Cognitive Dissonance ? Festinger I. Sources ? Aversive drive (desire for consistency) A. Inconsistency of beliefs (JM is friend ? like me ? but does something I abhor ? not like me) B. Inconsistency of belief and action Smoking is bad/I smoke) C. Expectation differs from perception (Bruner and Postman?s card experiments) II. Reducing dissonance A. When between attitude (belief) and behavior 1. Selective exposure (filtering; discounting) 2. Reassurance (particularly for post-decision dissonance) 3. Counterattitudinal advocacy (change in behavior causes attitude shift) Note: not simply lying. 4. Justification (e.g. compliance) B. When between expectation and perception 1. Recognition (change expectation) 2. Compromise (change perception and expectation) 3. Disruption (reject situation) 4. Dominance Reaction (change perception) III. Modifications A. Changes to dissonance creation 1. Rationalization instead of rational (Aronson): Dissonance from psychological (internal) inconsistency not logical inconsistency. Self concept becomes confounding variable. 2. New Look model (Cooper): Degree of personal responsibility and perception of adverse reaction determine dissonance reduction strategy B. Change to dissonance reduction: Self Affirmation ? increase self esteem to compensate
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