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What percentage of U.S. adults regularly or sometimes get their campaign news from late night comedy shows?
12% regularly, 19% sometimes
According to lecture, what types of appeals do political advertisements use? Be able to recognize and give examples.
o ReassuranceEx) Recall the Obama ad where he is with smiling children, talking to a soldier and doing other positive things…His had made you trust him, gave you hope that he would help America, and if you supported
What are the effects of political advertisements dependent upon? Who is most and least likely to be affected?
Message Content (are you persuaded by it?)
Message quality (even if you agree, and the quality is really bad and tacky, you might be turned off by it)
Receivers dispositions (are you a pro or con to this campaign?)
If you are a committed Trump, it doesn't matter how amazing Jeb’s ad is…you will always support Trump
Most likely to be affected if you don’t feel that strongly about a topic…and least likely to be affected if you do feel strongly about a topic
What are Negative Campaign Ads?
Negative Campaign Ad: “An ad directed to the failings of an opponent in relation to either character or issues.”
Effects: “Sleeper Effect” (initial negative attitudes about the source and message, but overtime the source is forgotten while the message is remembered),
1988: George Bush attacked his opponent to load the opposition down with “negatives” until it sunk — HAD AN EFFECT
Attacks = Most reliable way to get message on evening news
Helped Bush win
1992: George Bush’s campaign strategy was to attack Bill Clinton on his fitness to be Commander in Chief, patriotism & his record on the environment — DID NOT HAVE MUCH EFFECT
Backlash bc Bush lost…Clinton won
According to lecture, why (and when) do candidates use negative ads?
-The tighter the contest, the meaner the campaign
-Distinguish self from opponent
-Attempt to influence voters
Why do news programs include political ads in their news coverage?
Coverage of campaigns must include reporting on the candidates’ paid messages
Ads are Tailored for News — to keep viewers satisfied
They make good stories bc………
A no-lose situation
Dishonesty & Incompetence = Controversy & Scandal
Slander & SleazeThe fight as story
How can candidates use social media to promote their campaign?
Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Website Blog
Be able to recognize examples of localism and concentration of ownership
LOCALISM: An American tradition, PUBLIC OWNERSHIP, supporting local economy, high customer service, localize and higher quality items.
CONCENTRATION: CORPORATE OWNERSHIP, cheaper because you buy in bulk, big employer, controlled access.
Be able to define and identify examples of monopoly and oligopoly.
MONOPOLY: Single firm dominates production and distribution
OLIGOPOLY: A few firms dominate an entire industry
HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION: Concentrates ownership by acquiring companies that are in the same business, such as several radio stations.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION: Concentrates ownership by acquiring companies that are in related business such as program production and distribution
CROSS OWNERSHIP: Ownership of different kinds of media in the same geographical area
Potential of becoming a monopoly
Be able to recognize examples of product placement.
EX: Characters continuously drinking Coke in a movie promotes Coca Cola
What is synergy?
SYNERGY: refers to the promotion and sale of different versions of a media product across the carious subsidiaries of a media conglomerate
What approaches are the film industry taking to adjust to new technology?
-There are more Alternative/Independent voices joining the film industry
-Putting more content directly online
-Using social media as a marketing tool
-Less expensive productions due to more accessible technology
What are the different ways that movies can make money?
Approximately what percentage of movies make money at the domestic box office?
Only 10%-20% of movies make money at the domestic box office
Approximately what percentage of domestic box office revenue is kept by movie theaters?
20%-25% of revenue
What are the differences between the “traditional” and the “advertiser-integrated” model of TV production?
TRADITIONAL: production costs, licensing, advertising, first run syndication,
ADVERTISER INTEGRATED: produced/coproduced/independent (REALITY TV), licensing, financing/product placement
What are the differences between (and the implications of) the Fairness Doctrine and Equal Time Rule?
FAIRNESS DOCTRINE: required broadcast stations to both air and engage in controversial issue programs that affected their communities and when offering such a program to provide competing points of view
EQUAL TIME RULE: Radio & TV stations & cable systems that originate their own programming must treat legally qualified political candidates equally when it comes to selling or giving away air time
Does not apply to News Stories
What was the original intent of the Telecommunications Act of 1996? What was the actual outcome on media ownership?
ORIGINAL INTENT: Deregulation of ownership and regulation of content
RESULT: Self regulation and Rating systems
ESRB (interactive software)
FTC (DVD, CD, and Games)
What is the impact of the Net Neutrality rules passed in 2015 on access to content?
NET NEUTRALITY: the principle that every web site and every user whether a multinational corporation of you has the right to the same internet network speed and access.
NEW NET NEUTRALITY: this means that networks such as Verizon and At&T can’t block things on your phone and that ISP’s can’s block or discriminate websites or online services
What do the First Amendment and Fourth Amendment guarantee?
First Amendment: Freedom of the press
Fourth Amendment: No illegal search and seizure
Which federal agencies are responsible for regulating media content and compliance?
In the Pentagon Papers case how did the Supreme Court rule on the government’s ability to exercise prior restraint?
Daniel Ellsberg stole a copy of government papers about US involvement in Vietnam and published it nicknaming it the “Pentagon Papers.” Three weeks after publication, the Supreme Court sided with the newspaper and attacked the government’s attempt to suppress publication
What types of expression are limited (7 were identified)?
What are the characteristics of “libel” and how do these differ for “public” and for “private” citizens?
-Libel: Defamation of character in written or broadcast form
-Characteristics of Libel (private individuals): the public statement was false, damages actually occurred (loss of a job, public humiliation, mental anguish), the publisher or broadcaster was negligent
-For public figures they must demonstrate malice
How is privacy protected (or not)? What's the difference in privacy protections for public and private citizens?
-The right to privacy is not guaranteed in the Fourth Amendment
-Privacy Torts: "a reporter or media entity may be held legally liable for giving publicity to truthful but otherwise private & embarrassing information about an individual if the publication of that information would be highly offensive to a reasonable person.“
-Richard Jewell (security guard who discovered dead body) was untruthfully depicted as the murderer by media and was able to sue for cases when he was a private figure, but didn’t win when he became a public figure
What are the differences between the authoritarian, state, libertarian, and social responsibility models of expression and speech?
-Authoritarian model: when printing press arrived in 16th century England, it advocated held that the general public, largely illiterate in those days, needed guidance from an elite, educated ruling class. Government criticism and public dissent were not tolerated, especially if speech undermined “the common good”. Censorship was frequent.
-Communist or state model: press is controlled by the government because state leaders believe the press should serve the goals of the state. Some government criticism is tolerated but ideas that challenge the basic premises of state authority are not.
-Social responsibility model: characterizes then ideas of mainstream journalism in the US. Encourages comprehensive news reports that put issues and events in contexts, news forums exchange ideas, better coverage of society’s range of economic classes and social groups. Press functions as a Fourth Estate: an unofficial branch of government that monitors the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abuse of power
-Libertarian model: encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of individual and press freedoms. No restrictions would be placed ont eh mass media or individual speech. They tolerate the expression of anything.
What are V-Chips and what percentage of families actually use them?
V-Chip: a computer chip installed in a television receiver that can be programmed by the user to block or scramble material containing a special code in its signal indicating that it is deemed violent or sexually explicit.
40% of families have them installed but only 17% actually use them
What ruling required TV broadcasters to develop a rating system for television? What are the concerns about applying "labels" or ratings to programs?
What is the "Miller Act" and how does it define obscenity?
-Act that derives from the 1973 Miller vs. California which stated that to qualify as obscenity, the material must meet three criteria: the average person applying contemporary community standards, would find that the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest, the material as a whole depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way, and the material as a whole lacks serious artistic, political or scientific value
-Different communities and regions of the country have different values and standards with which to judge obscenity. It’s required that the work be judged as a whole so that publishers would not use the loophole of inserting a political essay or literary poem into pornographic materials to demonstrate in court that their publication contained redeeming features
The Internet doesn’t have the same restriction of content like radio, TV, and movies so people can post whatever they want. People don’t feel it meets the same “standards” as other media outlets
What is a Chilling Effect and how has this term been used to defend against speech regulation?
It is the discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction…the right that is most often described as being suppressed by a chilling effect is the US constitutional right to free speech because the government will often threaten consequences prior to publication of media that can be thought to effect national security.
Ex) Chilling effect was used during the release of the Pentagon Papers
How did “packaging” of products allow manufacturers (and advertisers) to demand more money for the product?
What federal act was passed to monitor patent medicine claims? Which contemporary products were originally sold as medicine?
The Federal Food and Drug Act was passed in 1906 to monitor patent medicine claims. Originally powerful drugs were sold as medicines and they made people feel better. Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup contained morphine and Coca-Cola originated as a medicinal tonic and contained traces of cocaine until it was replaced with caffeine in 1903. Early Post and Kellogg’s cereal ads promised to cure stomach and digestive problems.
What is the major difference between mega-agencies and boutique agencies?
Mega-agencies are large ad firms that formed by merging several agencies and maintain regional offices worldwide, while boutique agencies are small and devote their talents to only a handful of select clients.
What is subliminal advertising? Be able to identify examples.
Subliminal advertising was coined in the 1950s and refers to hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register in the subconscious and fool people into buying products. For example, there was a “Drink Coca-Cola” ad embedded into a few frames of a movie and alleged hidden sexual activity drawn into liquor ads. Research suggests that subliminal ads aren’t more effective than regular ads, but they were banned in 1958 by the National Association of Broadcasters
What does VALS stand for? Be prepared to describe two of the different VALS types and predict the types of products they might purchase.
It stands for Values and Lifestyles and it provides advertisers with microscopic details about which consumers are most likely to buy which products. Achievers and experiencers watch more sports and news programs; these groups prefer luxury cars or sport-utility vehicles. Thinkers favor TV dramas and documentaries and like the functionality of minivans or the gas efficiency of hybrids.
How has the Internet increased the ability of advertisers to integrate their products into program websites and to use new and different techniques to reach target audiences?
sponsorships, and “rich media”- like pop-up ads, pop-under ads, flash multimedia ads and interstitials, which pop up in new screen windows as a user clicks to a new Web page. Other forms of Internet advertising include classified ads and e-mail ads. Spam, commercial e-mails, accounted for more than 85 percent of e-mail messages by 2010. Google, Yahoo! And Bing have become advertising companies, selling sponsored links associated with search terms and disturbing online ads to affiliated Web pages
Why do advertisements use familiar images, stock characters, and stereotypes?
Makes the company seems like it relates to you and makes you want to buy their product.
What is the definition of a brand? What are the benefits of a brand? How did Dove change the direction of its brand
A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service. Brands are worth money than products. Someone would pay the extra money for bottle Fiji water than drinking tap water. Dove’s commercial for showing women’s beauty redefined the brand and had people buying Dove products because it made women feel good about themselves.
What are the 4 Ps of marketing? How can you manipulate those “Ps?” (Be able to recognize examples).
Product (what do you want/need), Price (how much are you willing to spend), Place (where do you want to buy it) and Promotion (what will persuade you to buy it)
What is positioning? Be able to recognize examples.
Where you put things in your mind
What are the three steps to creating an ad?
1. Learn everything you can about the product and consumer.
2. Figure out what you are going to say; what your strategy is.3. Figure out how you’re going to do it- your execution, campaign, the ad.
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