Who was Raphael Lemkin and what did he do regarding genocide?
Polish scholar who studied Nazi efforts to wipe out Jews and Gypsies in Europe during WWII, after he lost his entire family to the Holocaust. Created the term genocide.
What are some of the KEY ELEMENTS of the UN defn of genocide?
1) killing members of a group
2) causing serious bodily or mental harm to member of the group
3) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
4) imposing measures intended to prevent births w/in the group
5) forcibly transferring children of the group to another
What are some of the PROBLEMS with the UN defn of genocide?
1) it omits the mass killing of political and social groups, thus excluding a lot of contemporary genocies
2) it is unclear how many people must die for genocide to have taken place
3) the UN defn requires intent. this means that it is essential to know what is on the minds of killers
4) it does not make a straightforward distiction between war and genocide
What are some types of genocide based on motive?
1) eliminate a real or potential threat
2) spread terror among real or potential threats
3) acquire economic wealth
4) implement a belief, theory, or ideology
What are the connections between acts of genocide and acts of war?
Periods of war may facilitate the surfacing of a society's genocidal tendencies. Normal restrictions on govt behavior are lifted. citizens of the state are more likely to support this expanded authority in times of war. leaders of a country at war may find that the presence of a hated group is a useful tool for mobilizing the masses. Horrors of genocide may be less immediately apparent to other countries, who focus on the war and might well be initially fooled.
what are some of the conditions that lead to genocide?
minority groups have previously been/presently are defined outside the universe of moral obligation. pervasive racialistic ideologies/propaganda are found. there is a strong dependence on military security. powerful, monolithic exclusionary political parties are present. leadership ahs strong territorial ambitions. power of state has been reduced by defeat in war/internal strife. possibility of retaliation is low.
When did the Armenian genocide happen?
Who were the main groups involved? (in the Armenian genocide)
Armenians, Turkey: Muslims (Young Turk Party)
What happened during the genocide? (Armenian)
In 1913, the Young Turk Party gained control.They wanted to “purify” the country.This meant killing off the Armenian people.Purification began on a large scale in 1915.WW1 provided a cover up for the genocide.They used deportation, execution, and starvation to get rid of the Armenians.When all was done 1,500,000 Armenians had been killed.Almost all Armenian culture was destroyed
What happened when the Armenian genocide was over?
the Young Turks fled the country. Four organizers were sentenced to death but no attempt was made to carry out the sentence. W/in months they were free and sent home
When did the genocide in Rwanda happen?
Who were the main groups involved? (in Rwanda)
The Hutus (commoners) and the Tutsi's (held power before genocide started fewer in #)
What happened during the genocide?
The Belgians came and placed Hutu’s in positions of power.Hutus began to attack Tutsi who had previously held power and drove as many as 10,000 from the country. The genocide started when the Hutu president’s pane was shot down and killed
What happened when the Rwanda genocide was over?
Although it ended in 1994, the killing still continued on a smaller scale. Roles were reversed and Tutsis were now doing the killing and the Hutu were fleeing the country for safety.
What can be done to prevent genocide?
better education abt genocide, including journalists, religious groups, foreign diplomats, politicians,a nd media news editors.
develop early warning centers that can ID likely outbreaks of genocide and can bring situations to the attention of political leaders and the public
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