Who was Raphael Lemkin and what did he do regarding genocide?
Polish scholar who studied Nazi efforts to wipe out Jews and Gypsies in Europe during WWII, after he lost his entire family to the Holocaust. Created the term genocide.
What are some of the KEY ELEMENTS of the UN defn of genocide?
1) killing members of a group
2) causing serious bodily or mental harm to member of the group
3) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part
4) imposing measures intended to prevent births w/in the group
5) forcibly transferring children of the group to another
What are some of the PROBLEMS with the UN defn of genocide?
1) it omits the mass killing of political and social groups, thus excluding a lot of contemporary genocies
2) it is unclear how many people must die for genocide to have taken place
3) the UN defn requires intent. this means that it is essential to know what is on the minds of killers
4) it does not make a straightforward distiction between war and genocide
What are some types of genocide based on motive?
1) eliminate a real or potential threat
2) spread terror among real or potential threats
3) acquire economic wealth
4) implement a belief, theory, or ideology
What are the connections between acts of genocide and acts of war?
Periods of war may facilitate the surfacing of a society's genocidal tendencies. Normal restrictions on govt behavior are lifted. citizens of the state are more likely to support this expanded authority in times of war. leaders of a country at war may find that the presence of a hated group is a useful tool for mobilizing the masses. Horrors of genocide may be less immediately apparent to other countries, who focus on the war and might well be initially fooled.
what are some of the conditions that lead to genocide?
minority groups have previously been/presently are defined outside the universe of moral obligation. pervasive racialistic ideologies/propaganda are found. there is a strong dependence on military security. powerful, monolithic exclusionary political parties are present. leadership ahs strong territorial ambitions. power of state has been reduced by defeat in war/internal strife. possibility of retaliation is low.