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· Enforce the laws of the society of which the police are a part
· Apprehend offenders who participate in crime
· Prevent crime
· Preserve domestic peace and tranquility
· Provide the community with needed enforcement-related services
v Assist local law enforcement departments in criminal investigations when asked to do so
v Operate a centralized identification bureau
v Maintain a centralized criminal records repository
v Patrol the state’s highways
v Provide select training for municipal and county officers
v Encompasses a wide variety of agencies
v Sheriff: elected chief officer of a county law enforcement agency. Responsible for law enforcement in unincorporated areas and for the operation of the county jail
· Law enforcement officers perform by:
1. Conduct criminal investigations
2. Execute search warrants
3. Make arrests
4. Carry firearms
· 1st largest scale scientific study of law enforcement practices. Focused on the practice of the preventive patrol
· Operations bureau functions associated with primary law enforcement mission
· Selective enforcement of the law, fewer rules/greater discretion, action or inaction, apply rules/not apply rules
· Community cultures
· Socioeconomic status of neighborhood
· Community alternative to police processing
· Department practices, police, customs
· Ratio of supervisory personnel
· Peer pressure
· partnership between community and police
v Community-organized response team
v Foot patrol
v Bicycle patrol
v Police community contact center staffed by patrol officers, civilian coordinators, and aides
v Victim re-contact officers
· neighborhood disorder creates fear, neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals, police need citizens’ cooperation
v Community crime prevention
v Emphasis on importance of non-emergency services
v Shift from crime fighting to problem solving and order maintenance
v Increased accountability to public
v Decentralization of command
· held that suspect taken into custody must be advised of rights prior to questioning
· court recognized good faith exception to exclusionary rule
v Insulation from others (The blue curatin)
v Police only real crime fighters
v Only police understand police work
v Loyalty above all else
v Must bend the rules
v Public unsupporting/demanding
· generalized suspicion
· misuse of authority by officers in a manner designed to produce personal gain for themselves or others, may be product of authority and discretion
v meat eaters: aggressively use power for personal gain
v grass eaters: engage in corruption only when duties place them in position to he solicited, most are grass eaters
· officers in a manner designed to produce personal gain for themselves or others
v PROPRIETARY– SECURITY PROVIDED BY EMPLOYEES OF THE ORGANIZATION
v CONTRACTURAL– SECURITY PROVIDED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES
v OLDER THAN PUBLIC POLICING
v GUARD AND PATROL SERVICES
v PRIVATE INVESTIGATORS
v ALARM COMPANIES
v ARMORED CARS
v COURIER SERVICES
· Use of abusive language, unnecessary use of force or coercion, threats, harrassments, etc
· Violent death rate low
· Most death attributes: stress, training accidents, auto crashes
· Infected evidence: real concern for crime scene investigators
· Biological weapons
· Handling of evidence
· Consequence of fear: less effective job
v Right to remain silent
v Statement can be used against in court of law
v Right to an attorney
v Attorney will be provided if can’t afford
__________ is the process by which a person acquires the values, attitudes, and behaviors of an ongoing occupational social system
Katz and Kahn suggest that organizations are best understood as a
An organizational __________ is a set of assumptions, values, and beliefs shared by members of an organization
__________ perpetuate conformity to the established culture.
__________ share the values of the dominant culture.
__________ sanctions are abstract and stem from impersonal sources.
__________ sanctions can be personal and evoked by sources valued by the sanctioned individual.
In the __________ stage of socialization, the worker looks forward to the demands and expectations of his or her future job.
The __________ stage of socialization begins once an individual has joined the organization.
In the __________ stage of socialization, the relevant reference groups are peers, managers, and even clients to whom a worker is exposed on a daily basis.
The more a society relies upon its ready-made solutions, the more deeply entrenched the:
a. methods of operation
Lipsky writes that one of the defining characteristics of all street-level bureaucracies is
All federal law enforcement and federal bureau of prison agents are subjected to intensive pre-service ________.
Defining the organization’s mission and problems it is mandated to solve is a major role of:
The text mentions that probation and parole officers have role conflicts in the areas of:
Katz and Kahn view role behavior more as a function of __________, rather than individual personalities within organizations.
Role expectations are:
The sent role is:
The received role is:
Role behavior is:
Role conflict is:
is the occurrence of two or more role expectation such that compliance with one makes compliance with another difficult or impossible.
__________ socialization strategies depend on the affective bond between individuals
__________ socialization strategies involve the training of new members as a group
For Katz and Kahn, organizations are best understood as _______ of roles.
The administrative/management culture is identified by the constant search for numbers and statistics.
Social control is a way to perpetuate conformity to the established culture.
The process of socialization in an organization serves to impose the organization’s patterns of basic assumptions upon its new members.
Culture is often defined as the complex whole of a society.
The socialization hypothesis is the only logical explanation for the shared sets of behaviors that appear to be associated with some occupations.
The general model of role taking cannot accommodate individual differences in approach to the job.
Formal socialization is more elaborate in policing than any other criminal justice occupation.
Efforts to introduce psychological assessments into the selection process are still more sophisticated and much more successful at discriminating between good and bad employees.
Divestiture strategies strip away certain characteristics before entry is allowed.
The socialization process begins with the anticipation of occupational roles.m
v Traffic courts
v J.P. courts
v Municipal courts
v Limited to hearing misdemeanors/minor offenses/preliminary hearings
By what means do the Supreme Court request records from the lower courts?
· Appeals courts orders trial courts from lower courts
v Listing of possible charges
v Mug shots
v Possible participation line up
v Within 48 hours of arrest
v Legality of arrest
v Informed of charges
v Bail set
v Entitled to an attorney
v Complaint filed
v Criminal charges
v Date and place of crime
v Circumstances of the arrest
v Proof of probable cause
v Indictment by grand jury: charging document, prepared by prosecutor, and grand jury votes to endorse (true bill) or deny
v two kinds: ad hoc assigned counsel system and coordinated assigned counsel system
v system can suffer from: unequal assignment, inadequate legal fees, and lack of supportive services
· grant of a specific amount given to a private firm or private lawyer
v grant is based on number of cases to be defended and estimated cost per case
· both public defenders and private attorney are used in this system
v used when public defender case load is too high, conflict of interest exist, and supply co-defendant with separate counsel
v COURT UNIFICATION
o ELIMINATION OF OVERLAPPING JURISDICTIONS
o CREATION OF SPECIAL-PURPOSE COURTS
v COURT-WATCH CITIZEN GROUPS
o FOCUS ON TRIAL COURT LEVEL
o MONITOR PROCEEDINGS & DOCUMENT INADEQUACIES
o FOCUS ON HANDLING OF INDIGENT
· Characteristics: Poor, Uneducated, Alienated
· Active or passive roll
· Assumption of guilt
· Cultural differences
· Traditional number is 12
· 6 person trial is legal
· Unanimous verdict required in capital cases
· Right to impartial jury guaranteed by 6th amendment
· Tax or voter registration needed
· Residency requirements
· Prohibits felons from serving
· evidence that can prove a person’s innocence
· RIGHT TO COUNSEL ON FIRST DIRECT APPEAL
· MAY APPLY FOR PERMISSION TO PROCEED IN FORMA PAUPERIS
· IN THE FORM OF A PAUPER; AS A POOR MAN
· RETRIBUTION/JUST DESERTS
v An eye for an eye; punishment fits crime
v Disabling convict from re-committing by locking up
§ Prevent convicted from recidivating
§ Punishment of one as example to many
v Treatment of offender
· EQUITY (RESTORATION)
v Paying back victim and community
v MOST WIDELY USED IN U.S.
v TAILORED TO INDIVIDUAL
v CONFINEMENT UNTIL REHABILITATED
v INDIVIDUALIZED SENTENCES
v BASED ON TREATMENT MODEL
v GOOD TIME: TIME OFF FOR GOOD BEHAVIOR
o SENTENCING DISCRIMINATION
v USE OF UNACCEPTABLE CRITERIA
o SENTENCING DISPARITY
v SIMILAR OFFENSES, SIMILAR OFFENDERS, NON-SIMILAR SENTENCES
o DISHONESTY IN SENTENCING
v PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY VIOLATED
§ DURATION DETERMINED BY JUDGE WHEN SENTENCE IMPOSED
§ FIRST KIND OF SENTENCING IN U.S.
· Statuary requirement: specified penalties for specific crime
· Some exclude possibility of probation or parole
· Individual characteristics not taken into consideration
· Bars judicial discretion
· Justifications: revenge, proportionality, deterrence, ultimate incapacitation
· Criticisms: possibility of error, Not an effective, arbitrary and discriminatory, human life is sacred
Powell v. Alabama
· Indigent charged in a state court with a capital offense has the right to a counsel of trial
· Indigent defendant charged in a state court with any non-capital felony has the right to council
· Council for anyone facing imprisonment
Faretta v. California
· Court granted constitutional right to self-representation
Apodica v. Oregon
· Upheld 10 of 12 verdict in a non-capital case
· COURT UPHELD USE OF CLOSED CIRCUIT T.V. FOR CHILDREN WHO TESTIFY IN CRIMINAL COURTS
Klopfer v. North Carolina
· Unconstitutional for state to suspend prosecution indefinitely (speedy trial)
Witherspoon v. Illinois
· Court ruled that juror opposed to the death penalty could be excluded if it were shown that he/she would automatically vote against conviction without regard to evidence
Batson v. Kentucky
· Use of peremptory challenges by prosecution for purposeful discrimination violates the defendant’s right to an impartial trial
v Defendant is member of recognized radical group which has been intentionally excluded
· Official moratorium: existing practice violated 8th and 14th amendment
· Two stages procedure for capital punishment cases; death penalty re-instated
1. Guilt or innocence decided
2. Sentencing phase if convicted; at least one of ten aggravating factors must be present
Georgia v. McCollum
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