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· Medium transmits message that affects culture, not the content
1. putting advertising in web pages and apps.
2. In 2011 AT&T introduced a new service called ShopAlerts that notifies smartphone users when they are near participating retailers and provides them with information about special offers and downloads coupons to their phones. AT&T model pushes geo-targeted ads to the individual consumer.
4. AdMob clients try to pull customers into their websites and stores through conventional display and banner advertisements.5. ShopAlerts follows an “opt in” model in which consumers give permission to receive the location- based ads but in so doing provide demographic information that helps advertisers to further target their pitches
What are gatekeepers? What is hegemony? How are these concepts related?
Gatekeepers have control over the stories we see & hear in the mass media
Hegemony is the process by which a dominant culture rules and maintains power
To mobilize public support for the special interests that dominate the public and private sector.
The Political Class (20%) of the population, educated, play a role in decision makingThe other 80% of the population’s main function is to follow orders, not think etc...
What is the propaganda model? Who are the elite media, and what do they do?- according to Chomsky?
National media, set a general agenda that others adhere to. The Elite media are the agenda setting media, New York Times, Washington Post, they set the general framework and local media adapts to their structure.
Selection of topics
Distribution of concerns
Framing of issues
Filtering of information
From Chomsky’s perspective, do media affect society, or does society affect media?
1. First screen- Television
2. Second screen- Computer3. Third screen- Handheld mobile device
a. Push vs Pull mentality
b. Push- creating a show and pushing it through to the audience; this is traditional, older mediac. Pull- the audience is more powerful in influencing what type of product is produced
a. Second screen phenomenon- using multiple screens at one time (multiple screens while watching tv)
b. More than half of Americans do this (usually by using a smartphone)
What is media convergence?
a. Various types of media coming together into a digital media formb. One communication technology delivers a variety of media content (watching TV on your laptop while also checking email or playing games)
a. Merging of telecommunications or internet companies with traditional media companiesb. So, a fewer number of companies own more and more types of media companies...they all come together under one umbrella
Division of audiences into small groups due to the wide spectrum of media outlets.
a. How messages are spread to different audiences and how audiences make meaning of those messagesb. Spreadability- content that spreads to multiple channels and picks up tiny audiences in multiple places is more successful than content that tries to get attention of large numbers of people to single distribution strings
a. Spectatorial culture- small number of major media companies control what we watch
b. Participatory culture- average citizens have the ability to seize control over the media technology and tell their own stories in powerful new ways
a. Convergence culture- says that everything plays across the maximum number of media channels
b. It is shaped by the decisions of everybody- from teenagers watching TV to the decisions made in the Viacom board rooms each week
What is collective intelligence?
a. Collective intelligence- says that a group as a whole can put together knowledge in a more complex way than an individual is capable of doing
The Obama Campaign, because they used every type of media platform possible to reach voters (twitter accounts, tv, radio, internet, facebook, etc)
What is the challenge for social justice activists?
a. To make sure that these tools get in the hands of those people who have been the most oppressed and dispossessed to get their stories out and into circulation
b. Media change- trying to get the stories of average citizens out there instead of stories that major media companies want to get out there (via youtube, etc)
What are the four possible branches in advertising agencies? Be able to describe each of these.
1.) Creative Development
Create the advertisement-concept to finished product
Copywriters and art directors
2.) Media Selection
Media buyers-negotiate price and placement of ads
3.) Account Services
Account executives-communicate with clients and creative wing
4.) Market Research
Predicts consumers buying habits, consider demographics, etc
What are the three ways to do market research? Be able to describe these.
Types of market research
1.) Demographics-gender, age, ethnicity, etc.
2.) Focus groups-small groups to give opinions
3.) Psychographics-studies personalities, values, lifestyles, attitudes
How does psychographics research differ from demographics research?
What is VALS? What can it help us to understand?
Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles- helps advertisers to tailor their work to help appeal to people on a psychological level
Describe the innovators and the survivors types in the VALS framework.
a. Innovators- very successful, high self esteem, abundant resources for purchasing products, enjoy upscale products and new technologies
b. Survivors- little resources, focus on meeting needs instead of fulfilling desires
What are the three types of primary motivations? Be able to describe each of these.
a. Ideals- motivated to purchase products by their knowledge and principles; thinkers and believers; moral code weighs into their decision; practical buyers, ex) Toyota Corolla
b. Achievement- goal oriented; image is important ex) Chanel #5
c. Self expression- need for variety, risk, or physical activity; express themselves through their purchases; they are experiencers and makers, ex) iPod
Why are advertisers losing faith in the thirty-second ad?
TiVO/DVR allows people to skip ads all together
What countermeasure have the advertisers taken to reach viewers that skip TV commercials altogether?
They are trying to become a part of the programs themselves, ex) Having the cast of Friends meet in a Starbucks
How do “I Am Sam” and “Cast Away” demonstrate brand integration?
They broadcast regular brand names in the program itself
What is Madison & Vine?
A company that works out the integration of entertainment with advertising
ex) Absolut vodka in sex in the city
What is Integrated Entertainment Partners, and what do they do?
A company that looks for ways to integrate products into programs
What are the cultural barriers for brand integration?
People don’t want the “purity” of their television to be adulterated by the merchandising of fast food, etc
What new form of advertising did BMW develop?
What are webisodes? Why did American Express decide to create webisodes?
What happens when a culture becomes completely advertising friendly, according to Mark Crispin Miller?
It ceases to be a culture at all
What is the definition of public relations?
Public Relations- The practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics
What is PRSA and how does this organization define public relations? What is notable about the definition?
PRSA- Public Relations Society of America- a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships with other organizations
How does PRSA’s Code of Ethics highlight the potential good public relations can do for the public?
Advocacy- serving the public by acting responsibly and Honesty- always telling the truth when communicating with the public
How are advertising and public relations different from one another?
A. Control- advertising has more control than public relationsB. Visibility- audiences learn to recognize advertising but are less able to recognize PR attempts than advertising attempts
Control- advertising has more control than public relations
Visibility- audiences learn to recognize advertising but are less able to recognize PR attempts than advertising attempts
What are the 5 public relations efforts or activities discussed in the video?
A. Media relations- writing a news release; pitching an idea; maintaining a relationship with reporters
B. Lobbying- attempts to persuade people in government or to affect a policy
C. Community relations- create and maintain positive relationships with the community which it resides ex) donations, grand openings, evuiuients, etc
D. Employee relations- internal PR; communicating with the employees of an org; responding to concerns, etc
E. Fundraising- use PR in an effort to gain monetary support for client
What is the 3rd party tactic?
Involving someone unrelated to and not invested in the client to communicate the client’s message
Video News Release- video segments created by a PR firm for distribution to TV and online news organizations for the purpose of informing publics, shaping public opinions and promoting individuals, ideas, or commercial products
B. They are often presented as news rather than PR which makes them covert persuasive attempts; makes it look like the news did it but really it was written by the company and the media outlet was paid to run the video
C. MultiVU: PR newswire company that distributes/produces VNRs
Why are VNRs problematic?
A. It can trick your mind because you trust your local news team but they leave out important information about the products
B. Up to 50% of the info we think of as news is originated from a PR company
How can you recognize a VNR on local news?
Crisis communication- rapid response to a crisis which threatens an individual or organization’s image
Theory of Image Repair
Denial of accusation- denying the incident all together
Evading responsibility- saying something occured but it wasn’t your fault or it was an accident
Reducing offensiveness- saying “its not that big of a deal” or relating it to a bigger issue in the past so that your fault seems less big
Offering corrective actions- offer a solution to the problem ex) fixing a faulty product
What should practitioners consider when managing crisis communication and social media?
What does Frank Luntz do, and what is his one consistent piece of advice to clients?
Words advertisements? He always says to “heed the public will” -give the public what it wants
What does Luntz do with language specifically?
A profile about luntz, Nicholas Lemann, described how he changed public opinion from estate tax and changed it into death tax, which took it to the realm where most people seemed to be against
What is the responsibility of practitioners concerning the study of language, according to Luntz?
How have marketers fought political ad fatigue?
What do modern political candidates need to do, according to Pete Swire?
An advertisement for a pair of wrangler jeans that focuses on the durability and low prices of the jeans would most likely appeal to which VALS group?
According to the video lecture, the end of net neutrality could mean:
T/F: According to Noam Chomsky, "manufacturing of consent" is the idea that media audiences freely and knowingly consent to the cultural ideas that are manufactured by mass media.
T/F: According to Dr. Behm-Morawitz, media interests have shifted from concern about audience fragmentation to spreadability.
According to the PBS Frontline film, what technology allows consumers to "zap past the commercials" when watching TV programs?
According to Ashton Gerding's video lecture on VALS, "makers" fall under which motivation category?
T/F According to Ashton Gerding in the video lecture, "copywriters" develop the visual artistic elements of an ad.
According to Ashton Gerding in the video lecture, "copywriters" develop the visual artistic elements of an ad.
According to Luntz in the PBS Frontline film, what is the responsibility of PR practitioners?
According to the PBS frontline film, what is narrowcasting?
are composed of electromagnetic energy and rise and fall in regular cycles. Created by Guglielmo Marconi to carry messages in morse code
came from music by black slaves in the South, characterized by specific chord progressions and moods.
record labels bribe disk jockeys to play their records
trade name for an early phonograph. Phonographs were pioneered in 1877 by Thomas Edison. The Victor Talking Machine Company introduced a home version in 1906 introducing more people to new kinds of music
· Distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via mass communication medium, usually using electromagnetic radiation (radio waves)
· Technology of broadcasting
· Patterns of ownership of broadcasting
· Federal/govt. regulation of broadcasting
- technology of broadcasting
- patterns of ownership- regulation of broadcasting
· Overhauled media policy for the first time since 1934; deregulate media industry as a whole, fewer rules and less govt. oversight that companies had to follow; laissez faire policy towards media
-Allowed Cross-media ownership
-Increased ownership limits
1. Who owns most of the radio stations in the Columbia/Jefferson City market?
1. Radio cannot be relied on as a local medium anymore and have less local content
2. More self-censorship in radio industry.
3. Major radio corporations can have explicit censorship of radio stations on artists views.
The Music Genome Project is one of the most comprehensive analyses of music ever undertaken.
•Pandora’s analysts have been listening to music, studying and collecting hundreds of musical details on every track - melody, harmony, instrumentation, rhythm, vocals, lyrics ...and more!
· Tv show produced with idea to sell into syndication
· Which of the following is credited as the breakthrough game for the first person shooter video game genre? (you see it from the character’s viewpoint)
Are online games that thousands play at the same time in a virtual world
game created by Steve Russelland two other MIT students in 1962 ( Kirriemuir, 2006).
· Continuing plot, can’t watch one episode to understand
· Purchase tv show to use as reruns
· Final editing stages,
· Editing, sound (automated dialogue replacement,scoring), special effects
· Process of releasing a movie to audiences
· Movement of low budget video production and distribution made possible by digital video and editing technologies, where independent film makers find audiences for their work both online and in small theaters
· 1991 Rebecca Barton and David Sherman
· Reduced risk taking and formulaic film making is a result of
· Large studios making films, reach mainstream audiences via traditional theaters
· Reduced risk taking, more formulaic in nature
· Business concerns dominate artistic considerations
· Formulaic movie: story lines, archetypes and plots are reused across films become predictable
· Anyone has access and the audience defines popularity, we all feel some ownership in our pop culture
· Social networks: build webpages featuring personal portfolios and interests
· Web blogs: online journals with comments capabilities with chronological info
· Microblogs: short posts, quick updates, mobile devices (twitter)
· Content communities: org, share, and comment on interests (pinterests)
· Social news: post various news items, allows voting (reddit)
· Free to download but have in-game currencies
the segmented demographics of video gamers have made video games appealing vehicles for commercial and persuasive campaigns
· Increasing amount of advertising and mixing commercial/non commercial media content (new or entertainment content)
· Product placement
· Created by a company specifically to engage consumers with products/brand (coke, candy, kids cereal)
the theater is forced to show lower quality movies in order to guarantee showing of blockbusters
Which of the following impedes diversity of media content?
no block booking or owning theaters
Why are radio waves important to broadcasting?
· Two ways
o Radio became a local media: served local audience/sponsors, local content
o Radio became a music driven media; cheaper and more effective (first convergence)
· Allowed cross-media ownership: one company allowed holdings in diverse types of media
· Increased ownership limits
· Only small number of companies own the largest number of stations
· Megacompany, owns a lot of properties and holdings in the music industry, own concert venues and billboards
· Certain songs banned=self censorship (lyrically questionable; no sad or negative memories of 9/11)
· Dixie Chicks: lead singer spoke against President
· Can’t rely on radio being a local media outlet anymore
Actively boycott anyone who speaks against people they support
· Make a chain decision to ban them
· People in homes, world series, pres address, war of the worlds
· Explosion of diversity that consumers hear
· Made it personal
Simulates and all knowing dj focused on your taste
1. What is the music genome project? How does it work?
· Own the music
· Rent music
· Subscribe to the music and be able to play whatever you want
· Large company that finances and distributes flims
· Columbia, Fox, MGM, Paramount universal, Warner brothers, Disney, Sony
· Without backing of a studio, producer of production, doesn’t necessarily come from studio
· Film festivals, professional associations, independent studios
· Director, producer, screenwriter
· Guide actors, stage, actors, supervise shootings
· Organizers, raise money, find creative team, company or studio execs that supervise making of film
· Producers: organizers
· Execs: money
· Can be anyone
· Authors of the script, determine narrative of the film
· Theatrical distribution
· Pay cable (HBO, dvd, blurays, Netflix)
· Network and basic cable exhibition
· Provides opportunities for new voices/content to reach audiences
· Making a film for a few hundred to a few thousand dollars
· Distribution to a found audience online or in a small theater
· Marketing and merchandising online
· Online or in a small theater
· Because of their size they risk marginality and economic and economic failure
· Difficult to be economically successful
· Micro cinema international website
1. What are the 5 main ways that YouTube helps creators facilitate audience reach and engagement? Describe each of these.
· Live: gives fans another reason to tune in. Cover timely events and create new ways for your fans to interact with you
· Promotion: paying to promote on youtube can connect your channel with new audiences and convert existing viewers to subscribers
· Youtube analytics: uncover key channel insights based on viewer’s data and that content they engage in most
· Google+: build viewership and engage with audience in new ways
· Build your community: interact with your audience and build a community around your content on youtube
· Freudian psychoanalysis: film as a mirror, doesn’t reflect us, viewer connects with the image (one with the camera), desire to desire
· Media identification perspective:audience members or viewers experience film from the inside as if events were happening to them
· Parasocial: interactional, relational, mediated sense of relationship, about attraction and attachment with film maker (youtube)
· Identification: alters state of awareness of viewer, become the other
· Taste makers: introduce to new and interesting things
· Community participation: becomes an inside joke, inspire others
· Unexpectedness: stands out
· Film cameras allowed reruns
· Moved filming from NY to Hollywood, shifted from NY drama orientation to Hollywood entertainment film mindset
· A shift from the dominance of radio to tv in the media landscape
· Tuned into radio at set times for specific shows
· Strong loyalty to shows
· 1927 Farnsworth in lab
· Community antenna television=cable tv, provide tv to more rural and isolated audiences
· Created by Congress; Public Broadcasting System, democratic media env, supported by govt funding and viewers in local areas
· 1975 HBO (premium station)
· 2009 digital tv becomes standard
· Story telling over times has stable messages, but are told through different mediums
· 1976, allowed for time shifting and zipping; skip through ads (zipping) time shift record and watch at later time
· DVR 1999, allows recording time shifting, impact on relationship between advertising and tv
· Digital tv: carry more content, HDTV
· 1996: DVD, searching capabilities, more advanced, subtitles, special features
· Internet and tv: bandwidth issues slowed progress, youtube changed creative development
· 20s (super bowl), 30s
· 30 now unheard of (friends)
· today 8 or 9
· Cable tv, vcr, narrowcasting, recording, time shifting
· Creating an accurate sample of population, random sample, meters in tv record special codes
· Tv, dvr, dvd, game console
· Live: as it’s happening
· Live plus same day: live, or record watch later
· Live plus 7: live, or record and watch within a week
· Commercial ratings, viewing within three days
· Cable network ratings Universe includes all tv homes in the country, used for all broadcast networks and comparing different stations
· Rise of web tv
· Web tv providers: Netflix, crackle, youtube (creating instead of providing or subscribing)
· Perceived reality: higher enjoyment, relationship with characters, perceive as real
· Social comparison: point of comparison in real life, feel better about selves in comparison, relate lives to them
· Voyeurism: peek into someone else’s life unfold
· Pparasocial interaction
· Enjoyment of spectacle
· Mediate relationship: feels real but isn’t a face to face relationship
· Decline in laugh track
· Video blog
· Social reality, parasocial interaction and relationships
· Straight from camera to viewer
· Brings advertising content to youtube
· Streaming deal
· Serial dramas
· Chapter dramas
· Shift in medium of communication, from tv to internet and mobile devices, door open for binge watching tv process
· Word or phrase used to identify messages on a specific topic, twitter
· Socialmedia: content is created and distributed through social interaction
· Socialnetworking: function as online communication for users
· Linkedin: professional
· Help compete against big corporations
· Preference for online social interaction: a cognitive individual difference construct characterized by beliefs that one is safer, more successful, more confident, and more comfortable with online interactions and relationships than with face to face activities
· Control what they see/know
· No face to face rejection
· Cyber bullying
1. What explanation/definition of video games does the female expert provide at the beginning of the PBS Arts video clip?
· Interactive medium where user helps control theaction and trajectory of the experience
· Shifting in demographics
· Increasing generational diversity
· Exceed movie box office sales
1. What prosocial effect was revealed in the findings of the research study on video games and persistence?
· Computer mediated communication
· Social aspects to them, computer simulated, 3D, persistent interactive world where avatars communicate synchronously or asynchronously
· Continues when you are not online
1. What do we mean when we say that video games and virtual worlds have virtual economies?
1. According to the PBS video on virtual economies, are virtual economies novel/new?