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Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion Emotions Organized psychological and physiological reactions to changes in one?s relationship to the world. These reactions are: Partly inner, or subjective, experiences Partly measurable patterns of behavior and physiological arousal Characteristics of Subjective Experience of Emotion Usually Temporary Either Positive or Negative, or a mixture of both Alters Thought Processes Triggers an Action Tendency Passions that You Feel (whether you want to or not) (Averill, 1982; Frijda, 1986) Syndrome of Inter-related Components Physiological activation (in body and brain) Subjective experience Motor expression Behavioral readiness Cognitive Appraisal (i.e., feeling) (e.g., face, fist, voice) (e.g., fight or flight) (interpretation of psychological meaning) Emotions Brain Regions Involved in Emotion The Autonomic Nervous System Physiological Changes Associated with Emotions From "Voluntary Facial Action Generates Emotion-Specific Autonomic Nervous System Activity,? by R.W. Levenson, P. Ekman, and W.V. Friesen, Psychophysiology, 1990, 24, 363-384, © 1990 Theories of Emotion James?s Peripheral Theory Cannon?s Central Theory Schachter-Singer Theory Saul Kassin, Psychology. Copyright © 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by permission. Also called the James-Lange Theory of Emotion James? Peripheral Theory of Emotion Lie Detection James?s peripheral theory forms the basis for the lie detection industry. Types of Lie Detection Tests: Control question test Directed lie test Guilty knowledge test Problems with Polygraph Tests Saul Kassin, Psychology. Copyright © 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by permission. Also known as the Cannon-Bard Theory Cannon?s Central Theory Saul Kassin, Psychology. Copyright © 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Reprinted by permission. Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer Theory Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) Manipulate, Level of arousal in participants. Available explanations for arousal. Measure, Emotional experience in different conditions. Cover story: effects of vitamin on vision Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) Manipulate, Level of arousal in participants Epinephrine/adrenaline condition: physiological arousal. Placebo condition: no physiological arousal; ?you are not going to feel anything.? Available explanations for arousal Epinephrine conditions Informed: you are going to feel an increase in physiological arousal. Uninformed: you are not going to feel any side effects of injection. Misinformed: you are going to feel a decrease in arousal. Inducing emotional states in participants: confederate Euphoric actor. Angry actor. Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) After injection? Participants were told to fill in a questionnaire in another room. Third experimental manipulation, -Half of the participants exposed to ANGRY confederate. -Half of the participants exposed to EUPHORIC confederate. Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) Measures of emotional experience 1. How irritated, angry or annoyed you feel at present? 2. Observation of participants? behavior. 0 2 3 4 5 Not at all irritated or angry A little irritated or angry Quite irritated or angry Very irritated or angry Extremely irritated or angry Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) Hypotheses 1. Those in placebo condition, no felt emotion because no physiological arousal. 2. Those in adrenaline condition but know that they are going to experience an increase in arousal (informed group): no emotion because they have an explanation for their physiological state. Cognitive Theories: Schachter-Singer (1962) Conclusions Their hypotheses were generally confirmed except for the fact that? Participants in placebo condition still experienced some levels of anger if interacting with angry confederate or euphoria if interacting with euphoric confederate ? Physiological arousal not necessary for emotion COGNITIONS ARE NECESSARY FOR EMOTION: INTERPRETING ONE?S PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL IN TERMS OF THE SOCIAL SITUATION (ANGRY, EUPHORIC) Perceptions of Poverty Components of Emotion Appraisal Theories of Emotion Cognitive interpretation of events, not just bodily responses, is what is important. Lazarus (1991) Arnold, 1960; Frijda, 1986; Smith and Ellsworth, 1985; Scherer et al., 1991 Syndrome of Inter-related Components Physiological activation (in body and brain) Subjective experience Motor expression Behavioral readiness Cognitive Appraisal (i.e., feeling) (e.g., face, fist, voice) (e.g., fight or flight) (goal congruence, responsibility) (Averill, 1982; Frijda, 1986) Appraisal Theories of Emotion Our (simple) appraisals of the meaning of events are the physiological basis of emotion Appraisal Theories of Emotion Buck, R. (1999). The biological affects: A typology. Psychological Review, 106, 301-336. Emotion is not an accident. It is a mode of existence of consciousness, one of the ways in which it understands[?] its ?being-in-the-world.? It has a meaning; it signifies something for my psychic life. Sartre (1948) The Emotions Emotion is simply a way by which concsciousness chooses to live its relationship to the world Sartre (1956) Being & Nothingness Our appraisals of the meaning of events are the psychological basis of emotion Appraisal Theories of Emotion Appraisal Theories Lazarus, R.S. (1991). Emotion and Adaptation. New York, NY: Oxford Press. Our subjective appraisals of the meaning of events are the psychological basis of emotion Emotion Core Relational Theme Anger a demeaning offense against me and mine Anxiety facing uncertain, existential threat Fright facing an immediate, concrete, and overwhelming physical danger Guilt having transgressed a moral imperative Shame having failed to live up to an ego-ideal Sadness having experienced an irrevocable loss Envy wanting what someone else has Jealousy resenting a third party for loss or threat to another?s affection Disgust taking in or being too close to an indigestible object or idea Happiness making reasonable progress toward to realization of a goal Pride enhancement of one?s ego-identity by taking credit for a valued object or achievement, either our own or that of someone/group with whom we identify Relief distressing goal-incongruent condition that has changed for the better/gone away Hope fearing the worst but yearning for the better Love desiring or participating in affection, usually but not necessarily reciprocated Compassion being moved by another?s suffering and wanting to help Appraisals (Lazarus, 1991) 1. Primary (is anything at stake?) 2. Secondary (how can I cope?) Goal Relevance Goal Congruence Goal Content/ Type of Ego-involvement Responsibility Coping Potential Future Expectancy (is a goal ?at stake??) (harm or benefit?) (identity, evaluation, morality) Lazarus (1991) Appraisals for anger Primary Appraisal Components 1. If there is goal relevance, then any emotion is possible, including anger. If not, no emotion. 2. If there is goal incongruence, then only negative emotions are possible, including anger. 3. If the type of ego-involvement engaged is to preserve or enhance the self-or social-esteem aspect of one?s ego-identity, then the emotion possibilities include anger, anxiety, and pride. Secondary Appraisal Components 4. If there is blame, which derives from the knowledge that someone is accountable for the harmful actions, and they could have been controlled, then anger occurs. If the blame is to another, then anger is directed externally; if to oneself, the anger is directed internally. 5. If coping potential favors attack as viable, then anger is facilitated. 6. If future expectancy is positive about the environmental response to attack, then anger is facilitated.
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