Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
What was thereligion of the first recorded conscientious objector in America?
· Richard Keene = Quaker covert whorefused training in Maryland militia and was fined and threatened
In colonialAmerica what was the difference between the way the upper class and the lowerclass typically acted against the British?
· Upper class = wrote pamphlets andnegotiated
o Opposed acts of destruction
o Tried to keep street protests orderly
· Lower class = cart around effigies ofofficials at demonstrations before hanging, burning, or beheading them.
o Angry and not always nonviolent
o Attacked and destroyed homes ofofficials
What did theBritish do in response to the Boston Tea Party and how did the colonists dealwith this response?
· Massachusetts Government Act 1774
o Removed right of electedrepresentatives to have say in appointment of judges and removed power toremove corrupt judges
· Stopped court from coming to sessionand formed a convention that took over closing courts and freeing prisoners
o Only 1,000 out of 6,000 were armed
According to theauthor, was a war necessary for America to achieve independence from theBritish?
· British withdrawal could have beenachieved by continuing protest and economic sabotage
If a shooting waris not necessary for a revolution to succeed, what purpose does a shooting warserve?
· Shooting war is not necessary tooverthrow the established power but is often deemed necessary to consolidatethe revolution itself
How werecivilians treated during the Revolutionary War?
· Bitter feuds and abuses betweencivilians and between military and civilians
· High percentage of death
· Homes of women and children targeted
· Homes were sacked
· Women were raped
· Fear of either army
What did ThomasJefferson think about rewriting the constitution over time?
· Believed in the perfectibility ofhumans and the constitution should be rewritten in every generation to avoidhaving society remain under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors
Who was David LowDodge and what did he do?
· Considered the first American peaceactivist
· New York merchant
· Devout Presbyterian
· Formed the New York Peace Society =the first nonsectarian peace organization in American history
What was the linkbetween the nonviolence movement and the anti-slavery movement?
· William Lloyd Garrison
· Most abolitionists did not believeviolence could be used in a good cause
· Nonviolent approaches to stop slaveryor slaves rebelling
What did thedevelopment of the European sugar beet have to do with the end of slavery inthe Caribbean?
· Alternative4 to Caribbean sugar canefor whose production that the slave system had been created
Who was JohnBrown, what did he do, and what eventually happened to him?
· White abolitionists who believed inpower of violence and persuasive force of fear
· Operated station in UndergroundRailroad
· Raid army arsenal in Harpers FerryVirginia and lead an insurrection of liberated slaves with captured weapons
· Convicted of treason and hanged
What wasLincoln’s position on entering the Civil War to free slaves?
· For freedom of slaves
How many slaveswere freed by Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation?
When the CivilWar ended what did Southern states do regarding the rights of freed slaves?
· Passed laws to depriveAfrican-Americans of rights of economic opportunities including “black codes”,laws under which a former slave could be arrested if unemployed and ordered topay larger fines
· Made slaves again in order to pay offfines
· Children forced to work unpaid
· Barred from owning land
What did a groupof writers think would happen if European countries merged to form one largecountry?
· There would be no wars
· Europe would be at peace
What did KarlMarx believe about the use of violence or force?
· Violence was inevitable
· Irrelevant to the outcome
· Depended on socioeconomic conditions
What was MarkTwain’s view of the Spanish-American War?
· Praying for victory is praying forkilling
Why had theBritish relied on an all-volunteer army rather than a draft until World War I?
· The armaments that had developed inthe industrial age
· Up against more technological weapons
After Americaentered World War I what happened to Americans who opposed the war?
· Sentenced to as much as 25 years inprison
· 142 sentenced to life
· 17 sentenced to death
· Never carried out
What wassignificant about the book All Quiet on the Western Front?
· Veterans were telling the truth aboutthe war they fought and hated
· Best antiwar novel ever written
Before World WarII what was the relationship between Hitler and American corporations inGermany?
· General Motors, ITT, and Ford havingplans protected by Hitler
How did thenumber of conscientious objectors in World War II compare with the numberduring World War I?
· 3 times as many men hadconscientious-objector status
· 4 times as many went to prison ratherthan serve in the military
· 42,973 men refused to fight
What did conscientiousobjectors in prison have to do with the civil rights movement?
· Cause of prison racial integration
· Strikes to integrate prison mess hallsamong first acts
Did nonviolencework to save Jews from the Nazis?
· No, responses resulted fairly quicklyin their deaths
What did thepeople and government of Denmark to in response to occupation by the Nazis?
· Submitted passively to Germanoccupation
· Hid almost entire Jewish populationfrom Germany
What does theauthor believe about the argument that World War II was fought in part to stopthe Holocaust?
· The Holocaust was not stopped by the war
· It was started by it
How has thepercentage of war casualties that are civilians changed over time?
· WWI = 20%
· WWII = 66%
· Iraq = 90%
What did Ghandithink about nonviolent resistance versus inactive pacifism?
· Rather see someone incapable ofnonviolence resist violence than not resist at all
· Had utter contempt for nonactive pacifism
· Feeling strongly about the distinctionbetween nonviolent resistance and pacifism
· Absence of a proactive word for hisbeliefs
· Satyagraha = truth force
Did Gandhi rejectall violence?
· Supported British in WWI
What kinds ofthings did the British do to subdue the Pathans? How did the Pathans respond?
· Shelled Pathan villages
· Bombed from the air
· Sent expeditions
· Pathans joined Gandhi’s nonviolencemovement
· Shot down in large groups
What led Dr.Martin Luther King, Jr. to change his thinking about the use of nonviolence?
· Attending a lecture about the work ofGandhi at Howard University by Mordecai Johnson
How did thedevelopment of nuclear weapons change the nature of war?
· Did not end warfare
· Ruined concept of total war
· Nuclear war has no victor
· Limiting war
How did theStudent Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) change its views aboutviolence?
· Enduring countless beatings andimprisonments
· Dr. King was taking all the bows whilethey had all the ideas and took the punishments
· Began emphasizing Black Power
· Self-reliance and principle of meetingviolence with violence
What was theposition of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) regarding the use of violenceto bring about change?
· Organizing campuses against Vietnam
· Nonviolence as a tactic is always tobe preferred
· Violence as either a treat or a realthing becomes inevitable in certain oppressive situations and has contributedto political or social change
· Refrained from violence when attacked
· Planned to terrorize corporateestablishment with a series of bombings
Why wouldgovernment opponents of nonviolent groups try to plant the seeds of violence inthose groups?
· Violence is a virus that infects
· If someone proposed violence thatperson was immediately suspected of being an undercover agent
What was the“Vietnam Syndrome”?
· Healthy hesitance to go to war
· Still exists in military
What were tworuthless regimes overthrown by nonviolence toward the end of the 20st century?
· Soviet Union
How does theauthor rate the success of violence in the Middle East?
· Complete and enduring failure
What about theexperience of Vietnam veterans has been helpful in working with the post-traumaticstress felt by veterans of the Korean War and World War II?
· Vietnam veteran open about experience
· Not celebrated and nothing to hide
Recruit is informed there are hidden dangers in every aspect of their jobs
become skilled at knowing what is going on around them
officers remain on high alert status and are never truly off duty
police officer must exert authority through their demeanor and behavior
they must learn how to handle various situations without becoming emotionally involved
changing the focus of patrol activities
increased accountability to public
since peel- thought was officers would deter crime by their presence
patrol organized by Beets , patrol entire beet each shift
research- crime is not spread over entire beat, develops in hot spots
identify hot spots and place officers at location- directed patrol
there are also hot times for crime: 7pm-3am
integrated automate fingerprint identification system
scientific evidence to convict individuals
fingerprints, blood, semen, hair, etc
Defense will use to try and release innocent people
call center dispatches nearest officer by radio
1 person cars allows more cars to be deployed
2 person cars are better for safety
designed to maximize strategy and be proactive
LE always tries to use advancing technologies
fingerprint evidence used in early 1900’s
blood, fiber, and other evidence to follow as methods improved
citizen review boards
o All law ultimately flows from the Qur’an and the Sunnah and must be consistent with the teachings of Muhammad.
o Although many passages in the Qur’an and Sunnah spell out offenses and punishments, these documents also emphasize compassion and forgiveness.
o Under Islamic criminal law, when judges are allowed discretion in sentencing, they must give the greatest weight to punishments that consider the general public interest.
o There is a considerable emphasis on the rights of individuals and on fundamental fairness in the process of justice.
Church's code of laws
Who are “advocates” in civil law systems?
Defense lawyers; to give advice and representation in court
Sweden had the better approach. Prostitution dropped by a lot. 81%.
The police ended up cracking down in Cambodia because the bribes weren’t worth it from the brothels. Also, when they came back there were llike 1/10 of them as there were before.
Train non-physicians to perform C-sections, midwives or nurses, save lives
Warning the girls of sugar daddies and the perils
She was a virgin when they married. She turned into a strong willed women who he spent a lot of time with.
-Under Old Slavery: Legal ownership was asserted – High purchase cost – Low profits – Shortage of potential slaves – Long-term relationship – Slaves maintained – Ethnic differences were important.
-Under New Slavery: Legal ownership avoided—very low purchase cost – very high profits – Surplus of potential slaves – Short-term relationship – slaves disposable—Ethnic differences not important.
-The slaves in Pakistan and India are debt-bondage slaves. The work done is mostly brick making and tons of it.
A law was passed that set up committees to find bonded laborers, register them, cancel their debts, protect them from their former masters, and send them to their original homes with a small amount of money
A: Article II
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group’
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring Children of the group to another.
Periods of war may facilitate the surfacing of a society’s genocidal tendencies