weak QF mm. sx: anterior knee pain, stiffness, catching and grinding rx: increase hamstring flexibility and VM mm. (quad fem group) strength
occurs in kicking sports overuse injury in kids (10-15 yrs) enlarged tibial tuberosity, growth plate pulled away from shaft
Damage to common fibular nn.
-fracture/cast of fib head can sever/press on nn. -sx: foot drop (loss of ant. mm.) and waddling gait (trendelenburg) -leads to freq. inversion injuries to lat. leg -test: deep nn = pinprick btwn toes + dorsiflex; superficial = eversion, sensory lat leg
metatarsal stress fracture
occurs in activities with a lot of marching, walking, shuffling (basketball, soldiers, etc)
-injury to MCL, medial meniscus, ACL (test ACL with ant. drawer sign) -cause: lateral hit to the flexed knee while the foot is fixed = forceful abduction of the tibia and knee twisting
-degenerative joint disease: includes articular cartilage, meniscus and bone -non-inflammatory -effects synovial (diarthrodial) joints -cause: old age wear and tear -leads to bone on bone contact
-sprain = tears in LATERAL ligament fibers -almost always INVERSION injuries which occur during plantarflexion -grades I-->III -lateral leg compartment: fibularis longus + brevis mm.
-waddling gait -occurs with weak glut med/min or damage to superior gluteal nerve (damages glut med/min) -also occurs with fracture of fib. head damaging common fib nn.
-streching/avulsion of the ischial tendon -quick start sports (sprinting)
-mild anterior compartment syndrome -strain of ant. compart (mainly TA) -cause: overextension -sx: painful swelling of muscle tissue and edema -common in sedentary people who do walk-a-thons
patellar reflex (knee jerk)
-tests femoral nn. and L2-L4 regions of the spinal cord
ant. compart. syndrome
-shin splints: mild, caused by strain on TA -crural fascia: thick/tight; edema --> compresses artery-->loss blood supply-->ischemia and tissue necrosis -damage to deep fib nn. (ant leg) --> foot drop sign -rx: fasciotomy
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