Com 100 notes 8/24 Communication is a social process by which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and non verbal messages. A symbol is an arbitrary label or representation of something. ( i.e. verbal or written language, colors, gestures, etc.) Iconic signs are things that bear resemblance to the things to which they refer. ( i.e. warning signs high voltage, flame, emoticons such as text symbols etc.) Indexical signs are a sign that points to (or indicates) something else in is often connected to. ( i.e. where there is smoke there is fire, a foot print represents that a person or animal was there, emotional signs facial expressions etc.) Components of communication Setting - time, temp, location, etc. Participants - sender/source, target/receiver, field of experience Message creation - encoding and decoding what words are used, syntax, gestures etc. Channel - how the message is sent Noise - anything that can affect the meaning of the message Semantic (jargon or slang), physical, psychological (emotions), physiological (biological influences) Feedback - a general response to a message **Things to review** Linear Model (p.12) The Interactive Model (p.13) The Transactional Model (p.14) Contexts of Communication Intrapersonal - communication with oneself ( i.e. reflection, preparing etc.) Interpersonal - communication between two people; generally in a face-to-face setting. Small group - communication between three or more individuals who come together for a common purpose. With 2 ppl you have 1 relationship, with 3 ppl there are 3 relationships, with 4 6 etc. Organizational - communication that takes place within a strongly defined hierarchy. Public/Rhetorical - communication from one person to a large group of listeners; generally in a face-to-face setting. Mass/Mediated - communication to a very large audience via mass media. Intercultural - communication between individuals with different cultural backgrounds. 8/26 As we move from interpersonal to mass communication numbers of communicators increases, formality roles increase, physical closeness decreases, ability to provide feedback decreases and ability to adapt message decreases. Undercover Marketing video notes Stealth marketing is marketing to individuals without their marketing Sony Erickson utilized this marketing style to launch there camera phone by hiring actors to play the role of tourist, stopping individuals to take their pictures with their new device. This creates a viral marketing campaign spread by word of mouth There is a blurred ethical line tied to undercover marketing Ethics and Communication Ethics are broadly applied social standards about what is right or wrong in a particular situation Morals are personal beliefs about what is right and wrong With holding important information is deception by omission lying Truthfulness Other focused motive vs. Self focused motive Why do you lie, is it is to benefit the individual or to benefit yourself Others expect our messages to be truthful Our messages have consequences Sharing or withholding information Legitimate privacy When others have no right to expect access to information Inappropriate secrecy When others might legitimately expect access to information that is withheld The potential benefit or harm of sharing or withholding the information Self vs. other Mutual benefit situations are a win-win Developing communication Ethics Absolute Standard - there is a single correct ethical standard Relative - ethical behavior varies This is a continuum with relative on one end and absolute on the other Ethical responsibilities of receivers Reasonable Skepticism We need to be both open-minded and critical; when evaluating others? messages Beware of selective attention and retention We tend to seek out and support information that matches our beliefs and filter out information that is contradictory to our beliefs The ethics of authentic communication 8/31/10 Theory of communication When you need information to make an informed decision? What kind of information do you seek out? What kind of expert do you trust? How do you search for information? Theory - a set of \statements that explain how or why something occurs/works Communication theory - when the something is related to communication. Paradigm - intellectual traditions or belief systems that represent a particular worldview. Left and right brain functions Left brain - analytical thought, logical, math and science Right brain - holistic thought, intuitive, art and music Research Methods - the ways scholars collect and analyze data Quantitative - methods that convert data to numbers Experiments - cause effect relationships Surveys - relationships between variables Qualitative - research through use of words, pictures and objects Chapter - 3 Twenty Statements Test 1) I am active 2) I like a challenge 3) I have a logical perspective on the way things are 4) I like luxuries 5) I like the satisfaction of helping others 6) I am highly analytical 7) I have fun 8) I am creative 9) I am atheist 10) I like information 11) I have a high capacity to learn 12) I am a bit of a savant Identity - the individual and social categories you identify with Individual identity - how we individually differ from other individuals Social collective identity - how our groups differ from other groups The Importance of identity Communication is affected by identity Identities are shaped by communication** Much of life in the U.S. is organized around specific identities ( exmpl. TV stations Fox, BET, Lifetime, Marketing Campaigns, etc.) Performance of individual identity The process or means by which we show the world who we think we are. Symbolic Interaction Theory According to this theory the goal of communication / interaction is to create shared meaning.\ Symbol - an arbitrary / artificial label or representation of something Role take - the ability to put yourself in another persons place / trying to understand another persons view Reflected Appraisal - our ability to see our ?self? as another sees us A.K.A looking-glass self Particular others: specific individuals in society who are significant to us Generalized other - the viewpoint of community in which a person lives as a whole The looking-glass self metaphor - every interaction creates a reflection of you that contributes to your identity Social comparison - when we evaluate how desirable or undesirable certain characteristics are in our communities. (do I look good for my age) Self-fulfilling Prophecy - a prediction about yourself that causes you to behave in such a way that it comes true. Pygmalion effect - living up to or down to another?s expectations of us Others beliefs others actions our Beliefs our actions confirms Others beliefs Self Concept - a relatively stable set of perceptions that people have about themselves 1) Real/actual self-concept - ?who I am now? 2) Ideal self-concept - ?who I would like to be? Self-esteem ? an individual?s sense of his or her value or worth Racial Identity ? Shared biological/genetic traits (a lot of racial identity is related/classified to/by skin color) National Identity ? based on a person?s country of citizenship Ethnic Identity ? shared cultural, linguistic, or religious origins/background (social group/ ancestry) Gender Identity ? Social constructions of masculinity or femininity Gender vs. Sex Andros ? having both masculine and feminine traits Undifferentiated ? having neither masculine or feminine traits Sexual Identity ? which category of sexuality you identify with Age Identity ? your age; and how you feel about your age Social Class Identity ? Informal rankings based on occupation, income, education, etc. Religious Identity ? the impact of your spiritual beliefs on your outlook on life (extremely domineering identity) 9/14/10 Organization ? the process by which one recognizes and makes sense of sensory information **can you read this** look up?. Schemas ? tells us how to understand what we perceive; what information belongs together Short cuts we take to understand things around us Interpersonal scripts ? a relatively fixed sequence of events that guide our communication/behavior Interpretation ? the act of assigning meaning to sensory information Organization ? what am I seeing, hearing Interpretation ? what does what I am hearing, seeing mean? **how many shades of pink are their** Attributions ? explanations for our own or others? behavior Internal ? Personal /controllable; personality External ? Situational/ Uncontrollable Self-serving/Attribution Bias ? Attributing our negative behavior to external causes and our positive behavior to internal causes Fundamental Attribution Error ? Attributing others? negative behavior to internal causes and others? positive behavior to external causes Physical Differences ? differences in age (mosquito ringtone) Differences in gender (color-blindness) Cognitive complexity ? the degree of distinction that you can make when you evaluate things (people) Role - Taking ability ? the ability to see the world ? ? Person centered messages ? The extent to which one?s message accommodates the perspective of the listener Success ? More influential, more comforting, greater organizational effectiveness Perception and the Individual Personality Characteristics ? optimism vs. pessimism Improving your perception skills ? Awareness, empathy, ask questions/perception check, knowing differences between facts and inferences
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