What is an infection in a joint (s) with bacteria, virus and/or fungus that causes cartilage damage?
Septic (infectious, bacterial) arthritis
What is the term for an increase in the density of a bone?
DJD stands for what?
Degenerative joint disease
List a few radiographic signs of hip dysplasia
shallow acetabulum, flattened femoral head <half of the femoral head inside the acetabulum
What is an osseous (bony) outgrowth seen radiographically?
Osteophyte/ bone spur
What immobility and consolidation of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure?
What is destruction of a bone, seen as reduced density?
What is luxation or a dislocation?
Complete loss of contact between articular surface of a joint
Why are articular fractures difficult to treat?
Must achieve anatomical reduction and rigid skeletal fixation to perfectly align cartilage surface ( no step defect) or DJD will occur rapidly
Partial loss of contact between articular surfaces of a joint
What is possible sequela to Salter type 5 fracture? (Compression)
Angular limb deformity ( valgus and varus deviation of bones from the axis of of the limb past the joint
What is valgus and varus? how do you remember which is which?
VaLgus: lateral deviation of bones past joint
Varus: medial deviation
"L" in valgus =lateral
What results from twisting or overstretching a joint, causing a ligament to tear or separate from its bony attachment?
What is inflammation of a bursa?
What would be seen in the right side heart (pulmonic circulation) problems?
Blood backs up into the body ( caudal vena cava, filling the abdomen with fluid and into the jugular vein, resulting in a jugular pulse or distention on some species.
What would be seen with problems on the left side?
Blood backs up into the lungs (congestion) resulting in coughing and dyspnea ( difficult breathing)
What is the cranial part of the heart silhouette in a lateral radiograph?
right ventricle (passes from right to left around the cranial side of the heart)
What is an ectopic cilia?
misplaced eyelash that may contract and scratch the cornea
Describe the external ear canal?
Passes ventrally and then horizontally to reach the ear drum
What is capillary refill time?
Time it takes the mucosa (e.g gums) blanched by finger pressure to return to a normal pink color
How is a SQ injection performed?
Tent the skin at the junction of the neck and back and slip the needle into the subQ tissue
What are the clinical significance of the umbilicus?
How are anal glands expressed?
Thumb in one ischiorectal fossa and fingers in the other. Push forward (cranial to the anal sacs) squeeze, and pull caudally to express the contents of the sac into a paper towel held in your gloved hand
What is the clinical importance of a prepucial discharge?
What happens when dogs or cats nails are cut too short?
"Quicked" = pain and bleeding
What is it called when one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum?
What is an onychectomy and how is regrowth prevented?
Declaw, dorsal aspect of the ungual crest must be removed
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