Lecture 3 (Cities in the early 20th century) Movement at the turn of the century to plan cities grandly with boulevards and parks Immigration 1900-10s Immigrants from south and east Europe spread across the country Regional immigration characteristics (like Mexican immigrants in Southwest; Asian immigrants in Pacific Northwest, 1880s-1920s) 1924 Immigration Restriction Act This period represents the culmination of the forces remaking society that began in the 1800s Also classic period of the immigration ghetto ? subways made it possible to spread around the city Period of transformation 1920-45 Immigrant life is still influential, but presence of foreign born residents wanes as pressure to make them assimilate grows ? as a result, political focus shifted from ethnicity to race: African-American migration from the south following WWII Factories became a part of everyday life Growing power of working class and unions doesn?t end ? Progressive Era spurs liberal government Continuous process of consolidation: investment in vertical space and downtown Department stores are born and downtowns become cities? centers of revenue Concentric Zone Theory First, the Loop 1.5, the Factory Zone Second, Zone in Transition Third, Zone of working men?s housing Fourth, residential zone, Fifth, commuting zone Factories still spread into surrounding zones, though with functional segregation Expansion is an ambivalent process: not only growth, but also decentralization 1920s-30s ? tipping point Increase growth = increased centripetal diffusion Many outlying areas were annexed by cities Car becomes a social necessity Car begins to promote open development, especially in commuter zones Middle class women embrace cars, which offer private alternative to public transportation Traffic jams and car accidents become regular. New form of danger on streets, which used to serve for public gatherings Suburban branches of businesses pop up New Deal of 1930s funneled lots of money to infrastructure, promoting greater dependence on cars ? even through the Great Depression
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