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Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)
An XML-based, open-standard data format for exchanging authentication and authorization credentials between organizations.
The process of providing basic security information to users in an organization to help them make prudent decisions regarding the protection of the organization’s assets.
A sub-specialty of engineering that focuses on security design and operations.
security information and event management (SIEM)
A system that provides real-time collection, analysis, correlation, and presentation of security logs and alerts.
The combination of hardware, firmware, and software elements in a TCB that implements the reference monitor concept. See also Trusted Computing Base (TCB).
security modes of operation
Designations for U.S. military and government computer systems based on the need to protect secrets stored within them. The modes are Dedicated, System High, Multi-Level, and Limited Access.
The boundary that separates the TCB from the rest of the system. See also Trusted Computing Base (TCB).
The level of risk in an organization based on its security practices.
segregation of duties
See separation of duties and responsibilities.
Sensitive but Unclassified (SBU)
A U.S. government data classification level for information that’s not classified but requires protection, such as private or personal information.
In a MAC-based system, this specifies the subject’s level of trust to access objects. For objects it specifies the level of trust required for access to that object.
separation of duties and responsibilities
A concept that ensures no single individual has complete authority and control of a critical system or process.
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
An early Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) used to transport Internet Protocol (IP) over dial-up modems. PPP is more commonly used for this purpose.
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Formal minimum performance standards for systems, applications, networks, or services.
Service Set Identifier (SSID)
The name used to uniquely identify a WiFi network.
Similar to a Man-in-the-Middle Attack, except that the attacker impersonates the intended recipient instead of modifying messages in transit. See also Man-in-the-Middle Attack.
A social engineering technique that involves looking over someone’s shoulder to obtain information such as passwords or account numbers.
Simple Key Management for Internet Protocols (SKIP)
A protocol used to share encryption keys.
single factor authentication
Authentication using only one of the following factors to gain access to a system: what you know, what you have, or what you are.
single sign-on (SSO)
A system that allows a user to present a single set of log-on credentials, typically to an authentication server, which then transparently logs the user on to all other enterprise systems and applications for which that user is authorized.
A Denial of Service attack in which the attacker sends forged Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets into a network with the intention of having large numbers of nodes on the network sending ICMP echo replies to the target syst
The practice of intercepting communications for usually covert purposes.
A low-tech attack method that employs techniques such as dumpster diving and shoulder surfing.
A logical endpoint on a system or device used to communicate over a network to another system or device (or even on the same device).
Computer instructions that enable the computer to accomplish tasks.
An application delivery model where the software’s manufacturer operates the software in a central location for its customers.
Software Assurance Maturity Model (SAMM)
A maturity model for software development.
software-defined networking (SDN)
A computer networking approach that abstracts higher-level network functionality from the underlying physical infrastructure.
software development life cycle (SDLC)
The business-level process used to develop and maintain software.
Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model Integrated (SEI CMMI)
A maturity model for software development.
software escrow agreement
A legal agreement between a software manufacturer and its customer(s) wherein the software manufacturer will maintain a copy of its original software source code with a third-party software escrow company. In the event the software manufacturer cease
See Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET).
Human-readable machine instructions that are the basis of system and application software.
source code repository
A system used to store, manage, and protect application or system software source code.
source code review
See code review.
spam (or Unsolicited Commercial Email [UCE])
Junk email, which currently constitutes about 85 percent of all worldwide email.
A phishing attack that’s highly targeted; for example, at a particular organization or part of an organization. See also phishing.
A momentary rush of electric power.
A technique used to forge TCP/IP packet information or e-mail header information. In network attacks, IP spoofing is used to gain access to systems by impersonating the IP address of a trusted host. In e-mail spoofing, the sender address is forged to
A form of malware that’s installed on a user’s computer, usually without his or her knowledge, often for the purpose of collecting information about a user’s Internet usage or for taking control of his or her computer. Spyware increasingly includes k
A type of attack where the attacker injects SQL commands into a computer input field, in hopes that the SQL command will be passed to the database management system.
Specific, mandatory requirements that further define and support high-level policies.
A network topology in which all devices are directly connected to a central hub or concentrator.
An attack where the attacker is attempting to steal other users’ session identifiers, in order to access a system using the stolen session identifier.
state machine model
An abstract model in which a secure state is defined and maintained during transitions between secure states.
stateful inspection firewall
A type of firewall that captures and analyzes data packets at all levels of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model to determine the state and context of the data packet and whether it’s to be permitted access to the network.
A password that’s the same for each log-on.
Mandatory damages determined by law and assessed for violating the law.
The art of hiding the very existence of a message; for example, in a picture.
A subroutine that is accessible by software programs, and which is stored in a relational database management system.
An encryption algorithm that operates on a continuous stream of data, typically bit-by-bit.
A means of authentication that requires two or more independent means of identification. See also two-factor authentication.
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A computer language used to manipulate data in a database management system.
An active entity, such as an individual or a process.
Ciphers that replace bits, characters, or character blocks in plaintext with alternate bits, characters, or character blocks to produce ciphertext.
A level of elevated privilege, usually intended for only system administration use. See also User mode.
A prolonged rush of electric power.
An intelligent hub that transmits data to only individual devices on a network, rather than all devices (in the way that hubs do). See also hub.
Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS)
A high-speed, packet-switched, connectionless-oriented, datagram-based technology available over public switched networks.
symmetric key system (or symmetric algorithm, secret key, single key, private key)
A cryptographic system that uses a single key to both encrypt and decrypt information.
An attack in which the attacker sends large volumes of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) SYN (synchronize) packets to a target system. A SYN flood is a type of Denial of Service attack. See also Denial of Service (DoS).
Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)
A telecommunications carrier-class protocol used to communicate digital information over optical fiber.
A mechanized transaction executed on a system or application to determine its ability to perform transactions properly.
system access control
A control that prevents a subject from accessing a system unless the subject can present valid credentials.
system high mode
A state in which a system operates at the highest level of information classification.
system test (software development)
A test of all of the modules of an application or program. See also unit test.
A security model that specifies the rights that a subject can transfer to or from another subject or object.
A type of stack overflow attack that exploits vulnerabilities in the Internet Protocol (IP).
technical (or logical) controls
Hardware and software technology used to implement access control.
A network protocol used to establish a command line interface on another system over a network. See also Secure Shell (SSH).
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS)
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP)–based access control protocol that provides authentication, authorization, and accounting.
See employment termination.
An organization to which some portion of business operations are outsourced. See also outsourcing.
Any natural or man-made circumstance or event that can have an adverse or undesirable impact, whether minor or major, on an organizational asset.
A systematic process used to identify likely threats, vulnerabilities, and countermeasures for a specific application and its uses during the design phase of the application (or software) development life cycle.
The method used to establish and tear down network connections in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
A hardware device used in two-factor authentication.
A star-topology network transport protocol.
Proprietary or business-related information that a company or individual uses and has exclusive rights to.
“any word, name, symbol, or device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used, in commerce to identify and distinguish the goods of one manufacturer or seller from goods manufactured or sold by others.”
A method of attack in which an attacker observes network traffic patterns in order to make deductions about network utilization, architecture, behavior, or other discernible characteristics.
trans-border data flow
The transfer of electronic data across national borders.
A momentary electrical line noise disturbance.
The phenomenon where a user inherits access privileges established in a domain environment.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
A connection-oriented network protocol that provides reliable delivery of packets over a network.
Ciphers that rearrange bits, characters, or character blocks in plaintext to produce ciphertext.
A feature within a program that performs an undocumented function (usually a security bypass, such as an elevation of privilege).
A program that purports to perform a given function, but which actually performs some other (usually malicious) function. See also malware.
trusted computer system
A system that employs all necessary hardware and software assurance measures and meets the specified requirements for reliability and security.
Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC)
Commonly known as the Orange Book. Formal systems evaluation criteria developed for the U.S. Department of Defense by the National Computer Security Center (NCSC) as part of the Rainbow Series.
Trusted Computing Base (TCB)
The total combination of protection mechanisms within a computer system — including hardware, firmware, and software — that are responsible for enforcing a security policy.
Trusted Network Interpretation (TNI)
Commonly known as the Red Book (of the Rainbow Series). Addresses confidentiality and integrity in trusted computer/communications network systems. See also Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC).
A direct communications path between the user and the Trusted Computing Base (TCB) that doesn’t require interaction with untrusted applications or operating system layers.
Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
A hardware module in a computer that performs cryptographic functions.
Safeguards to prevent the disclosure of information during the recovery of a system after a failure.
An authentication method that requires two ways of establishing identity.
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
A device that provides continuous electrical power, usually by storing excess capacity in one or more batteries.
A test performed on an individual source code module.
USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting [and] Strengthening America [by] Providing Appropriate Tools Required [to] Intercept [and] Obstruct
A U.S. law that expands the authority of law enforcement agencies for the purpose of combating terrorism.
A person who has access to information and/or information systems.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
A network protocol that doesn’t guarantee packet delivery or the order of packet delivery over a network.
The data access privileges that are granted to an individual user.
A level of privilege, usually intended for ordinary users. See also Supervisor mode.
See one-time pad.
A logical operation that can be used to restrict access to specific information in a database, hide attributes, and restrict queries available to a user. Views are a type of constrained user interface that restricts access to specific functions by no
The process of examining audit logs and other sources in order to discover inappropriate activities.
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)
A desktop operating system running within a virtual machine (VM) on a physical host server.
An instantiation of an operating system running within a hypervisor.
A type of secondary memory addressing that uses both installed physical memory and available hard drive space to present a larger apparent memory space than actually exists to the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A private network used to communicate privately over public networks. VPNs utilize encryption and encapsulation to protect and simplify connectivity.
Virtual Tape Library (VTL)
A disk-based storage system that is used like magnetic tape storage for use in backup operations.
The practice of running one or more separate, isolated operating system “guests” within a computer system.
virtualization (or VM) sprawl
The rapid creation of virtual machines without proper security and operations controls.
A set of computer instructions whose purpose is to embed itself within another computer program in order to replicate itself. See also malware.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
Telephony protocols that are designed to transport voice communications over TCP/IP networks.
The absence or weakness of a safeguard in an asset, which makes a threat potentially more harmful or costly, more likely to occur, or likely to occur more frequently.
The use of tools and techniques to identify vulnerabilities in a system, facility, business process, or other object of study.
The lifecycle process used to identify and remediate vulnerabilities in information systems.
The use of an automated tool or technique to identify vulnerabilities in a target system or network.
Wide area network.
A brute-force attack that uses a program to automatically dial a large block of phone numbers (such as an area code), searching for vulnerable modems or fax machines.
A brute-force attack that involves driving around, looking for vulnerable wireless networks.
An alternative computer facility that’s readily available and equipped with electrical power, HVAC, and computers, but not fully configured.
The software development process in which each phase is performed independently and in sequence.
web content filter
A system or application that permits and blocks Internet access to web sites based on a defined policy.
A security test in which the tester has complete knowledge of the system being tested.
A mechanism that explicitly permits access based on the presence of an item in a list.
WiFi (wireless fidelity)
Wireless network technology that utilizes 802.11 protocols.
WiFi Protected Access (WPA)
A means of encrypting communications over 802.11 networks.
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
A means of encrypting communications; specifically, 802.11/WiFi networks. WEP is obsolete.
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
A protocol that provides security services for the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) commonly used for Internet connectivity by mobile devices.
Wireless local area network. See also WiFi.
The difficulty (in terms of time, effort, and resources) of breaking a cryptosystem.
Malware that usually has the capability to replicate itself from computer to computer without the need for human intervention. See also malware.
The first wide-area, packet-switching network.
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A human- and machine-readable markup language.
Asset value) ×
Controls gap = ???
ALE before the safeguard − ALE after the safeguard = ???
Threat × Vulnerability × Asset value = ???
Threat × Vulnerability × Asset value = ???
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