empirical evidence to support or refute the basic ideas of humanistic therapy. 12. b Both the cigarette and nicotine are stimuli. In rapid smoking, the cigarette serves as the conditioned stimulus and the nicotine serves as the unconditioned stimulus. 13. d Systematic desensitization involves progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared object, while extinction involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response. 14. b In a token economy, the tokens are the reinforcers used to shape and strengthen the desired behaviors. 15. a Operant conditioning is not concerned with the cause of the problems, rather it is concerned with changing behavior. However, operant conditioning does provide rapid change in behavior in comparison to other therapies. 16. d Behavior therapy may help relieve some symptoms but does not treat the overall disorder of schizophrenia. 17. b Cognitive therapy focuses on changing an individual?s cognitions or thought processes. 18. b Beck's cognitive therapy is especially effective in treating distortions related to depression. 19. a Cognitive behavioral therapists are concerned with helping clients change their irrational thoughts to more rational and positive thoughts. A person-centered therapist believes disorders come from a mismatch between the ideal self and the real self and a lack of unconditional positive regard. 20. b Ellis believes irrational beliefs cause dissatisfaction and depression. Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -208- 21. d Irrational beliefs typically have one thing in common; they are all-or-none types of statements. 22. c Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies are relatively inexpensive and are short-term. 23. a Group therapy provides social support for people who have similar problems. 24. d Family therapy focuses on the entire family as a part of the problem. 25. b Currently an extremely large number of self-help groups operate in the United States. 26. a EMDR is a form of therapy in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory. Systematic desensitization gradually exposes the client to the feared object while using relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. 27. c An eclectic view is one that combines a number of different approaches to best fit the needs of the client. 28. c A number of studies have found that the client-therapist relationship (also called the therapeutic alliance) is the best predictor of successful treatment. 29. c Members of minority groups are much more likely to drop out of therapy when compared to members of majority racial and ethnic groups. 30. d The severity of the disorder has not been found to be a cultural barrier for treatment. 31. c Hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behaviors are defined as psychotic behaviors and are treated with antipsychotic drugs. Antidepressant drugs, not antipsychotic drugs, treat feelings of hopelessness, sadness, and suicide ideations. 32. d The speed of action and effectiveness is similar among the three classes of antidepressants but the main difference is the number of negative side effects. The SSRIs actually target only one neurotransmitter: serotonin. 33. b ECT was originally designed to induce seizures in schizophrenics. 34. b Severing the spinal cord would lead to the very negative side effect of paralysis of the body. Psychosurgery is performed on brain tissue. CHAPTER GLOSSARY action therapies therapies in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly. antianxiety drugs drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers. antidepressant drugs drugs used to treat depression and anxiety. antipsychotic drugs drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior. arbitrary inference distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence. authenticity the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client. aversion therapy form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior. behavior modification or applied behavior analysis the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior. behavior therapies action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior. bilateral cingulotomy surgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the anterior cingulate gyrus with the guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging machine for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with an electric current. Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -209- biomedical therapy therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms; also defined as therapies that directly affect the functioning of the body and brain. cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically. cognitive therapy therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts. contingency contract a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated. cybertherapy psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling. directive therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client?s statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions. eclectic approach to therapy that results from combining elements of several different approaches or techniques. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person?s head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion. empathy the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client. exposure therapies behavioral techniques that expose individuals to anxiety- or fear-related stimuli, under carefully controlled conditions, to promote new learning. extinction the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior. family counseling (family therapy) a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family. flooding technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response. free association psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations. Gestalt therapy form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps the client to accept all parts of his or her feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing. insight therapies therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings. interpersonal therapy (IPT) form of therapy for depression which incorporates multiple approaches and focuses on interpersonal problems. latent content the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams. magnification and minimization distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization). manifest content the actual content of one?s dream. modeling learning through the observation and imitation of others. nondirective therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks. Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -210- overgeneralization distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original. participant modeling technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by- step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model. personalization distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person. person-centered therapy a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens. prefrontal lobotomy psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed. psychoanalysis an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts. psychodynamic therapy a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times and a more direct therapeutic approach. psychopharmacology the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders. psychosurgery surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders. psychotherapy therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional. rational-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements. reflection therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements. reinforcement the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. resistance occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent. selective thinking distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects. self-help groups (support groups) a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support. systematic desensitization behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears. therapeutic alliance the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding. therapy treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively. time-out an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities. token economy the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges. Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -211- Psychological Therapies CHAPTER 15 -212- transference in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist. unconditional positive regard referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy. Hart-Morris, Kerri Natalie Ceballos
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