arid areas such as deserts and steppes are defined by their?
mean annual temp = 5C, total precipitation = 40cm, total evaporation = 60 cm
Which of the following would be correctly classified as a desert?
rain shadow effect
The west coast of Oregon is known for its wet, temperature climate. However, the eastern part of the state is extremely arid. This is a result of what?
what is the primary agent of erosion in the desert?
wind lifts fine, loose sediment from the desert floor and leaves behind larger particles such as pebbles and cobbles. What is this process called?
what type of sand dunes are these?
bottom of a dry wash
which of the following would be most dangerous place to camp in the desert?
what is the primary force driving surface waves in the open ocean?
in circular orbits
as a wind-generated wave advances in the open ocean, it causes water molecules to move in:
half a wavelength
you are scuba diving in the open ocean.. how deep must you dive before you no longer feel the effect of surface waves?
t/f over time wave erosion acts to straighten an irregular coastline
long shore current
Oblique waves carry sediment along the beach in a zigzag pattern and create a current that flows parallel to the coast?
what is the average salinity of seawater?
the surface waters of the ocean are warmed by the sun and mixed by wind and waves this uppermost zone is called the :
density differences in water
most deep ocean current are driven by
be deflected west
earths rotation on its axis will cause a current going from the north pole toward the equator to
the gyre in the south pacific ocean rotates
gravitational pull of the moon
which of the following is the greatest force driving tides in the ocean?
in what layer of the atmosphere do you live?
nitrogen and oxygen
earth atmosphere is primarily composed of what two gases?
The weather forecast predicts clear, cool, sunny weather. What type of pressure system?
low pressure system with inward spiraling winds
describe a cyclone
how much of earth's land area is currently covered by glaciers
which of the following is NOT an indicator of past glaciation
relative to the last 500 million years of earth history, are we currently living in an icehouse or a greenhouse interval?
anomalously cold years
historically, major volcanic eruptions have been associated with :
the 10 warmest years on record since 1998
which of the following statements is ture?
which of the following is most likely to be preserved in the fossil record
a fossilized bone has pore-spaces filled with pyrite but some of the original bone remains. what type of preservation is this?
petrified wood is one example of the fossilization process known as:
an extinction is defined as ___ of individuals in a species die off
t/f viable dna has been extracted from insect preserved in amber that is 30 million years old
amber originated as fossilized
what fossil confirmed that dinosaurs were more closely related to birds than lizards
a rock with lots of pore spaces btwn sediment particles is very ___
a rock with pore spaces that are high connected is very ____
t/f a rock may have high porosity but low permeability
coal is formed from an ancient accumulation of ___ that have been put under extremely high pressure.
hydraulic fracturing (fracking) articifically increases the ____ of a rock.
panning for gold is a common way to extract the valuable ___ deposits from the less dense sediment it is mixed with
when groundwater moves through fractures in a rock, cooling and deposting gold as precipitant within the cracks, the result is called a ___ deposit
When chemical weathering and water percolation decompose a rock in such a way as to remove sediment grains and leave behind copper that had precipitated in pre spaces, the result is called a _____ deposit
high temp and high rainfall
what two factors speed up rates of chemical weather in rocks
weather, erosion, deposition, lithification
what is correct sequence of steps in the formation of a sedimentary rock
___, a common mineral in many felsic igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in many detrial sedimentary rocks
__ is the process by which material is physically removed by water, wind or ice to allow fresh, unsalted tock to be exposed to weathering
a ___ is characterized by the segregation of light and dark colored minerals into thin layers or bands?
slate, phylite, shnist,gneiss
which of following list the rocks in order of increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamporphism
what is the primary force controlling mass wasting
which would increase the angle of repose
glaciers and groundwater
where is the majority of earth's freshwater contained
where is the majority of water contained
a rock with lots of pore spaces between particles is considered to have high :
in order to have reliable access to groundwater, a well must be drilled below the
the antarctic sheet contains __ of earth's freshwater
glacial ice is formed from granular snow called
loss exceeds accumulation
a glacier will retreat up a valley when
sediment deposited by ice is generally
sediment deposited by water
which of the following would you NOT expect to see on a glacial landscape
glacial formed loess deposits
iowa's rich farmland is largely a result of
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