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commits the offense to resolve disturbing doubts about his sexual adequacy and masculinity. He aims to place a woman in a helpless position so that she cannot refuse or reject him.
tact and compassion should be employed; the initial interview of the victim should not be excessive; the interview should be conducted in a comfortable environment with absolute privacy, away from everyone including husbands, boyfriends, parents, children, friends or anyone else personally associated with the victim. A rapist will reveal a great deal about himself and the motivation behind the assault through verbal activity with the victim.
Some major reasons that women do not report rape are:
1. Lack of belief in the ability of the police to apprehend the suspect. 2. The concern that they would receive unsympathetic treatment from the police. 3. Fear of having to go through discomforting procedures.
4. Embarrassment of publicity however limited.
5. Fear of reprisal by the rapist.
6. Apprehension gained from television programs or newspaper reports that they would be further “victimized” by the court proceeding.
The following represent why women sometimes make false rape allegations:
1. Prostitutes who have not been paid.
2. Females caught in the act of sexual intercourse by relative, friends, or law enforcement officials.
3. Women who cannot explain an unwanted pregnancy.
4. Women who want to cause difficulty for some man because of a real or imagined interpersonal conflict.
Discovery of _______, _______, and ______ are valuable in rape investigations because positive identification can be made from _______ and ______ as a result of DNA typing. If _______ is not present, another test may be conducted to test for _______. This test is called an _______________. _____________ is an enzyme in the liquid portion of the semen.
Semen (whitish fluid ejaculated at orgasm), sperm (tadpole-like organisms that fertilize the female egg), and hair are valuable in rape investigations because positive identification can be made from sperm and hair as a result of DNA typing. If sperm is not present, another test may be conducted to test for semen. This test is called an acid phosphatase test. Acid phosphatase is an enzyme in the liquid portion of the semen.
The absence of semen is fairly common in rape cases. In the interviews of 133 convicted rapists (studied by Groth, 1977), 50 (30%) admitted some sexual dysfunction. Twenty-three of the rapists stated that they were unable to achieve an orgasm during the sex act; twenty-two experienced difficulty in achieving and sustaining an erection (impotency); and five experienced premature ejaculation.
One authority sites the following psychogenic factors as being among some of the underlying causes of sexual dysfunction of these rapists:
1. feeling of inferiority and inadequacy
2. conscious or unconscious disgust
3. anger or hostility
4. unconscious incestuous wishes
5. heterosexual anxiety
6. latent homosexuality.
power, anger, and sexuality.
Errors most commonly made in collecting evidence on rape investigations are (1-4):
1. A failure to obtain fingernail scrapings from the victim.
2. A failure to obtain all of the victim’s and suspect’s clothing worn at the time of the offense.
3. The faulty handling and packaging of evidence which results in contamination during shipment.
4. A failure to obtain samples of soil and other vegetation at the crime scene.
Errors most commonly made in collecting evidence on rape investigations are(5-8):
5. A failure to mark each item of evidence properly for future identification purposes.
6. A failure to obtain saliva and blood samples.
7. A failure to remove obvious visible hair and package it properly where the location of the hair may be germane to the investigation.
8. A failure to obtain hair samples from both the suspect and the victim.
condom manufacturers add finely powdered particulates to prevent a rolled up latex condom from sticking to itself. Particulates found in different brands include, corn starch, potato starch, lycopodium (a powder found in plants), as well as amorphous silica, talc or other minerals.
Condom trace evidence can be of value in linking acts of serial rapists. People tend to be creatures of habit and sexual criminals are no exception. The serial rapist will likely use the same brand of condom to commit repeated acts.
*Factors to look for when investigating a death that may have resulted from accidental sexual asphyxiation (autoerotic death) are:
1. A male bound and hanged in an unusual fashion by ropes, wire, handcuffs, leg irons or other means.
2. Not infrequently, a transvestite element is present and the victim will be found partially or fully dressed in feminine garments.
A psychological autopsy is intended to form a logical understanding of death from tangible physical evidence, documented life events and intangible, often illusive, emotional factors.
The drug ________ is used to treat heroin addicts. A heroin-dependent person can be treated with doses of methadone to replace the heroin the body needs; subsequent doses of heroin will have no effect on the abuser.
visual inspection of the subject’s needle marks or physiological symptoms such as a state of lethargy and/or withdrawal symptoms. Some of these withdrawal symptoms are nervousness, anxiety, sleeplessness, yawning, running eyes and nose, muscle twitching, severe aches of the back and legs, vomiting, and diarrhea.
An important, verified effect when used medically is cocaine’s local anesthetic action, as well as its ability to constrict blood vessels in the area to which it is applied. Illicit cocaine is sold in a white translucent (clear) crystalline powder. Cocaine is most commonly inhaled or “snorted” through the nose. One consequence of this property when cocaine is used illicitly and snorted repeatedly is a tendency to cause a chronic inflammation of the nasal membranes, ulceration, and death.
There is good evidence that cocaine in moderate doses significantly _______ both heart rate and blood pressure. _________ following lower doses occurred more rapidly when the drug was administered directly into the vein than when snorted. Heart rate increased from about _______ percent above normal non-drug levels.
Because present American use patterns are characterized by relatively infrequent use of small quantities of drug, serious adverse effects may be quite rare. However, clinical reports dating back to the 1800s have described a range of responses to heavier, more prolonged use of cocaine.
Early reports by Freud and others also emphasized that there was wide individual variation in the physiological and psychological responses to cocaine. Von Fleischl, who was encouraged to use cocaine by Freud to alleviate symptoms of nerve pain, rapidly progressed to heavy, intravenous use. With heavier use, Fleischl’s condition deteriorated to the point of chronic intoxication characterized by hallucinations.
A cocaine psychosis very similar to paranoid schizophrenia:
is the chemical process by which cocaine is reduced to a more concentrated form.
Crystallized methamphetamine better known as _____ during the 1960s and 1970s was originally taken as pills or injected. A new smokable version, known as ____ has appeared on the drug market. ____ shares crack’s addictive properties and produces similar bouts of severe depression and paranoia as well as convulsions.
are drugs that depress the central nervous system and are prescribed in small doses to reduce restlessness, emotional tension and induce sleep. Chronic use produces slurring of speech, staggering, loss of balance, and quick temper. After a period of chronic use abrupt withdrawal can cause death.
skeletal muscle relaxation, sedation, and reductions in anxiety. Of these effects the sedative / hypnotic effects are most important. The drug is considered to be approximately eight to ten times more potent than Valium. The effects or “high” may last from 7 or 12 hours with residual effects up to 24 hours or later after the last dose. Other effects include drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, confusion, vertigo, gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary retention.
Proponents claim it delivers a gentle two to four hour journey that dissolves anxieties and leaves the user relaxed and emotionally open without the bad trips or addictive problems of other psychoactive drugs. Opponents claim that MDMA is an uncontrolled and rapidly spreading recreational drug that can cause psychosis and possibly brain damage.
Growers hope to elude the police and are also able to control the climate, temperature, light, and soil conditions. They can also grow up to 4 crops a year. By controlling the crops growers are also able to produce cannabis with a higher level of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the chemical found in the plant’s flower tops that produces the mind-altering affects desired by marijuana smokers.
drying the flowers of the cannabis plant (marijuana) and thus concentrating the basic active ingredient. Most of the hashish oil that has been confiscated originated in India or Afghanistan.
synthetic drug that was developed in the mid-1960s and is an anesthetic agent that has legitimate uses, mostly in veterinary medicine. Used as battlefield medicine in Vietnam, it has since been replaced for anesthetic for humans. Most Ketamine abused today comes from stolen veterinary stock.
mescaline. Mescaline is derived from the buttons of the plant and has been used by the Indians of Central America and southwestern United States for centuries in religious rites.
The vast majority of drug information comes from informants. Categories of drug related confidential informants(1&2):
1. Problem Informant – have personalities that make them difficult to manage. They also may have questionable motives.
2. Egotistical Informant – they seek positive feedback from their handlers as their primary reward. These informants are often the hardest to handle because their egos prevent them from relinquishing control of the investigation.
3. “James Bond Syndrome” – While working as informants they imagine themselves in a police or spy drama.
4. Wannabe Informants – people who failed to qualify for a law enforcement position and now seek to become involved. They normally lack criminal associates, thus making them poor informants.
5. Perversely Motivated Informants – they are the most dangerous and disruptive informants; they offer their services in order to identify undercover agents or eliminate their own competition.
6. Restricted-Use Informants – juveniles, individuals on probation or parole, felons with multiple convictions, etc.
The most common indication that a physician is unlawfully diverting drugs for their own use are:
1. They places excessively frequent orders for narcotics;2.They picks up and pays for filled narcotic prescriptions;3. A narcotic prescription is issued to a patient by a physician with instructions to have the prescription filled and returned with it for admin. Substitute medication is then given to the patient;4.They may place an order for a patient in a hospital, but then the drug is prep by a nurse, the doc will take over and either use a sub syringe containing a placebo or only administer a small portion.
1. Fire departments responding to the scene of a fire or explosion;
3. Observations from the community;
4. Information from a cooperative chemical supplier.
Two methods for introducing narcotics and dangerous drugs into the processing sequence immediately after they are seized and marked:
1. The laboratory-first method – requires that all seized evidence be transported immediately to the lab for analysis after being field tested, marked, photographed, weighed, and inventoried.
2. The evidence room-first method – after being (see above) the evidence is delivered directly to the evidence room.
is that, on the one hand, the evidence is analyzed before it is stored and, on the other hand, the evidence is taken to the evidence room, receipted for, and then removed to the laboratory for analysis.
Many elder persons suffer from hearing loss. In many ways a hearing loss can have a greater impact than a loss of vision. Many people seem to have less patience and sympathy for those who cannot hear rather than those with vision impairment. The isolation that can result from a declining ability to communicate detracts from the quality of life. When speaking with an elderly person, officers should:
1. Gain attention
2. Be at the right distance (3 to 6 feet away)
3. Speak clearly
4. Reinforce and rephrase
5. Control noises
6. Encourage participation
*Categories of mistreatment against the elderly:
· Passive Neglect – The unintentional failure to fulfill a caretaking obligation.
· Psychological Abuse – The infliction of mental anguish.
· Active Neglect – The intentional failure to fulfill a caretaking obligation, including a conscious and willful attempt to inflict physical or emotional stress or injury on the older person
· Physical Abuse – Infliction of physical pain or injury or physical coercion.
Clues of financial abuse of the elderly:
1. Unusual activity in the bank account including activity inconsistent with the victim’s ability such as the use of an automatic teller machine on an account of a bedridden elder. 2. New acquaintances of the elderly expressing a desire to reside with the elder.
3. Loss of amenities, such as disconnection of utilities with the elder is known to afford such amenities.
4. New signees or unusual activity on credit cards and suspicious signatures on documents particularly if the elder is capable of writing.
formed with the police and local sheriff agree to work cooperatively with senior citizens to prevent the victimization of the elderly in the community. The three groups share ideas and resources to provide programs and training for vulnerable and often elderly citizens. In addition, groups work to expand and renew interest in existing programs and develop cooperative strategies to address needs and concerns identified by older citizens.
When using this method, the computer criminal covertly alters the computer circuitry or a computer program adding instructions unknown to the owner. As a result the computer performs unauthorized functions (e.g., it deletes accounts payable or receivable). This is the most common method in computer program based fraud and sabotage.
*Typical hackers are:
SecurID from Security Dynamics, Inc. is perhaps the most popular one-time password generator. It is used at 3,500 sites in 24 countries. This system identifies and authenticates each individual user on the basis of two factors:
*While abusers use a wide variety of instruments to assault children, the two most common instruments used in child abuse are:
Has a definite sexual preference for kids. Have sex w/ kids b/c they are sexually attracted to and prefer kids. Have highly predictable sexual behaviors, called sexual rituals, are frequently engaged in even when they are counter-productive in getting away w/ the criminal activity. Smaller in number than the situational child molester they have the potential to molest large number. Usually have age/gender preferences. Members of the higher socio-economic group tend to be over-represented. Seem to prefer boys
Fathers were most likely to start incestuous abuse when their daughters were 4 to 6 years old or 10 to 12 years old. Five categories of incestuous fathers:
*The appearance of a SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) victim:
1. Usually in a normal state of nutrition and hydration
2. May have blood-tinged, frothy fluids around mouth and nostrils
3. Vomitus may be found on the face
4. Diaper is usually wet and full of stool
5. Bruise-like marks may be found on the head or body limbs
is the analysis and other incidences of support resource deployment. This involves detecting patterns of crime or the potential for crime to enhance the effectiveness of patrol operations, surveillance, stakeouts and other police tactics.
involves identifying crime suspect correlations to assist investigations. By comparing files that contain modus operandi (MO) characteristics with files of a new suspect’s attributes, more and better arrests may be possible.
Administrative analysis is another of the crime analysis unit’s function and is referred to its crime reporting. Included here is the preparation of reports for a variety of requesters, ranging from city agencies, courts and government officers to community groups and the media.
The final function of crime analysis is crime prevention. Analysts focus on identifying those locations, times of day or situations where crime appears to cluster so that efforts to harden these potential targets can be initiated.
__________ crime analysis is used to address short-term resource deployment. Unlike crime analysis, _______ crime analysis is more immediate, fluid, and subject to change on a moment’s notice.
*Some internal sources of information for data collection for crime analysis are:
MAJOR CATAGORIES OF INFORMANTS
MAJOR CATAGORIES OF INFORMANTS (Plea bargaining informant)
provides information out of fear that the criminal activities of associates or friends will place him/her in a dangerous situation.
are law abiding citizens who provide information out of a sense of civic duty or a feeling of personal responsibility to act. In a strict sense, such persons are, however, not informants.
When dealing with informants, investigators should never make promises they do not intend to keep.
The following are situations in which surveillance often prove to be effective:
1.Establishing the existence of a violation, 2.obtaining probable cause for a search warrant, 3.apprehending violators in the commission of illegal acts, 4.identifying violator associates, 5.verifying informant reliability, 6.providing protection for undercover investigators or informants, 7.locating person, places or things,8.preventing crime, 9.gathering intelligence of individuals and premises prior to the execution of a search warrant, 10.gathering intelligence on illegal group’s activities.
*On the basis of the amount of planning involved there are three robbery styles:
The ambush:no planning and depends almost entirely on the element of surprise. Victims are suddenly overpowered by crude force and “scores” are small. Most common The selective raid:minimum amount of casual planning. Sites are tentatively selected, very briefly cased, and possible routes of approach formulated. “Scores” vary from low to moderate and several “jobs” may be committed in rapid succession. The planned operation: larger “scores” no force, careful planning, and less likelihood of apprehension.
1. Too much success in the anti-theft field, making traditional surreptitious theft more difficult and theft by confrontation easier,
2. There is a widespread availability of victims,
3. No inside information or elaborate planning is required, and
4. Publicity about carjacking may create some incentive to “do one”.
Two elements that must be present for a larceny to occur are:
*The greatest deterrence to shoplifting can be a security education program for employees. The greatest security deterrence to shoplifting is often accomplished through a helpful, courteous and watchful sales staff. The typical shoplifter is male. A good security education program may include:
1.Staff trained to look for the bizarre. 2.Wheelchair shopper w/ worn soles on their sneakers. 3.A baby stroller with too many blankets on it.4.Ppl trying on clothes that are not their size. 5.Sales ppl should know about diversionary techniques such as, the heart attacks, marital squabbles faked by the shoplifting teams.6.Controls relating to the type of merchandise displayed and its physical location. 7.Utilization of highly trained security personnel in civilian clothes and in uniform.
Most burglaries are characterized by entry through a ____. In general, residences are attacked at the ____ and businesses at the ____. Because burglaries typically happen when the premises are unoccupied, homes are usually burglarized during the ____ and businesses at ____. There is little seasonal variation in burglaries, although the high incident month is ____ and the low month is ______. Burglary is a difficult crime to solve; its clearance rate nationally is __ percent.
*Fire-resistant safes are:
In contrast, money chests are:
is a popular method of attacking a fire-resistant safe. The drag, also known as pulling or the come-along, relies upon the use of a type of wheel-puller tool to extract the spindle from the safe, permitting it to be opened.
The purpose of an autopsy is to ______________________. A _________ ________ is the individual best suited to conduct autopsies.
the act of slipping or shimming a spring bolt lock that does not have an anti-shim device.
___________ ___________ of a victim is important in a homicide investigation because when a body cannot be identified, it is extremely difficult for investigators to focus on the primary motive or possible suspects. The type of victim identification considered being the least reliable is ________ _______. The best means of identifying the remains of a deceased person is ___________.
*After death, the muscles of the body initially become flaccid (flabby). Within _ to _ hours they become increasingly rigid and the joints freeze by a process called ____ ______. This process is retarded in cooler environmental temperatures and accelerated in warmer ones. A purplish color that appears under the skin on those portions of the body closest to the ground is _____ ______ _______ and is caused by the settling of the blood.
The typical gunshot entry wound is ordinarily ______________________ This is referred to as ___________. Exit wounds are frequently______ than entry wounds, bleed freely, and are irregular in shape. At close range the _______ from a shotgun might also be in the body. The ___ is the paper or plastic object that separates the shot pellets and powder in a shotgun shell.
Atomic Absorption Analysis and Neutron Activation Analysis are two methods for the _______ of ______ ______ _______. Both methods have been used to detect trace elements of antimony and barium deposited on the hands when a gun is discharged, but Atomic Absorption is also able to detect lead thus giving an advantage over NAA. A diluted solution of ____ is used for removal of firearm residues from the hand.
inflicted by blunt objects such as clubs and pipes. The wounds are irregular in shape, bleed freely, and are characteristically accompanied by bruising around the perimeter of the wound.
is produced by pressure of the hand, forearm or other limb against the neck, compressing the internal structures of the neck. The mechanism of death is the occlusion of the blood vessels which supply blood to the brain. The occlusion of the airway probably plays a minor if any role in causing death. Virtually all manual strangulations are the result of homicide.
The gas most frequently involved in medico-legal investigations is ______ ______. When a death does result from this gas, it is generally accidental or suicidal. It is found in automobile exhaust fumes and improperly ventilated space heaters in homes. Asphyxiation from this gas usually occurs at __% saturation. Blood is examined to determine the level of the gas present in someone.
*The most common reasons that hit-and-run drivers fail to stop are:
1. The driver had been drinking; 2. The vehicle was stolen; 3. The driver had a suspended or revoked operator’s license; 4. There was someone in the car whose presence, if discovered, could cause additional problems (someone else’s spouse); 5. The driver had no liability insurance; 6. The driver or a passenger was injured requiring the driver to drive directly to the nearest emergency room; 7. The driver did not realize he/she had been involved in an accident; and
8. The driver had committed a crime just prior
*The major purpose of the psychological assessment of the crime scene is to:
Arson investigations fall in a governmental gap between ______ and ____ department responsibility. If arson is suspected the moving of any burned debris, even window glass, may result in the destruction of valuable physical evidence. In nearly all cases there is not much extra loss if the room or area encompassing the point of origin in not cleaned out, since this area is usually the most heavily damaged by the fire, with little salvage possible.
*Before any material is moved or shoveled out, the investigator should make _____ and carefully examine the layers while working through to the floor. This is known as the “_____ ____________” technique. These layers will often contain wood ash, plaster, melted aluminum, window glass, etc. This may give a picture of the sequence of materials burned at the point of origin.
*Common causes of accidental or natural fires:
1. The electric system 2. Electrical appliance and equipment 3. Gas 4. Heating units – overheated stoves, clothes dried too close to fireplaces 5. Sunlight – concentration of sun rays through window panes or bubbles in glass 6. Matches – children 7. Smoking
8. Spontaneous heating and ignition – Few fundamental causes of this, but the conditions under which these factors operate are numerous. It is produced in three major ways: chemical reaction; fermentation; and the most common oxidation.
When storing arson evidence suspected of containing flammable liquids, __________________ and not ___________ should be used. If ________ containers are used there is a possibility that the substance may absorb hydrocarbons from it thus contaminating the evidence.
Vehicle identification is the:
*A “paper” vehicle is:
*A certificate of title is “washed” by:
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