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An analytical method with a low detection limit would:
a. Measure only what is being assayed
b. Measure high concentrations of analytes
c. Perform accurately in the presence of interfering substances
d. Measure low concentrations of analytes
The images below represent the results of normal and abnormal levels of control that are tested daily for a particular analyte. On which day should the run be rejected if Westgard rules are used to evaluate quality control?
On day 12, only one of the controls exceeded 2SD; therefore the run could be accepted. However, the same control on day 13 again exceeded 2 SD and the run should be rejected.
Identify the Revolving nosepiece and Mechanical stage:
a. K, L
b. C, D
c. F, G
d. A, B
Xanthochromia in CSF is characteristic of:
d. None of the above
Identify the Body/or frame and Illuminator/diaphragm:
a. B, D
b. J, K
c. A, J
d. L, F
Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the lack of vacuum in the tubes?
a. The tubes are cracked.
b. The tubes are past their expiration date.
c. The tubes were opened, restoppered and put back into the closet.
d. Air entered the tube when the needle pierced the stopper.
b. Manufacturers attach a label to each tube that contains important information. One piece of information included on the label is the expiration date for that lot of tubes. When the expiraton date is reached, the tubes should not be used because the vacuum may not be sufficient to fill the tube to an adequate volume. The phlebotomist should have checked the expiration date of the tubes before using them for the venipuncture. All the tubes from that lot should have been discarded.
Absorbance (A) of a solution may be derived from percent transmittance using which formula?
a. 1+ log%T
b. 2+ log%T
c. 1 - log%T
d. 2- log%T
e. log%T x 2
No additional testing is required when a positive result is obtained using rapid anti-HIV testing technology. True or False.
To properly use a volumetric pipette calibrated "to deliver" (TD), one should:
What is ergonomics?
a. The study of human capabilities in relation to work demands.
b. The science of human measurement.
c. The study of muscular activity.
d. None of the above.
A blood sample is left on a phlebotomy tray for four hours before it is delivered to the laboratory. Which group of tests could still be performed?
a. glucose, Na, K, Cl, PCO2
b. uric acid, BUN, creatinine
c. total and direct bilirubin
d. CK, ALT, ALP, ACP
Which electrophoresis method first creates a pH gradient across the gel before migration of proteins?
a. isoelectric focusing
b. routine serum electrophoresis
c. capillary electrophoresis
d. two-dimensional electrophoresis
The laboratory compliance plan states that an employee can be disciplined for violating laws and compliance policies up to and including:
a. Verbal warning
b. Written notice
c. Disciplinary probation
d. Immediate termination
Match the technique to the adverse effect it has on a capillary specimen.
a. Clots in specimen hemolysis.
b. Specimen contaminated or diluted with tissue fluid.
c. Decreased blood flow.
a. Failure to mix a specimen containing an anticoagulant by inverting the sealed specimen container several times after collection of the specimen.
b. Puncture of the cleansed site before alcohol is completely dry.
Not wiping away the first drop of blood prior to specimen collection.
c. Holding the hand from which blood is being collected in an upward position during collection of the specimen.
Match the following test principles with the most appropriate response:
a. Signal amplification using alkaline phosphatase and no thermal cycling.
b. Target amplfication using reverse transcriptase. No thermal cycling is needed.
c. Signal amplification using alkaline phosphatase and no thermal cycling.
d. Signal amplification using alkaline phosphatase and no thermal cycling.
If a laboratory 's control range (using a 99.7 confidence interval) for a given assay is 20.0 to 50.0, what would its means and one standard deviation be:
a. Mean = 35.0 SD = 15.0
b. Mean = 35.0 SD = 10.0
c. Mean = 40.0 SD = 7.5
d. Mean = 35.0 SD = 5.0
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be maintained and be available to employees in the:
a. Housekeeping Department
b. Nursing Office
c. Personnel Department
d. Workplace area
e. Safety Cabinet
The term that identifies how close a set of results are to each other when running a quality control validation or similar study is called:
d. Both accuracy and precision
e. Both accuracy and reliability
Vision breaks to glance away and focus on a distant object should be taken at which of these intervals?
a. Every 5 minutes
b. Every 20 minutes
c. Every hour
d. Every 2 hours
Which of the following conditions is most likely when an oligoclonal band is seen in CSF electrophoresis without a corresponding serum peak?
a. Lymphoproliferative disorder
c. Multiple sclerosis
d. Traumatic lumbar puncture
In a normal distribution of results, the mean value +/- 2 SDs will include what percentage of the population?
Which of the following entities is not associated with a function of or impact on the clinical laboratory?
Which of the following microscopic techniques is capable of producing a 3-dimensional image :
a. Light microscope
b. Scanning electron microscope
c. Phase contrast microscope
d. Darkfield microscope
Which of the following infectious agents represent the greatest risk to the laboratory worker:
What are fires called that involve electricity?
The correct answer is highlighted below
a. Class A
b. Class B
c. Class C
Match the following principles with their instruments.
a. Measures change in vapor pressure
b. Measures amount of electricity passing between two electrodes
c. Measures Light scatter by particles
d. Measures absorbance of light at a specific wavelength
Which of these United States' federal agencies has the responsibility of enforcing the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard?
a. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
b. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
c. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
The majority of all laboratory errors occur during which phase of laboratory testing?
What percentage solution of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is recommended as a routine laboratory disinfectant:
A 200 mg/dl solution was diluted 1:10. This diluted solution was then additionally diluted 1:5. What is the concentration of the final solution?
a. 2 mg/dl
b. 4 mg/dl
c. 20 mg/dl
d. 40 mg/dl
e. 200 mg/dl
50 ml of a 10.0 mg/dl working standard is required for a particular assay. How much of a 5.0 mg/ml stock solution would be required to prepare the working standard:
a. 100 ml
b. 10 ml
c. 1 ml
d. 0.1 ml
What is the mean of the following data set? 15, 16, 18, 16, 14, 10, 20, 12, 14
Some amino acids have more than one codon to direct their placement, this is termed:
Convert 800 microliters to milliliters.
a. 0.08 mL
b. 0.80 mL
c. 8.0 mL
d. 80 mL
e. 800 mL
What is internal quality control?
a. Using only data from one shift in quality control calculations
b. Comparing one laboratory's results to those of other similar labs.
c. Testing commercial materials in-house to quickly verify test validity.
d. Conducting in-house strategy meetings.
In the Westgard system for evaluating control values, which one of the following is NOT a rule for rejecting the run?
Match the following RNA's to the most appropriate statement.
a. Responsible for amino acid transport
b. Location of protein synthesis
c. Carries the protein message to the cytoplasm
At pH 8.6 proteins are charged and will migrate toward the:
c. Point of inoculation
Which of the following would be the BEST data source to identify opportunities to improve timeliness?
a. Complaints from physicians
b. Incident reports
c. Outliers in turnaround time studies
d. Surveys of patient satisfaction
What section of the MSDS would provide information about whether a chemical is carcinogenic?
a. Physical and chemical data
b. Health hazard data
c. Reactivity data
d. Handling and storage data
The migration rate of proteins on cellulose acetate is primarily the result of:
a. Molecular content of the protein
b. Ionic charge on the proteins
c. Concentration of the proteins
d. Type of proteins
Which of these methods are used to identify prior exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
a. Tuberculin skin test
b. Gram stain
c. White blood cell count
d. Blood tests known as interferon-gamma release assays
Examining the Youden Plot to the right, you would:
a. Suspect a systematic error
b. Suspect a random error
c. Suspect an undefined error
d. Accept all controls as being within acceptable limits.
As defined by a Gaussian distribution curve, what percentage of values would be expected to fall within two standard deviations of the mean:
Which of the following is not a nucleotide in RNA?
Which of the following lipoproteins will form a creamy layer at the top of stored, non-fasting plasma specimens?
a. High-density lipoproteins
b. Low-density lipoproteins
d. Very low-density lipoproteins
The relative centrifugal force is a function of :
a. Specimen type
d. Radius and RPMs
The risk of exposure to and infection of TB disease is related to:
a. Country of birth
d. Access to medical services
e. All of the above
The term "Contaminated Sharps" means:
a. any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin
b. needles and lancets that have not been used
c. contaminated needles, no contaminated broken glass
Which property of solutes listed below determines the direction of migration (which electrode the solutes migrate to) in routine serum electrophoresis?
A liquid ion-exchange membrane electrode using the antibiotic valinomycin is MOST selective for:
Match the following detection methods with the most appropriate response:
a. Can be combined with fluorescence or dyes and uses standard chemical reactions
b. Molecules emit light at a longer wavelength when excited at a shorter wavelength and can be stained as well as labeled
c. Release of light energy as the product of a chemical reaction
d. Uses a scintillation counter to detect decay
e. Movement in a gel matrix caused by an electrical field
What is the primary target of the Hepatitis B virus?
d. Blood cells
The MOST accurate observation about osmotic pressure is that it is:
a. proportional to concentration of solute particles
b. equal to number of solvent molecules times a factor
c. measurable by how much it raises the freezing point of water
Which one of the following statements about blood collection tubes is INCORRECT?
a. Red top tubes are used for electrolytes, and contain anticoagulant.
b. Lavender top tubes contain EDTA and are used for CBC.
c. Light blue top tubes are used for coagulation testing and contain sodium citrate.
Enzyme-multiplied immunoassay techniques (EMIT) differ from all other types of enzyme immunoassays in that:
Which laboratory is regulated by the FDA?
a. Blood Bank
Which one of the following statements about heelstick is incorrect?
a. You may collect blood from any part of the heel.
b. Do not milk the heel excessively as this may cause hemolysis.
c. Do not apply an adhesive bandage to a neonate's heel.
d. Wipe away the first drop of blood.
The goal of an ergonomics program is to prevent which of the following disorders?
a. Autoimmune disorders
b. Allergic contact dermatitis
c. Musculoskeletal disorders
c. The goal of an ergonomics program is the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. Autoimmune disorders are medical conditions that are not related to ergonomics. The prevention of allergic contact dermatitis is the goal of a latex education program.
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