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branch of forensic science that deals with physical evidence related to a crime
The seizure and arrest of a person who is suspected of having committed a crime.
combined DNA index system
federally maintained database. DNA profiles of subjects convicted of felonies
* Homeland security = post-9/11 era
o Tighter coupling between federal and local law enforcement in fighting crime and terrorism
o Intelligence gathering at the local level
o Infrastructure protection
What causes certain areas to be rifer with juvenile delinquency and crime than other areas?
* Distribution of delinquents is closely related to the location of industrial and commercial areas and to the composition of the population
Do place-based crime prevention theories and environmental criminology focus on offender dispositions or characteristics of the crime event?
* Focus on characteristics of the crime event
o Focuses on uncovering patterns of criminal and victimization events
* Pattern theory (human activity pattern) – an offender, a victim, a law that is broken, and a place and time where all these elements collide
Which citizen demographics report having a more positive image of the police?
* Positive image of the police – older age, higher socioeconomic status, living in a suburban area, being white, and having a positive attitude about one’s neighborhood
Sir Robert Peel’s contributions to modern policing
* Philosophy of policing – police are the people and the people are the police
* Deal with daily issues of the people – earn respect and community will cooperate in reducing crime
o Unity between community and police
* Established first metropolitan police force (1829) – known as the bobbies
* Crime can be prevented through patrol
o Assigned beats – specific territories to patrol
* Militaristic hierarchical organization
* Centralized police headquarters – accessible to public
* Event-tempered officers
* Did not want cops to resemble the military – did not want populace to feel that they were invaded by the military
o Distinguish by uniform distinctions – blue instead of red
* Badge numbers – mechanism of control
* Training officers
* Patronage system
* Merit system
S.A.R.A. model of policing
* Scan – identify recurring problems of concern to the public and to the police, identify the consequences of the problem for public and police
o Prioritize these problems, confirm their existence, determine the frequency and how long they have been taking place
* Analyze – identify and understand events and conditions preceding and accompanying the problem, identify the data to be collected
o Research what is known about the problem locally (including how it has been and is addressed), identify local resources to address problem, develop a hypothesis
* Respond – brainstorm new interventions and approaches to address the problem, see what other communities have done in response to such a problem
o Develop a response plan, identify responsible parties, carry out planned activities
* Assess – determine whether the plan was implemented, ascertain whether goals were met, identify new strategies needed to augment original plan
scanning, analysis, response, assessment
Anything over 40 hours you must be compensated for. “Fair wages for fair work”. Higher up people are exempt because they are decision makers.
Fair labor act for state and local employees.
terrorist activity in the US
director of FBI in 1924 and coordinated development of UCR(Uniform Crime Report)
is a law enforcement that is very involved in banking. Government agency that prescribe the rules and regulations that govern the collection of tax evenues
every law enforcement agent goes through this training (other than FBI and DEA); a part of DHS.
entities of 2 or more people who cooperate to accomplish an objective. Hunting parties.
arranging and utilizing resources of personnel and material in such a way as to attain specified objectives
entities of 2 or more people who cooperate to accomplish an objective
Normally captains and lieutenants are commissioned officers, with the position of captain second in rank to the executive managers. inspect assigned operations, review/make recommendations on reports, help develop plans, prepare work schedule, oversee records/equipment, oversee recovered/confiscated property, and enforce all laws/orders
Captains have authority over all officers of the agency below the chief or sheriff. Lieutenants are in charge of sergeants and all officers and reported to captain.
· It apportions the workload among members and units according to a logical plan
· It ensures the lines of authority and responsibility are as definite and direct as possible
· It specifies a unity of command throughout, so there is no question about which orders should be followed
· It assigns responsibility and authority, and if responsibility is delegated, the delegator is responsible
· It coordinates the efforts of member so that all will work harmoniously to accomplish the mission
If you use force,
CBP -Customs and Border Protection(one of largest federal law enforcement agencies), ICE-Immigration and customs enforcement (largest investigative arm), HIS-Homeland Security Investigation, TSA- Transportation security administration, Citizenship and immigration services, Coast guard, Secret service
FBI, ATF, DEA, USMS
· Investigating criminal violations of federal laws within the enforcement jurisdiction of the US Dept. of Justice
· Conducting investigations of violations relating to explosives, firearms, arson, and alcohol and tobacco diversion
· Gathering and analyzing evidence through investigative leads, seizures, arrests, execution of search warrants, and a variety of other means
Drug enforcement agency (DEA), formation caused by Harrison Act, duties include:
· investigation of and coordination with major violators of controlled substance laws in domestic/international venues
· management of a national drug intelligence program in cooperation with federal, state, local, and foreign officials
· seizure and forfeiture of assets derived from traceable to or intended to be used for illicit drug trafficking,
· liaison with the UN, INTERPOL, and other organizations on matters relating to international drug programs
- al-Queda, taliban, Hezbollah, al-Islamiyya, and HAMAS
Domestic and international terrorism
stop the shooter, step over hurt people to stop shooter, mental treatment after such events
1.command(plan will be based)
2. operations (immediate hazards, saving lives, and property,establishing control of the situation and restoring normal operations)
3. planning(plans, prepare statuse reports ect.)
military (foreigners have no constitutional rights/habeus corpus) or civilian court
having taken control of a workstation, the attacker and the delivery mechanism will install malware that will allow the attacker to command execution
officers identify problems, analyze them completely, develop response strategies, and assess the results
collection and feedback of information on crime and related quality-of-life issues developed by the NYC police dept.
· Absolute ethics- which an issue has only good or bad
Relative ethics- one person considers ethical behavior may be seen as highly unethical by another
Double Effect- if one commits an act to achieve good end, even though the action was negative
A wrongful act damage or injury done willfully, negligently or in circumstances in which a person their property or their reputation is harmed.
What are Peel’s 9 principles of policing?
PRINCIPLE 1 “The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.”
PRINCIPLE 2 “The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.”
PRINCIPLE 3 “Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.”
PRINCIPLE 4 “The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.”
PRINCIPLE 5 “Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to the public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.”
PRINCIPLE 6 “Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.”
PRINCIPLE 7 “Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.”
PRINCIPLE 8 “Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.”
PRINCIPLE 9 “The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.”
Community policing and being proactive/crime prevention
"father of america police professionalism"
- Chief of police in Berkeley, California from 1905-1932 and more than any other person defined agenda of police freeform that continues to influence policing even today.
- Most famous for advocating higher education for police officers.
- He hired college grads in Berkeley and organized the first college-level police sciences course at the University of California in 1916
- Also father of modern criminal justice science
wanted to recruit college students as police officers; came up with idea of police school
His principles were the basis of this
addresses crime control through a working partnership with the community
College education important for police officers; when a police comes out of the academy he is cynical
crime prevention through environmental design; proper design and effective use of the environment that can lead to the reduction of fear and incidence of crime and an improvement in the quality of life
absolute supremacy or predominance of regular law, equality before the law, law of the US constitution as a consequence of individual’s rights
With warrant, parole, for officer safety, consent, exigent circumstances
- right to an attorney
brought about the Fair Labor Standards Act
CBP, ICE, HIS, TSA, Citizenship and immigration services, Coast guard, Secret service
Which Supreme Court case held that police departments are allowed to regulate officer appearance?
Accumulation of many stressful events over time
External force in nature that causes physical and emotional strain on the body
Supreme Court decision that placed state and local employees under fair labor and standards act?
Which amendment protects against unreasonable search and seizure?
Admissibility of illegally seized evidence is regulated by what supreme court case?
What circumstance does a police officer need a warrant when making a felony arrest?
Term when an informant entices someone to commit a crime they would otherwise not commit
Supreme Court case which says suspect should have council present during interrogation
Term that dictates police treat all people with respect and in a lawful manner
Supreme Court case that restricted police use of deadly force
Primary issue that is believed to have driven a wedge between police and minorities
Would the injury have happened had the officer taken action?
When can an officer be liable for activities during high speed pursuit?
· The only time an officer can be held liable in high speed chases is when a shock of consciousness which relates to trying to catch a suspect ignoring his surroundings based on the current situation.
· All federal departments/ agencies required to adopt NIMS and use it
Adopted by state and local agencies
Playbook for national disasters
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