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Police depend upon the public to:
A. report crimes to the police.
B. provide information about suspects.
C. cooperate in investigations.
D. all of these
What does our political system ensure where the police are concerned?
Herman Goldstein developed P.O.P. This stands for:
“For which social purpose do police exist?”
A General Service Law Enforcement Agency would be:
the local police department.
What percentage of all index crimes are cleared or solved?
The Specialized Multi-Agency Response Team (SMART) of Oakland,
California, is an example of:
A. the movies
B. televisions shows about cops
C. the news media
D. all of these
Goal is to learn the difference between culture and society, learn about the differences of different societies, and to learn about different types of anthropology practices.
The Nacirema was a satirical piece, designed to turn the anthropological eye on our own society
Society: a group of people who rely on one-another for survival
Anthropology: scientific and humanistic study of human beings
Culture: the way members of a society adapt to their environment and give meaning to their lives
5. Explain cultural relativism.
Idea that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and values rather than according to the values of another culture
Holism is an approach that considers the study of culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of human society. It is what separates anthropology from other academic disciplines, which generally focus on one factor to explain human behavior
7. Describe the four main sub-disciplines of anthropology.
Biological/physical: focuses on the study of people from a biological perspective, primarily on aspects of humankind that are genetically inherited
Linguistic: study of language and its relation to culture
Archeology: the subdiscipline that focuses on the study of past cultures based primarily on their material remains
Cultural: study of human thought, behavior, and lifeways that are learned rather than genetically transmitted and that are typical of groups of people
8. Explain how race is a social and cultural construction.
Race is not a scientifically valid system of classification. Measurement reveals that people are as different from other classified in their same race as they are from those in a different race.
11. Describe the characteristics of culture.
Cultures are made up of learned behaviors.
Cultures use language and symbols.
Cultures are patterned and integrated.
Cultures are shared by members of a group.
Cultures are adaptive.
Cultures are dynamic (subject to change).
12. Explain the process of enculturation.
The process of learning to become part of another cultural group (ex. Inuit children)
13. Identify culture and personality theory, and identify the most famous anthropologist who took this approach.
The study of enculturation gave rise to culture and personality theory. The personality theory is a theoretical approach that holds that cultures could best be understood by examining the patterns of child rearing and considering their effect on adult lives and social institutions.
14. Identify Ethno-science.
a theoretical approach that focuses on the ways in which members of a culture use language to classify their world and that holds that anthropology should be the study of cultural systems of classification.
15. Identify symbolic anthropology, and provide an example of this approach.
-Symbols serve to condense meaning.
-Symbolic anthropologists try to understand a culture by discovering and analyzing the symbols that are most important to its members.
-These symbols often reflect the deep concerns of the culture’s members in ways that may be difficult to articulate.
16. Identify interpretive anthropology, and provide an example of this approach.
-Focuses on using humanistic methods, such as those found in the analysis of literature, to analyze culture and discover the meaning of culture to its participants.
-Culture is an “ensemble of texts ... which the anthropologist strains to read over the shoulders of those to whom they properly belong.” (Clifford Geertz)
17. Identify functionalism and ecological functionalism.
-Functionalism: Specific cultural institutions function to support the structure of society or serve the needs of individuals in society.
-Ecological functionalism: is a theoretical approach that holds that the ways in which cultural institutions work can best be understood by examining their effects on the environment.
18. Explain the difference between dominant culture and subcultures.
Dominant has the most power, a subculture is a smaller culture that exists within a dominant culture, and may or may not align with ideals of the dominant culture
19. Explain the difference between the processes of innovation and diffusion.
Innovation: a way of thinking that is based upon but it different from existing forms.
Diffusion: the spread of cultural elements from one society to another.
20. Describe elite culture, popular culture, and traditional culture and provide examples of each.
Elite is more rare, more $$, less accessible.
Popular culture is more anonymous, mass produced, more accessible
Traditional culture is associated with certain groups, specifically low socio-economic ethnic groups
21. Explain how the film “Metal: A Headbanger’s Journey” is either a form of etic or emic ethnography, and identify examples of specialized language or symbols that are unique to heavy metal culture.
It is emic ethnography, because it is explained by someone who is a part of the Metal subculture. Specialized things include the gothic style clothing, the style of music itself, and various symbols and logos.
22. Describe ethnographic fieldwork, and identify specific techniques used in this approach to anthropological research.
fieldwork reveals the difference between what people say and what they actually do, it’s a firsthand exploration of another society. Techniques include participant observation, interviews, mapping, photography, etc.
23. Explain evolutionary anthropology, and how this approach differed from later approaches by anthropologists such as Franz Boas.
Early scholars in the field were evolutionary anthropologists, who constructed an evolutionary scale of human society from “most primitive” to “most advanced”
Boas proved that evolutionary anthropology was intellectually flawed and morally defective. He said anthropologists should spend time with and learn from the society they are studying
24. Explain the connection between ethnocentrism and racism.
Ethnocentrism is the belief that your own society is better than any other, and is inherently racist because it belittles other cultures.
25. Identify Bronislaw Malinowski and his general research and notable achievements.
Malinowski revolutionized fieldwork by spending time with native Trobrianders, thus creating participant observation.
26. Describe the technique known as participant observation, and identify the various terms anthropologists have used to describe the people who guide and offer insights into their culture.
Participant observation is fieldwork that includes collecting data by observing peoples behavior and participating in their lives. Anthropologists often work with respondents (or consultants, interlocutors, partners or participants)
27. Explain the difference between the four main interview techniques.
Informal, unstructured, semi-structured, and structured
28. Identify the main goals of obtaining informed consent as part of ethical anthropological fieldwork.
To protect the privacy and dignity of their subjects, to shield them from risk factors
29. Identify examples of some basic ethnographic field techniques that can be seen in the film, “A Man Called Bee”.
mapping, photography, unstructured interviews
31. Identify the concept of cultural materialism.
Prioritizes material, behavioral, and etic processes in the explanation of the evolution of human socio-cultural systems
32. Describe animal call systems and how they related to the evolution of human language.
Form of communication between non-human primates, composed of a limited number of sounds.
33. Explain how human language can be considered both a cultural and biological adaptation.
Biological because children are born with the instinct to communicate, but cultural because they learn how to communicate according to the norms of their culture
34. Identify the concept of universal grammar, and the importance of social interaction in learning human language.
Universal grammar is a basic set of principles, conditions, and rules that form the foundation of all languages.
35. Explain how human language is a system of symbols.
words are symbols because they stand for things, actions, and ideas because speakers of a language agree that they do
36. Identify and describe the three main characteristics of human language (conventionality, productivity, and displacement).
conventionality: words are only arbitrarily connected to the things for which they stand. An animal is no more a dog than it is a perro.
Productivity: humans can combine words and sounds into new, meaningful utterances they have never heard before.
Displacement: ability for humans to talk about the past and different places.
37. Identify and describe the four main subsystems of language (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics).
Phonology: a system of sounds
Morphology: a system for creating words from sounds
Semantics: a system that relates words to meanings
Syntax: a system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences
38. Describe the practice of code switching as it relates to linguistics.
Effortlessly moving from language to language, or talking differently in front of different people.
39. Explain the basic premise of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
perceptions and understandings of time, space, and matter are conditioned by the structure of a language. People who spoke different languages understand the world in different ways.
40. Identify and describe the five main approaches to the study of non-verbal communication (artifacts, haptics, chronemics, proxemics, and kinesics).
-Artifacts can be communication through clothing, jewelry, tattoos, etc.
-Haptics is the study and analysis of touch(‘contact’ vs. ‘non-contact’ cultures)
-Chronemics is the study of cultural understandings of time(M-time vs. P-time)
-Proxemics is the study of how different cultures used space(intimate, personal, and social distance)
-Kinesics is the study of body movement, facial expressions, and gaze
41. Explain the difference between a pidgin language and a creole language.
Pidgin is usually not someone’s first language, while creole could be
43. Identify what a subsistence strategy is.
ways of transforming the resources in our local environment into food, clothing, and shelter
44. Identify and describe the four main types of subsistence strategies (foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture, and industrialism), and how they differ from each other.
Foraging: fishing, hunting, and collecting vegetable food
Pastoralism: food-getting strategy that depends on the care of domesticated herd animals
45. Identify and describe the four main factors that determine subsistence patterns (population density, productivity, and efficiency).
Population density: number of people inhabiting a unit of land
Productivity: yield per person per unit of land
Efficiency: yield per person per hour of labor
46. Identify when plant and animal domestication emerged in the Old World and New World, leading to a more sedentary lifestyle.
human groups began to domesticate plants and animals about 10,000 years ago in the old world, and 1000 years later in the new world
the domestication of plants and animals supported increased populations and sedentary village life became widespread
47. Describe the main difference between transhumant and nomadic pastoralism, and the key to success for any form of pastoralism.
Transhumant: herd animals are moved on a regular basis to different areas as fresh pasture becomes available
Nomadic: the whole social group moves with their animals in search of new pasture
48. Describe swidden (or slash and burn) horticulture.
Clearing fields by burning brush and felling trees
49. Identify and describe the role of peasants in complex agricultural societies.
Peasants are rural cultivators who produce for the subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, complex state societies
50. Identify and describe the process of globalization and its impact on food choice.
Today, more than half of our food in America comes from just California. We can get produce year round from other countries, whereas in the past, most food was only locally grown.
52. Explain the origins of using Spam in the cuisine certain cultures, and why the author called this practice “class-based Spam shame”, in the article, “The End of Spam Shame”.
It came from US military members bringing it overseas, but now many people consider spam for lower socioeconomic groups
53. Explain what the dictator and ultimatum games illustrate about how people make economic decisions.
the results of the dictator and ultimatum games demonstrate the social and cultural dimensions of economic decision making
54. Explain what an economic system is and how this differs from economics, and economic behavior.
An economic system is the norms governing the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services within a society
Economic behavior is -Choosing a course of action is usually based on a calculation of benefit, though that benefit may not always be financial profit
55. Explain what prestige is, and the ways it may be generated in different economic systems.
Prestige: (social honor or respect) may be the ultimate goal in our economic choices. In western society this is often tied to an increase in consumption
56. Explain the division of labor as it relates to any economic system.
-the pattern of apportioning different tasks to different members of a society
-there is a division of labor in any subsistence strategy. In each case humans are organized to produce
-in addition to producing, all societies have:
-systems of distribution
-patterns of consumption
57. Describe what productive resources are, and how these resources are allocated in the five main types of subsistence strategies discussed in Week 5.
Productive resources are used to create other goods or information
58. Describe the relationship between labor and identity, and how these have been defined by gender. Provide an example of how gender identity has been redefined by labor.
-in all societies, different tasks are considered more appropriate for different genders
-childcare is usually associated with women, while industrial work is considered more fit for men
-in the early 20th century, masculinity started to become redefined, and more associated with skilled labor
59. Identify and describe the three main patterns of exchange (reciprocity, redistribution, and market).
Reciprocity: a mutual give and take
Redistribution: all goods are taken from the group, then redistributed throughout the group
Market: goods and services are bought and sold at prices set by supply and demand
60. Identify and describe the three main types of reciprocity (generalized, balanced, and negative) and provide examples of each.
Generalized: distribution of goods with nothing specific expected in return
Balanced: exchange of goods with equal value, or with the expectation to be returned later
Negative: exchange conducted for a materialistic advantage
61. Explain how a kula ring works, identify what form of economic system it represents, and where this type of exchange is used.
-The Kula trade moves two types of prestige goods from island to island around the Kula circle
-used in the pacific islands
62. Explain how a potlatch works, identify what form of economic system it represents, and where this type of exchange is used.
-Redistribution including competitive feasting among northwest native groups
-A balanced economic system, things are given and taken
-Outlawed by Canada between 1881 and 1951 to try and assimilate native groups
63. Identify and explain a leveling mechanism and a cargo system.
-leveling mechanism: a leveling mechanism is a type of redistribution that diminishes inequality, a social organization that aims to even out wealth in a society
-cargo system: -a ritual system common in central and south America in which wealthy people are required to hold a series of costly ceremonial offices
64. Identify and explain the attributes of capitalism, as well as forms of resistance to capitalism.
-most productive resources are owned by a small portion of the population
-most individuals primary resource is their own labor
-the value of workers’ contribution to production is always intended to be greater than the wages they receive, the difference between these is the profit margin
-despite the international success of capitalism, it has from its origin encountered frequent and sometimes violent resistance
-through unions and union activity
-through direct protest
-through self subsistence
scientific study of observable behaviors and mental processes
focuses on how the brain, nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes
focuses on how other people and the cultural context impact behavior
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