1) structure daily routines 2) provide opportunities and constraints for well-being 3) provide a context to gather everyday knowledge and information 4) provide a setting for socialization 5) provide an arena for contesting social norms Places = Humans, vice versa.
Accessibility ♦ workers, markets, resources transportation ♦ jobs, amenities, friends, entertainment Territoriality - attachment to place ♦ claim space ∗private property ∗public land city center ⇒ high-volume retailing ⇒ factories ⇒ warehousing ⇒ residential
congregation: territorial or residential clustering of specific groups/subgroups segregation: spatial separation of specific subgroups within a wider population ∗ enclaves: ethnic districts, identity ∗ ghettos: low-income, discrimination ∗ colonies: conquest, immigration
Patterns of Urban Structure
central business district: ♦ offices, hotels, transportation hubs zone in transition: ♦ mixed industrial, stores, housing, workshops, public housing projects residential zones (ethnicity/class): ♦ worker homes ♦ manager homes ♦ gentrification
North American cities
Fiscal problems: ♦ taxes/revenue can't keep up expenditures ♦ low tax base due to inner-city poverty Infrastructure problems: ♦ public utilities, transportation, communications ♦ white flight, sprawl, people with money leave Poverty/Neighborhood decay: ♦ wage/rent disparities ♦ redlining ♦ homelessness
traditional downtown (banking, finance) newer business centers (older residential, new corporate HQ) internal edge cities (revitalized industrial areas) external edge cities (freeway, airports, new development) outermost edge city complexes (R&D and offices) specialized subcenters (education, entertainment, sports complexes)
•Nodalconcentrations of shopping and office space situated on the fringes ofmetropolitan areas, typically near highway interchanges
•Pedestrianfriendly communities, mixed land uses, commercial centers at transit stops
♦ Low skylines - CBD growth occurred before elevators ♦ Lively downtowns - CBD remains social center instead of suburbs ♦ Neighborhood stability - less extended mobility ♦ Municipal socialism - clinics, public transit, social housing
Jami: principal mosque - centrally located - center of worship, education, welfare functions Suqs: street marketplace (bazaars) - streets from mosque Ahya': residential areas - around suqs - privacy
mega-cities in the periphery - underemployment: working less than full time. - informal economy: outside regulation, cash - uneven development: slum - congested transportation systems - degraded environmental conditions
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