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1. putting advertising in web pages and apps.
2. In 2011 AT&T introduced a new service called ShopAlerts that notifies smartphone users when they are near participating retailers and provides them with information about special offers and downloads coupons to their phones. AT&T model pushes geo-targeted ads to the individual consumer.
4. AdMob clients try to pull customers into their websites and stores through conventional display and banner advertisements.5. ShopAlerts follows an “opt in” model in which consumers give permission to receive the location- based ads but in so doing provide demographic information that helps advertisers to further target their pitches
What are gatekeepers? What is hegemony? How are these concepts related?
Gatekeepers have control over the stories we see & hear in the mass media
Hegemony is the process by which a dominant culture rules and maintains power
To mobilize public support for the special interests that dominate the public and private sector.
The Political Class (20%) of the population, educated, play a role in decision makingThe other 80% of the population’s main function is to follow orders, not think etc...
What is the propaganda model? Who are the elite media, and what do they do?- according to Chomsky?
National media, set a general agenda that others adhere to. The Elite media are the agenda setting media, New York Times, Washington Post, they set the general framework and local media adapts to their structure.
Selection of topics
Distribution of concerns
Framing of issues
Filtering of information
From Chomsky’s perspective, do media affect society, or does society affect media?
1. First screen- Television
2. Second screen- Computer3. Third screen- Handheld mobile device
a. Push vs Pull mentality
b. Push- creating a show and pushing it through to the audience; this is traditional, older mediac. Pull- the audience is more powerful in influencing what type of product is produced
a. Second screen phenomenon- using multiple screens at one time (multiple screens while watching tv)
b. More than half of Americans do this (usually by using a smartphone)
What is media convergence?
a. Various types of media coming together into a digital media formb. One communication technology delivers a variety of media content (watching TV on your laptop while also checking email or playing games)
a. Merging of telecommunications or internet companies with traditional media companiesb. So, a fewer number of companies own more and more types of media companies...they all come together under one umbrella
Division of audiences into small groups due to the wide spectrum of media outlets.
a. How messages are spread to different audiences and how audiences make meaning of those messagesb. Spreadability- content that spreads to multiple channels and picks up tiny audiences in multiple places is more successful than content that tries to get attention of large numbers of people to single distribution strings
a. Spectatorial culture- small number of major media companies control what we watch
b. Participatory culture- average citizens have the ability to seize control over the media technology and tell their own stories in powerful new ways
a. Convergence culture- says that everything plays across the maximum number of media channels
b. It is shaped by the decisions of everybody- from teenagers watching TV to the decisions made in the Viacom board rooms each week
What is collective intelligence?
a. Collective intelligence- says that a group as a whole can put together knowledge in a more complex way than an individual is capable of doing
The Obama Campaign, because they used every type of media platform possible to reach voters (twitter accounts, tv, radio, internet, facebook, etc)
What is the challenge for social justice activists?
a. To make sure that these tools get in the hands of those people who have been the most oppressed and dispossessed to get their stories out and into circulation
b. Media change- trying to get the stories of average citizens out there instead of stories that major media companies want to get out there (via youtube, etc)
What are the four possible branches in advertising agencies? Be able to describe each of these.
1.) Creative Development
Create the advertisement-concept to finished product
Copywriters and art directors
2.) Media Selection
Media buyers-negotiate price and placement of ads
3.) Account Services
Account executives-communicate with clients and creative wing
4.) Market Research
Predicts consumers buying habits, consider demographics, etc
What are the three ways to do market research? Be able to describe these.
Types of market research
1.) Demographics-gender, age, ethnicity, etc.
2.) Focus groups-small groups to give opinions
3.) Psychographics-studies personalities, values, lifestyles, attitudes
How does psychographics research differ from demographics research?
What is VALS? What can it help us to understand?
Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles- helps advertisers to tailor their work to help appeal to people on a psychological level
Describe the innovators and the survivors types in the VALS framework.
a. Innovators- very successful, high self esteem, abundant resources for purchasing products, enjoy upscale products and new technologies
b. Survivors- little resources, focus on meeting needs instead of fulfilling desires
What are the three types of primary motivations? Be able to describe each of these.
a. Ideals- motivated to purchase products by their knowledge and principles; thinkers and believers; moral code weighs into their decision; practical buyers, ex) Toyota Corolla
b. Achievement- goal oriented; image is important ex) Chanel #5
c. Self expression- need for variety, risk, or physical activity; express themselves through their purchases; they are experiencers and makers, ex) iPod
Why are advertisers losing faith in the thirty-second ad?
TiVO/DVR allows people to skip ads all together
What countermeasure have the advertisers taken to reach viewers that skip TV commercials altogether?
They are trying to become a part of the programs themselves, ex) Having the cast of Friends meet in a Starbucks
How do “I Am Sam” and “Cast Away” demonstrate brand integration?
They broadcast regular brand names in the program itself
What is Madison & Vine?
A company that works out the integration of entertainment with advertising
ex) Absolut vodka in sex in the city
What is Integrated Entertainment Partners, and what do they do?
A company that looks for ways to integrate products into programs
What are the cultural barriers for brand integration?
People don’t want the “purity” of their television to be adulterated by the merchandising of fast food, etc
What new form of advertising did BMW develop?
What are webisodes? Why did American Express decide to create webisodes?
What happens when a culture becomes completely advertising friendly, according to Mark Crispin Miller?
It ceases to be a culture at all
What is the definition of public relations?
Public Relations- The practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics
What is PRSA and how does this organization define public relations? What is notable about the definition?
PRSA- Public Relations Society of America- a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships with other organizations
How does PRSA’s Code of Ethics highlight the potential good public relations can do for the public?
Advocacy- serving the public by acting responsibly and Honesty- always telling the truth when communicating with the public
How are advertising and public relations different from one another?
A. Control- advertising has more control than public relationsB. Visibility- audiences learn to recognize advertising but are less able to recognize PR attempts than advertising attempts
Control- advertising has more control than public relations
Visibility- audiences learn to recognize advertising but are less able to recognize PR attempts than advertising attempts
What are the 5 public relations efforts or activities discussed in the video?
A. Media relations- writing a news release; pitching an idea; maintaining a relationship with reporters
B. Lobbying- attempts to persuade people in government or to affect a policy
C. Community relations- create and maintain positive relationships with the community which it resides ex) donations, grand openings, evuiuients, etc
D. Employee relations- internal PR; communicating with the employees of an org; responding to concerns, etc
E. Fundraising- use PR in an effort to gain monetary support for client
What is the 3rd party tactic?
Involving someone unrelated to and not invested in the client to communicate the client’s message
Video News Release- video segments created by a PR firm for distribution to TV and online news organizations for the purpose of informing publics, shaping public opinions and promoting individuals, ideas, or commercial products
B. They are often presented as news rather than PR which makes them covert persuasive attempts; makes it look like the news did it but really it was written by the company and the media outlet was paid to run the video
C. MultiVU: PR newswire company that distributes/produces VNRs
Why are VNRs problematic?
A. It can trick your mind because you trust your local news team but they leave out important information about the products
B. Up to 50% of the info we think of as news is originated from a PR company
How can you recognize a VNR on local news?
Crisis communication- rapid response to a crisis which threatens an individual or organization’s image
Theory of Image Repair
Denial of accusation- denying the incident all together
Evading responsibility- saying something occured but it wasn’t your fault or it was an accident
Reducing offensiveness- saying “its not that big of a deal” or relating it to a bigger issue in the past so that your fault seems less big
Offering corrective actions- offer a solution to the problem ex) fixing a faulty product
What should practitioners consider when managing crisis communication and social media?
What does Frank Luntz do, and what is his one consistent piece of advice to clients?
Words advertisements? He always says to “heed the public will” -give the public what it wants
What does Luntz do with language specifically?
A profile about luntz, Nicholas Lemann, described how he changed public opinion from estate tax and changed it into death tax, which took it to the realm where most people seemed to be against
What is the responsibility of practitioners concerning the study of language, according to Luntz?
How have marketers fought political ad fatigue?
What do modern political candidates need to do, according to Pete Swire?
An advertisement for a pair of wrangler jeans that focuses on the durability and low prices of the jeans would most likely appeal to which VALS group?
According to the video lecture, the end of net neutrality could mean:
T/F: According to Noam Chomsky, "manufacturing of consent" is the idea that media audiences freely and knowingly consent to the cultural ideas that are manufactured by mass media.
T/F: According to Dr. Behm-Morawitz, media interests have shifted from concern about audience fragmentation to spreadability.
According to the PBS Frontline film, what technology allows consumers to "zap past the commercials" when watching TV programs?
According to Ashton Gerding's video lecture on VALS, "makers" fall under which motivation category?
T/F According to Ashton Gerding in the video lecture, "copywriters" develop the visual artistic elements of an ad.
According to Ashton Gerding in the video lecture, "copywriters" develop the visual artistic elements of an ad.
According to Luntz in the PBS Frontline film, what is the responsibility of PR practitioners?
According to the PBS frontline film, what is narrowcasting?
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