Rabbinic Period CREATEDATE 9/24/09 10:07 AM Historical Background 2TP sects- different early Christianity sea scrolls about power and control 70 C.E.: Second Temple destroyed 132-135 C.E.P Bar Kohkba Revolt group of Jews who don?t like Rome being in charge, tried revolting lasted for 3 years, not successful many rabbis and jews were killed Rabbis Small group of scholars Start in 1st century C.E. Galilee Gain followers and power over time Two main centers Palestine (modern day Israel) Babylonia (modern day Iraq) Written Torah vs. Oral Torah Written ? Hebrew Bible Oral ? Rabbinic interpretations of the written Major rabbinic documents: Misnah Ca. 200 C.E. Palestine Tosefta 3rd century C.E. Palestine Midrash collections 3rd-6th century C.E. Palestine Palestinian Talmud / Yerushalmi 5th century C.E. Palestine Babylonia Talmud / Bavli 6th century C.E. Babylonia Gemara (the completion) is combined with the Mishnah to make a Talmud Our approach to rabbinic literature Rabbis are not normative Rabbinic texts are heavily edited compilations Rabbinic interpretations evolve Rabbis influenced by their environment Affected by time and place Problematic Mixings What does Kraemer mean by ?problematic mixings?? Mixing of Jews and gentiles, jews and other jews, meat and milk ??regulations concerning mixtures and separations are intimatel bound with questions of socializing with those who consume what is prohibited. Legislating one will inevitably regulate the other.? (JE, p. 55) 3 assumptions Taste (ex. if pork fell into some stew) Subjective If you can taste the prohibited invading food, then it?s not allowed but if the taste isn?t there, you can eat it Depends on taste, which varies between people Lenient Allows for certain social interaction Don?t have to throw out the food Accommodations Economic Social Social Ramifications Pragmatic Symbolic What?s the value? What are you communicating? Mixing is about more than just food Focus Texts on p. 56-57 How does the rabbinic concept of ?give taste? function? If you mix idle wine or water with good wine, it?s fine if it doesn?t give taste How is this a leniency? It all depends on user?s choice Focus Texts on p. 61-62 From abstraction to standardization What is the 60/1 Rule? From taste to measure: How is the 60/1 both stringency and a leniency? You can eat a mix if its over 60/1 which makes it lenient but it?s a strict rule because it?s specific Focus Texts on p. 66-67 How is the stance towards meat in 2:3 an accommodation? Olive Oil? If Jews and non-Jews both ate the ?Mediterranean triad,? (wine, olive oil, bread) then blessings might be the only way to distinguish a ?Jewish meal? from a ?non-Jewish meal? In that case, how do blessings function? The function of (rabbinic) blessings Modern example (?In Jesus? name we pray. Amen?) Blessings about making distinctions Between food Between people Blessings reinforce conceptions Culinary (food preferences) Social (people preferences) Historical (narrative preferences/claims) The ?culinary landscape? is not flat (p. 82) P. 74: Catherine Bell on ritual (ritual vs. ritualization = noun vs. verb) midterm question maybe??? Focus Texts T. Berakhot 4:1 (p. 75) What is a ?proof-text?? Texts that offer proof (ex. Psalms quote) What is this text claiming? Everything belongs to God, must bless before deriving benefit or it is considered stealing M. Berakhot 6:1-3 (p.77) What do we learn from these texts? Bless the food to be consumed, symbolic Why are bread and wine singled out? They are the primary foods Why not oil? Bread is dipped in olive oil, so it is secondary Don?t? eat olive oil alone, not satisfying on its own M. Berakhot 6:4-5,7 (p.79) What do we learn from these texts? Specific, what you bless first (order), minor vs. main dishes If blessed before the meal, don?t have to bless again/seconds What is the general rule? Bless primary food, secondary food is exempt Additional Texts t. Berakhot 4:8 Order of a meal for a large banquet- wash, bless, eat ?Women, slaves, and/or minors [who ate together with adult Jewish men] ? they may not invite others [to recite the grace after meals] on their account.? (m.Berakhot 7:2) ?they do not make a [Passover] fellowship association [consisting] of women, slaves, and/or minors, so as not to increase indecency.? (T. Pisha 8:6) What do we learn from studying rabbinic blessings? Blessing wine and bread over olive oil Blessings create distinctions between food and people Priorities and distinctions What is JE?s thesis in this chapter? In b. Hullin 111b (p. 100), what is the difference between clauses A-C and D? A and B talk about blood C is milk and meat but nothing new D is about fish What is ? and is not ? an issue in this text? Secondary transition Use of utensils Separate dishes? The medieval period What does Rashi say (p. 102)? If spoon eaten with hot meat then it has to be boiled to use it for dairy How about R. Baruch b. Isaac of Worms (pp. 102-103)? 44 ? about the spoon Do either of these amount to a prohibition requiring separate dishes? Only if you want to use it for meat and dairy in the same day, different days are okay Why or why not? This is not a practice that works today What does the Rashba say (p. 104) Can one own just one pot? Most likely, since meat wasn?t that popular What do we learn from texts on p. 105? ?meat? knife if you cut meat often, it should be declared just for meat 24-hour period sufficient ?type? (min) = type of vessel not type of food What do we learn from the pietists (do more than is expected) (p. 106)? Separate ?house? Milk/meat bowl How important are individual actions compared to halakhic authorities? Social history vs. intellectual history ?lag? due to conservativism of rabbinic writing custom (minhag) vs. law R. Moses Isserles / R. Joseph Caro (p.108) 2 knives separate milk/meat jugs? (Caro:no; Isserles: yes) separate salt dishes (isserles) increased stringencies, but not outright separation (p.109) Evidence from Jewish converts to Christianity What do we learn? What are the problems/advantages of this literature? ??the birth of the ?modern? Jewish kitchen? by the 18th century fix a usage for a pot (p. 111) Dairy/Meat side of kitchen (p. 111) Mark meat/dairy utensils (p. 111) Why now? Food technology ?separate dishes? a response to new reality (p. 115) post-medieval tendency to prefer stringent rules ?the self-styled pious? (p. 117) symbol of separation between Jew and Jew between Jew and non-Jew Male/public Female/private Lack of knowledge leads to stringencies Midterm No surprises, choices 2 sections 1st choose 6 of 8 questions, 10 points each, 3-6 sentences 2nd choose 1 of 2 essays, 40 points, facts Coming to America How was food and foodways similar in the US? How was it different? America ate much more meat Food was cheap so many more can afford it This made Jews want to eat it more because it was a statement of class when compared at home New struggles to find kosher meat Some keep kosher at home but not out to eat Wanted to portray an image when out, that they were eating American (public and private food identities) Still ate the same foods from back home except instead of holidays, it was more daily Large generation gap Higher classes would help out the lower class Jews to make sure they had food on their table ***Think in terms of what and how they ate How did interactions with other Jews from other countries affect food and foodways? How did interactions with non-Jews affect food and foodways Can choose if they want to be Jewish or not Ruled by the government, not a religious community What do you think of M. Kaplan?s comments (p.184)? How did eating out affect food and foodways? Men are saying that cooking skills decline Trying new foods with the option of different cuisines See quotes on pp. 203-204 Kashrut becomes a divisive issue (pp. 180ff) Turn to p. 206 Read 2nd paragraph (?The encounter??) How does kashrut become an issue? Economic reasons Labor strife, pricing, monopolies (p. 208) Jewish women protest kosher meat prices Communal power New foods (pp. 210ff) What was the problem with the new foods? Some actually wanted to keep kosher How was this problem overcome? Food labels Crisco What do we learn from this example? Marketed to Jews as solution to milk and meat problem, it?s parve so can cook with both ?What makes water impure?? (JE p. 148) Microscope allows them to inspect water and they find bugs in the water More concern with those who certify the water Technology leads to new concerns, both with water and the people involved What do we learn from the quote on the bottom of p. 148? (They continue?.) Everything they were working for was shot down with the discovery of bugs (in both the water and the system) Is the issue the kashrut of the food or the ?kashrut? of the people? Connects the butcher with the Sabbath They aren?t questioning the food, but the person (butcher) If they are not kosher, then the food is not kosher Glatt (pp. 150-151): stricker standard, red meat Smooth lungs A minority opinion that becomes a majority opinion Now applied to people! What is the problem with vegetables? (pp. 155ff) Bugs in lettuce Bugs look like mini crustaceans How is ?bugs in the system? a metaphor? Saying that earlier generations didn?t keep kosher The kalakha of the microscope Read R. Moshe Feinstein and Maimonides on p. 158 The question remains, why now? Issues at this time include: Female rabbis Patrilineal descent (?Who is a Jew??) Shiksa: etymology and entomology Started in the Mishna Conversion and Israeli citizenship Orthodox vs. Conservative/Reform Do you agree with Kraemer? How does the ?Kosher Takeout? article fit in to this discussion? Alternatively, what did you learn from the article? First half of semester What are some themes? What has changed? What has stayed the same? The Bagel: Some general thoughts What does it mean to study the history of a single food item? Its about everything that surrounds the bagel Relevant How does this approach connect with what we have learned thus far in the course? Origins Why do bagel origins matter? Jews interacted with other cultures Polish History What is happening in Polish history over the course of these two chapters? Jews were relatively accepted in Poland Economy is doing fairly well What role does the bagel play? Bagels are a treat still but becoming more common Cultural diffusion happens Eating with others allows you to learn about others How does milk/meat fit in to this history? Hint: think about JE?. 15 and 1600?s allows for social interaction because it isn?t milk or meat A Blessing Dilemma What blessing do you recite over a bagel? Is it bread? Bread items Thanking God for wheat from the ground Why is this an issue? Wash hands, say grace, and then say a long grace after Much more strict and long The same issue applies to pizza For a meal or for snack? Frozen pizza: depends on how it is made Dough is precooked but cheese and sauce isn?t Why discuss these two food items together? 1. Big name brands 2. which produce ?Jewish? foods, 3. and show how technology 4. and marketing 5. affect Jewish law 6. and identity 7. in America (and abroad) Big name brands Compare/contrast the history of Lender?s and Manischewitz Both owners? sons took over and stepped up marketing and grew the companies Both had a revolutionary idea (sliced bagel, huge oven) Both changed their specific products Lender moved here from Poland then to Conn. First to slice, freeze bagels Tapped the Midwest market Manischewitz Started in Cinci Aimed at observant Jews 3 parts to making matzah, done by hand became square when they had machines to do all parts which produce ?Jewish? foods How are bagels and matzah ?Jewish? foods? And show how technology How did technology affect these food items? Allows for mass production Took away jobs Could sell it for much cheaper Extreme kosher (matzah) And Marketing How did marketing benefit these food items? wanted less jewish marketing Paired it with Phili Cream Cheese, helped sell their own product Affect Jewish law How did Jewish law affect these food items (this just applies to matzah) ?look at b. Pesahim 46a And identity How did these food items affect Jewish identity? (cinnamon raisin bagel and square matzah) Type of matzah defines how Jew you are In America (and abroad) How did these food items affect Jews in America Matzah ? shifts power from eastern Europe to america Changes with culture What do we learn from the history of these foods? Thought of Jews because they produces these foods, now think these foods are Jewish because they eat them Are their histories related? Both filled niches Are these foods a metaphor for Jews in America? Different types of bagels can imply different types of Jews Nathan Englander Why is this relevant to the course? Issue in MN and Iowa Connects to earlier issues in the course (FINAL HINT!) Postville Sholom Rubashkin accused of: Inhumane treatment of animals PETA video Temple Grandin Environmental pollution Unfair labor practices Immigration violatons Fraud Took money from clients and made the bank think it was his Forged cosigner names Guilty on 86 of 91 counts How do theses affect kashrut? The food is kosher but is the slaughterer? Do their actions affect the food Spirit of the law vs. letter of the law Letter vs. spirit of the law For most Orthodox Jews, this is not a kashrut issue For Conservative (and Reform, and some liberal Orthodox), this is a kashrut issue Hekhsher Tzedek In response, the Hekhsher Tzedek movement begins Started by Rabbi Morris Allen (conservative, MN) Hekhsher Tzedek = ?Justice Certification? Symbol is the Magen Tzedek Product must first be certified as kosher, then apply for Magen Tzedek they want to be about more than kashrut Let?s examine some of the ideas behind this concept Pay employees a living wage, plus benefits Does this affect the kashrut of food? What is a ?living wage?? Do rabbinic texts on teis subject apply to kashrut? For example: ?one who hires emplyees and instructs them to begin work early and sto stay late ? where it is not the custom to begin early and stay late, he may not require them to do so. Where it is the custom to provide meals ? he provides meals; all is in accordance with the local custom Animal Welfare Does this affect the kashrut of food? Beginning in Talmud, causing animals to suffer is forbidden Does this affect kashrut? For example: ?When the necessity for good food led to the killing of animals, the Torah chose the easiest of deaths and prohibited tormenting them through an inferior slaughter or by piercing? Think of square matzah, tradition vs. technology Environmentalism Does this affect the kashrut of food? For example: ?one is not permitted to cause damage, planning to pay for the damage. Even to cause the damage is prohibited.? Beyond kashrut How do these issues inform your reading of jcarrot.org? How does this blog connect Jewish food issues with broader food concerns in the US and beyond? Hint: think about ?Go Big Read? How do today?s topic compare/contrast with what we have learned so far? Kashrut not just about food, also about people Technology affects meaning of kashrut Most of his family run their own places (offered the dude jobs when he quit his) Took a job caterer for his mom All about being honest, no white lies ?you?re jewish, she?s jewish, what?s the problem? ? at bowling alley after lisa breaks up with him procreation is one of the most powerful commandments in jewish culture Madeline orders lobster then the waiter brings out pork. Leon tells her that she?s jewish and she is a big fan. ?daddy hates jews? implies that she isn?t jewish everyone gives him crap for dating a non-Jewish girl at the wedding he is catering then he goes home with his old gf Lisa mrs. Chadwick makes matzoh ball soup in order to be more jewish family tries to learn more about jewish culture why did we watch this movie? Willing to eat lobster but not the pork Lots of stereotypes Non-Jewish woman is much sexier while jew girl is in white dress, desexualized Food and sex Very obvious when it comes to identity and food, exaggerated Film reflects on society Playing on stereotype of ethnic immigrants (big fat greek wedding) Why did we read jordans article? Why did we read the article on jews, food, and film? Rueben sandwich is non kosher but a jewish food
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