Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
When excess CSF accumulates in the ventricles, the CSF pressure rises.
Cause: abnormal accumulation of CSF may be due to obstruction to CSF flow or an abnormal rate of CSF production and/or reabsorption.
Symptoms: In babies whose fontanels have not yet closed, the head bulges due to the increased pressure. If the fluid buildup persists, it can compress and damage delicate nervous tissue
Treatment: Draining the excess CSF. In one procedure, called endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), a neurosurgeon makes a hole in the floor of the third ventricle, allowing the CSF to drain directly into the subarachnoid space.
Causes for adults: may occur after a head injury, meningitis, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because the adult skull bones are fused together, this condition can quickly become life-threatening and requires immediate intervention.
Inflammation of the meninges.
Cause: infection, usually caused by a bacterium or virus
Symptoms: fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, confusion, lethargy, and dorwsiness. Treatment: Bacteria meningitis may be fatal if not treated promptly; viral meningitis usually resolves on its own in 1-2 weeks. A vaccine is available to help protect against some types of bacterial meningitis. Viral meningitis has no specific treatment.
Also known as lumbar puncture. A local anesthetic is given, and a long hollow needle is inserted into the subarachnoid space to withdraw CSF for diagnostic purposes; to introduce antibiotics, contrast media for myelography, or anesthetics; to administer chemotherapy, to measure CSF pressure; and /or to evaluate the effects of treatment for diseases such as meningitis.
During this proceudure, the patient lays on his or her side with the vertebral column flexed. Flexion of the vertebral column increases the distance between the spinous processes of the vertebrae, which allows easy access to the subarachnoid space. The spinal cord ends around L2. The spinal meninges and CSF extend to the second sacral vertebra S2. Between vertebrae L2 and S2 the spinal meninges are present, but the spinal cord is absent.
Spinal tap is normally perormed in adults between L3-L5 lumbar vertebrae because this region provides safe access to the subarachnoid space without the risk of damaging the spinal cord.
Also known as a stroke or brain atack. Characterized by abrupt onset of persistent neurological symtpoms such as paralysis or loss of sensation that arise from destruction of brain tissue
Cause: intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding from a blood vessel in the pia mater or brian), emboli (blood clots), and atherosclerosis (formation of cholesterol-containing plaques that block blood flow) of the cerebral arteries.
Risk factors: high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, heart disease, narrowed carotid arteries, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), diabetes, smoking, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake.
Treatment: a clot-dissolving drug called tissue lasminogen activater (t-PA) is now being used to open up blocked blood vessels in the brain. The drug is most effective when administered within three hours of the onset of the CVA, however, and is helpful only for CVAs due to a blood clot. "Cold therapy" may be successful.
An episode of temporary cerebral dysfunction caused by impaired blood flow to part of the brain
Symptoms: dizziness, weakness, numbness, or paralysis in a limb or on one side of the body; drooping of one side of the face; headache; slurred speech or difficulty understanding speech; and/or a partial loss of vision or double vision. Sometimes nausea or vomiting also occur. The onset of symptoms is sudden and reaches maximum intensity almost immediately.
Usually persists for 5 to 10 minutes and only rarely lasts as long as 24 hours. It leaves no persistent neurological deficits.
Cause: blood clots, atherosclerosis, and certain blood disorders.
Cause: hard blow to the back of the neck or upper neck. Can rapidly lead to death
Symptoms of nonfatal injury to the medulla: paralysis and loss of sensation on the opposit side of the body, and irregularities in breathing or heart rhythm. Alcohol overdose also suppresses the medullary rhythmicity area and may result in death.
Damage to the cerebellum can result in a loss of ability to coordinate muscular movements. Symptoms: Blind folded people with this condition cannot touch tohe tip of their nose with a finger because they cannot coordinate movement with their sense of where a body part is located. Another symptom of ataxia is a changed speech pattern due to uncoordinating or abnormal walking movements.
Causes: People who consume too much alcohol and as a result of degenrative diseases (multiple sclerosis), trauma, brain tumors, genetic factors, and as a side effect of medications prescribed for bipolar disorder.
Definition: A disorder characterized by short, recurrent attacks involving motor, sensory, or psychological malfunction; it almost never affects intelligence.
Cause: Attacks initiated by abnormal, synchronous electrical discharges from millions of neurons in the brain. Brain damage at nirth, metabolic disturbances, infections; toxins; vascular disturbances; head injuries; and tumors and abscesses of the brain. Most epileptic seizures have no demonstrable cause
-Auras warn the person that the seizure is about to happen
MS a disease that causes a progressive destruction of myelin sheaths surrounding neurons in the CNS. It usually appears between the ages of 20 and 40, affecting females twice as often as males. Most common in whites. It is an autoimmune disease- the body's own immune system spearheads the attack. The multiple regions of the myelin sheaths deteriorate to scleroses, which are hardened scars or plaques. The destruction of myelin sheaths slows and then short circuits propagation of nerve impulses.
Most common form: relapsing-remitting MS.
Symptoms: feeling of heaviness or weakness in the muscels, abnormal senstations, or double vision. An attack is followed by a period of remission during which the symptoms temporarily disappear. Usually occur every year or two with remission periods and a progressive loss of function.
Cause: unclear, both genetic susceptibility and exposure to some environmental factor appear to contribute
Definition; a progressive disorder of the CNS that typically affects its victims around age 60. It involves the degeneration of neruons that extend from the substantia nigra to the putamen and caudate nucleus, where they normally release the neurotransmitter dopamine. So there is too high of a level of dopamine and too much ACh.
Symptoms: tremor or shaking. Also, muslce tone may increase, causing rigidity of the body part. Rigidity of the facial muscles gives the face a masklike appearance. The expression is characterized by a wide-eyed, unblinking stare and a slightly open mouth with uncontrolled drooling. Motor perferance is impared by bradykinesia (slowness of movements). Muscular movements also exhibit (hypokinesia) decreasing range of motion. Example is handwriting becoming smaller and illegible.
Causes: unknown, but toxic environmental chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, and carbon monoxide are suspected contributing agents.
Treamtnet:directed toward increasing levels of dopamine and decreasing levels of ACh. No exact treatment but many drugs tried to do this. also a surgical technique that destroys the globus pallidus that generates tremors and produces muscle rigidity is destr
A disabling senile dimentia, the loss of reasoing and ability to care for oneself. It is the fourth leading cause of death among the elderly, after heart disease, cancer, and stroke.
Cause: unkonw, but evidence suggests it is due to a combination of genetic facts, environmental or lifestyle factors, and the aging process. Mutations in three different genes lead to early-onset forms of AD. History of head injury is an environmental risk.
-Disorientation grows, memories of past events disappear, and episodes of paranoia, hallucination or violent changes in mood may occur.
-Brains with people who have this disease show a loss of neurons that liberate ACh, beta-amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles.
Treatment: drugs that inhibit AChE improve alertness and behanvior. Some evidence suggests that vitamin E, estrogen, ibprofen, and ginkgo biloba extract may have sligh beneficial effects.
Injury to the sciatic nerve.
Symptoms: pain may extend from the buttock down the the posterior and lateral aspect of the lega nd the lateral aspect of the foot.
Causes: The nerve may be hurt from a slipped disk, dislocated hip, osteoarthritis of lumbosacral spine, pressure from the uterus during pregnancy, inflammation, irritation, or an improperly administered gluteal intramuscular injection. In addition, sitting on a wallet or other object for a long period of time can compress the nerve and induce pain
Definition: Neuralgia (pain) via one or more brnaches of the trigeminal nerve. Injury to the mandibular nerve may cause paralysis of the chewing muscle and a loss of the sensation of touch, temperatur, and proprioception in the lower part of the face.
Cause: inflammation or lesions. It is caused by anything that presses on the trigeminal nerve or its brances. It occurs almost exclusinvely in people over 60 and can be the first sign of a disease such as MS or diabetes which damage the nerves
Definition: an inability to use or comprehend words. Damage to Broca's speech area results in nonfluent aphasia, an inability to properly form words. Peopel with nonfluent aphasia know what they wish to say but cannot properly speak the words. Damgage to the Wernicke's area, the common integrative area, or the auditory association area results in fluent aphasia, characterized by faulty understanding of spoken or written words. A person experiencing this type may produce strings of words that have no meaning ("word salad").
Cause: injury to language areas of the cerebral cortex
Problems reading and spelling words
Cause: most likely a genetic condition. Areas in the left side of the brain in people with dyslexia are lower when they are reading.
Symptoms: children have difficulty putting together sequences, mix up words, have trouble rhyming, delayed speech impairment.
Treatment: No cure, but different teaching methods and using things such as mind maps and voice recognition software
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!