Genesis is the tale of how God created earth. God's words created the world and named parts of the world.
Gospel of John
A man named John was sent to us from God to bear witness. Word was not created by God, Word is God and therefore it is as powerful as God.
Genesis vs. Gospel of John
Genesis attributes the creation of the world to God but Gospel of John attributes the creation of the world to Word itself.
Isocrates held the view that communication separates us from animals, it is what founded civilization and it allows us to educate the ignorant. Communication is the vehicle by which we think in our own minds and persuade others out loud.
Billig and Protagoras
Disso logoi states that all logoi invite anti-logoi- disagreement is to be expected. Complete thought involves considering the competing logoi. Logos is word making in general, but antilogos is the method of argumentation by which contrary positions are examined.
An ability to see, in each particular case, the available means of persuasion.
1. Logos: truth/ logic leads to belief.
2. Ethos: credibility/character leads to trust.
3. Pathos: emotions leads to conviction.
Seven strands of communication:
1. rhetorical- an exchange
3. transportational- moving goods, products and bodies
4. communitarian- building community
5. therapeutic- expressing yourself.
6. technical- new techniques and technologies
7 spiritual- a way to share souls
Words are pathways to ideas, feelings and ways of life. A word is a vehicle- allows us to navigate our thoughts. Communication is the means for human relationships and community to exist.
*Communication as a field. Communication is an academic field that is highly diverse in its methods, theories and objects of study. The field of communication can be divided into disciplines. People study it because it is so widely essential.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Double consciousness/veil: there exists the way that we perceive ourselves and then the way that the world perceives us.
Conflict cannot be avoided. Conflict is merely a difference (of opinions), it is not good or bad, it can be a means for change. There are three ways of dealing with conflict: domination, compromise and integration.
There are two types of communication: transmission and ritual, that are competing but not mutually exclusive.
1. Transmission: messages are transmitted and distributed in space for control.
2. Ritual: Construction and maintenance of an ordered cultural world.
Constructivism: the realities and social worlds are actively created, maintained and transformed. Meanings of words are prolific, ever-changing and subject to negotiation. Our concepts, language, and methods help create the knowledge that we generate.
Lakoff and Johnson
Our conceptual system (the way that we think and act) is largely metaphorical. Metaphors reflect and help construct human thought and action. Metaphorical concepts guide the way that we think and act.
Lemert and Elliot
*Examines globalization in relation to individualism. Argues that the increase in globalization has lead to the privatization of the individual. Individuals are more focused on their own needs and desires rather than on the community.
James' concept of multiple selves: material, social, spiritual and ego. Potential/possible selves are selves that people hope to achieve in the future. Conflicting selves are selves that are unable to exist in harmony with other selves.
*Discourses in the workplace. "The primary choice facing contemporary actors is how to allocate scarce temporal resources to varied activity domains". Discourse: (1) structures, constrains, and sets terms, (2) is evidenced by how people talk, (3) empowers and disempowers ways of thinking, (4) exists in relation to other discourses.
Studies communicative behavior and conflict between African-American Customers and Korean Immigrant Retailers in Los Angeles. Conflict is caused by divergent communication patterns (cultural & linguistic differences and social inequality).
Balaji and Worawong
Assumptions about White male and Asian female relationships as created by advertising. Discourses about the "Other", orientalism, and assimilation as created by media.
Adelman and Frey
Studied group communication in the Bonaventure House, a group living community for people with AIDS. Living in a close community gives rise to dialectical tensions.
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