Judaism Zoroastrianism Christianity Beginnings -Hebrew people -Migrated to Egypt -Moses led his people out -Zoroaster: *Prophet *Preached and wrote down ideas of his ?true religion? * Experienced revelations. -Jesus: Palestinian Jew -Messiah(?savior? -Religious movement within Judaism -Told to non-Jews as well Sacred Literature -Old Testament -Zend Avesta -Bible/New Testament Doctrines -Monotheism(Yahweh -Transcendent -3 aspects: covenant, law, prophets -Monotheistic(Ahuramazda -Humans choose path b/w good (Ahur.) and bad (Ahriman) -Each soul judged -Jesus: trinity -Jesus: savior, by accepting Jesus, people=saved Practices -People=obey his will -Follow good pathway, follow Ahuramazda -Church, accept and follow Jesus. Institutions and Organizations -Prophets: cried out against social injustice > Concern of humanity, came up with concepts that enriched Jewish tradition None -Secret meetings held after Romans banned Christianity Branches, Divisions, Groups -Sadducees: co-op. w/ Romans -Pharisees: freedom from Romans but no violence -Essences: waited for Messiah -Zealots: violent; overthrow Romans None None Goals -Separate w/ non-Jews -Achieve paradise -Achieve Heaven Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Beginnings Aryans brought with Vedas Siddartha Gautama: sat under a tree, find answer to worldly matters Mahavira-contemporary of Siddhartha Gautama Sacred Literature -Vedas and Upanishads None None Doctrines -Reincarnation -Karma: based on actions -Atman--soul -Reincarnation -Karma: based on deeds of current life only -No Atman Extreme strictness Same as Buddhism in every way but is not the Middle Path Practices -Penance -Meditation -Yoga -Ascetism -Ascetism -Penance and yoga -No rituals -Strict?. no worldly matters, beg for food, some reject clothing Institutions and Organizations -Temples Monasteries, Asoka pillars -Secret meetings held after Romans banned Christianity Branches, Divisions, Groups -Caste system Theraveda vs. Mahayana None Goals -Achieve moksha -Achieve nirvana -Achieve nirvana Sophists Socrates Plato Aristotle Epicurean Stoics Skeptics -Self improvement -No speculation of universe -No absolute right or wrong -Rhetoric oral persuasion -Perceive one?s own goods through wisdom -Self improvement -Free thought among self -Rational thought -Self question -Knowledge within self -Honest living -Help society -Forms and ideas -Understand forms through rational thought. -Ideal form of government -Help society -Senses enable individ. Acquire objects -Analysis -Rational thought -3 forms of gov. -Self interest -Pleasure -No politics -Build friendship and private communities -Self interest -Happiness -Living in harmony w/ gods -Public service -Virtuous lives -Inner peace -Can?t know anything for sure -Focus on getting along with each other Confucianism Daoism Legalism -Rational order -Followed Dao (sim to dharma) -duty and humanity -skeptical of heaven -spirits live in atmosphere -deities and ancestral spirits -superior positions -opposes ultimate meaning of Confucianism -harmony with nature -salvation -simple, self knowledge -no rational thought -humans:naturally evil -strict laws and punishments -no moral core -strong ruler -men(not superior India: Literature: Ramayana and Mahabharata Originally recited in ceremonies, epics Mahabharata?tale of dharma and moral confrontations Ramayana?triumph of good over evil Kalidasa: famous author (lived in Gupta dynasty) wrote many plays-famous: Shakuntala combine languages?propelled by a goddess? powers 1 to 10 acts, plots taken from legends of gods & kings music: came from chanting Vedic hymns Architecture and sculpture: Aryan buildings(wood Asoka?s time(stone Pillar, stupa, and rock chamber Pillars: commemorate Buddha Rock Chambers: carved out of cliff on mountainside Stupa: house a relic of Buddha, place of devotion Highly decorated Overly sexual?not meant to express pleasures of this world Math/Science Charted planet movements and realized Earth=sphere at early date Idea of physics(similar to Greeks Technology Mostly Buddhist caves and temples China: Technology Lacquer and ceramics develop Pottery Terra cotta figures?army buried underground Sophisticated work Literature: Biographies of key figures Greece: Drama: Based on suffering heros back then Focused on single event and its meaning In trilogies Universal themes, problems w/ good and evil, pride Comedy: dev. later after tragedy Art: Expressing eternally true ideas Technology: Temples: columns of wood then marbles later. Male nude Sculptures(stiff Hellenistic: Literature and Art Over 500,000 scrolls Drama: Athens: theatrical center of Greek world Comedy develops Hero falls in love with woman, marry, happily ever after Polybius: chief historian Scluptors traveled world wide Emotional universal art Science and Math Established principles Archimedes(value of pie, Archimedean screw, and specific gravity for water Rome: Literature: Influenced strongly by Greek Poems in Latin by end of the 3rd century. Art: Based on freaks for aspiration Intense realism
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