Religion 211 Notes: September 4, 2008 Judaism: The world?s first monotheism Only 1 God History has a purpose Time has a beginning and an end Every life has a purpose (Judaism, Christianity and Islam share these beliefs) Invisible God who is in direct relationship with human persons Highest goal: living at will with God (when you do=sense of peace) Called themselves ?Children of Israel? (the name Jews is recent) Their core teaching: Torah Means instruction or teaching (as in God?s teaching) Translated as ?law? Used to refer to the first 5 books of the bible Describes all teachings of Covenant: A chosen/holy people set apart as the sign of God?s singular presence in the world (coming out of polytheism) A series of promises made to the children (Abraham, Moses, etc) A binding agreement, contract, reciprocal agreement Halakah: to walk (in the way of God) Mitzvot: deeds of love and kindness that embody the justice and mercy of God Key Statement of Faith: The Shema (Deuteronomy 6: 4-9) Shema means ?hear? The first history writing Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. [ HYPERLINK "http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Deuteronomy%206:4-9#fen-NIV-5091a" a ] 5 Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. 6 These commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. 7 Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 8 Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. 9 Write them on the doorframes of your houses and on your gates. Abraham 2000 BCE Starts out at Ur, in modern-day Iraq To Haran north of Syria, to Canaan, later to Egypt, due to famine back to Canaan, buried at Hebron God?s covenant to Abraham: ?Look toward the heaven and count the stars? So shall your descendents be.? Gn 15:5). The land: God gives Abraham the land of Canaan to possess. Hagar and Ishmael: ancestors of Islam Sarah and Isaac: ancestors of Israel Dynamic era: chariot driving Indo-Europeans are pushing indigenous populations across ANE. The Patriarchs Abraham and Sarah Isaac and Rebekah Jacob/Israel and Rachael Moses, the Exodus, and the giving of the Law at Mt. Sinai 1250 BE Israel?s greatest leader At Horeb/Sinai divine name revealed ?I am who I am? YHWH (Jews don?t pronounce it) The Exodus: leads Israel out of Egyptian slavery, parting the Red Sea, Foundational story of Judaism: God leads his people out of slavery. (Ex 3:14) The Wilderness: Mt. Sinai, the giving of the Law the Ten Commandments Ethical monotheism: duties to God and the community. 40 years of wandering in the wilderness The Ark of the Convenant: a portable sanctuary that holds the Ten Commandments Moses brings them to the Promised Land. He dies before they enter the land. The end of the Penteteuch, the first five books of the bible. Written Torah: Tanakh Torah ? ?The Law? Nevi?im ? ?The Prophets? Kethuvim ? ?The Writings? 39 books compiled over approx 1000 years It is complex: oral traditions, sermons, law codes, prophecies, histories, poetry, wisdom literature and much more Council at Yevnah, 90 CE, final form decided The Tanakh is the Christian Old Testament although the books are in a slightly different order Some Jewish writings that did not make it into the Hebrew Bible canon are included in the Christian Bible?s Apocrypha like Tobit, Judith, 1-4 Maccabees and others. Torah Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Also called ?the Penteteuch?, ?Five Books of Moses? Foundational stories: Creation, Noah, stories about the Patriarchs like Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, Moses and Mt. Sinai, the Wilderness Traditions, extensive lawcodes (Leviticus and Deuteronomy)--- up to just before entering the Promised Land. Enuma Elish: Mesopotamian/Babylonian Creation Myth Apsu: father Mummu-Tiamat: mother/counselor? Lahmu and Lahamu: children Anshar: Nudimmud?s grandfather Kishar: Anu: son of Anshar Nudimmud: hero, born of the gods Ea: Marduk?s father Damkina: Marduk?s mother Marduk: head god of Babylon
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