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What is mass communication?
The conventional view is that mass communication involves large professional organizations, audiences of hundreds or thousands or millions of people, and no immediate feedback between source and receiver. Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and film are all examples of mass media.
feedback is represented by a dotted line labeled delayedinferential feedback
· This is indirect rather than direct
What is technological determinism?
Technological determinists argue that changes in society and culture are driven by advances in media technology and by the content of the media to a large extent. They oppose the view of cultural determinists, who maintain that culture determines the nature of the media and their content.
What is direct marketing?
With direct marketing, the recipient of the advertising message is asked to make a direct and immediate response to the ad, such as by mailing in a printed order blank or dialing a toll-free number to place an order. Telemarketing, home shopping channels, infomercials, and catalog sales are other common examples. The popularity of direct marketing is likely to increase in the future as the spread of interactive technologies such as the Internet makes it easier to place orders in direct response to advertising.
What are the components of the communication process?
All communication processes can be described in terms of a simple model in which a corporate or individual source encodes a message and transmits it through a physical channel to the person for whom the message is intended—the receiver. We call this the SMCR model. In most communication situations, feedback is also provided between the receiver and the source. Contemporary views of the process stress that it takes place in the context of a culture shared by the source and the receiver and that both source and receiver contribute to the creation of meaning.
What are some other types of communication?
When the communication channel is an electronic or mechanical device—such as a radio station or a movie projector—we call it mediated communication. Mediated communication may be point-to-point, one-to-many, or multipoint-to-multipoint. Communication can be characterized according to the number of people involved. Intrapersonal communication involves one person, interpersonal communication usually includes only two people, and small-group communication usually encompasses more than two but fewer than a dozen participants. Large-group communication involves dozens or hundreds of people, but feedback is still immediate. Communication can also be characterized according to the setting in which it takes place. For example, organizational communication happens inside a formally structured organization.
Where did the mass media come from?
Although mass media had forerunners in agricultural and preagricultural societies, they are generally regarded as creations of the Industrial Age. Mass-production methods coupled with the rise of large urban audiences for media during the Industrial Age led to the rise of print and later mass media.
What is interactivity?
A variety of meanings have been attached to the term interactive, ranging from the simple ability to select content from a large number of options to devices that could pass the Turing test by faithfully mimicking human interaction. The term should be reserved for communication situations in which the user modifies the content by providing feedback to the source in real time.
What are the new media?
The long-term trend is to integrate the many specialized channels of communication into all-purpose digital networks that will provide access at the convenience of the audience. Familiar mass-media forms such as newspapers, radio, and television are evolving into, or learning to coexist with, new forms that are all-digital, such as the World Wide Web. New interactive capabilities give users a new measure of control over the media channels they consume, where and when they consume the media, and even the content of those channels. Mass media sources are becoming more numerous and also less authoritative and professional. Messages are customized for smaller specialized audience segments, sometimes even using personal forms of address, and are narrowcast to these segments rather than broadcast to a homogeneous audience.
How do economics influence the media?
First-copy costs in mass media entail virtually all the investment in the production of a work. Economies of scale occur when producers make so many copies of something that they learn how to make each of those copies more cheaply. By the law of supply and demand, cheaper copies can reach far more people, creating a broader audience. Producers want to spread production costs and also their entry costs—the initial costs of establishing a media enterprise—across a broad audience in order to increase profits and satisfy their investors.
How is media ownership structured?
Media can be structured as monopolies, where one company dominates the industry; as oligopolies, where a few companies dominate; or in competition, where a number of companies vie for dominance. The patterns of ownership have a great deal to do with the diversity and nature of the media's content, their availability and accessibility to people, and their role in society. Generally speaking, the more the ownership is concentrated in the hands of a few, the less diverse and more expensive the media are.
What are the sources of media revenue?
Most revenues come directly from the end user of media products. Direct sales of media products occur when consumers pay out a lump sum and take a media product home with them, such as a CD. Rentals also involve a payment for a product, except that the consumer pays only to borrow it, as in a videotape rental. Subscriptions permit newspapers and magazines to be sold on a continuing basis over time for a standard fee. Usage fees are charged for temporary access to media products, such as movie theater admissions, that consumers can't literally take home. The media collect advertising revenues by selling access to their audiences to advertisers, who in turn pay for advertising by charging consumers.
What is the role of public subsidies?
Public subsidies, from either voluntary contributions or taxes, are provided for socially desirable content that commercial interests do not find profitable to provide. The educational and cultural programs on the PBS are prime examples.
What is segmentation?
Technological changes, industry changes, and receptivity by audiences and advertisers are all encouraging media to segment their audiences; that is, to focus on smaller, more specific audiences with more specialized programs or contents. The targeting of media content to appeal to the tastes of a particular narrow audience segment is called narrowcasting.
What are the new media economics?
The Internet takes segmentation to its logical conclusion by personalizing content and ads for individual users. Websites profit from having their users supply the content free of charge and by having users absorb the distribution costs. Others profit by re-purposing content created for conventional media for distribution on the Internet. Unlike conventional media, Internet companies like Google can charge advertisers on the basis of those who respond to their ads (by the click) rather than according to the number who were exposed to the page carrying the ad.
How do political economists explain media?
Social structure is determined by the efforts of dominant classes to maintain their wealth and power. The dominant class in society uses its ownership of the media to influence their content. This class creates a consensus, or hegemony, of ideas that reinforces its position of dominance. In this view, maintaining class dominance is furthered by the profitability of media enterprises. This tends to keep media content within the bounds of this hegemonic set of ideas.
What do feminist and ethnic studies contribute?
The sex-role and ethnic stereotypes that appear in the media may be there for a reason: to perpetuate the dominance of white males in society.
What is semiotics?
Semiotics is a systematic way of looking at media content to examine the symbols and signs contained in it. The signs in media communicate something of symbolic value to the audience; they include visual images, music, camera angles, words, and so on. The producer creates or encodes a meaning into the sign, but the audience may decode or interpret a different meaning.
What are agenda setters and gatekeepers?
Agenda setters from government, businesses, and political interest groups try to influence what the media cover and what “spin” media give to that coverage. Within the media themselves, a variety of media professionals make decisions about what goes into and what stays out of news and entertainment media. They are the gatekeepers.
What social functions do media serve?
Among the functions sociologists have identified for communications media are surveillance (keeping track of our world or environment), interpretation (making sense of what we learn), value transmission (passing values on from one generation to the next), and entertainment.
How do new media spread?
New technologies spread like a disease, from person to person, slowly at first but gradually picking up speed. People consider an innovation's relative advantages, its compatibility with existing practices, its complexity, and any opportunities they have to observe the innovation in action before they try it out themselves. Some people are innovators, some are early adopters, followed by the majority of adopters, late adopters, and laggards. Interactive technologies seem to require a critical mass of users before large numbers will adopt it.
What are the main events in advertising history?
Advertising has been around in some form since ancient times. The Industrial Revolution and the rise of new information technologies are the most influential events ushering in the modern era of advertising. With the Industrial Revolution came a competitive environment that required advertising to be persuasive as well as informative in order to break through the clutter of competing messages. Radio, television, and computers have played major roles in commercial communication. Today, advertising is a meta-industry that penetrates virtually all sectors of society from medicine to religion.
What has been the impact of the computer on advertising?
Computers allow advertisers to build databases and store information, so personalized messages can be sent via the Internet. Database marketing helps build deeper relationships with consumers. Data captured from users of the Internet provides detailed profiles of media usage as well as consumer behavior, providing an unprecedented opportunity to target advertising efficiently, but also threatening the privacy of users.
How are advertising campaigns coordinated?
Marketing managers and brand managers who work for major advertisers budget and plan advertising strategies that will help them introduce new products or increase the sales of existing products. They work with an advertising manager to coordinate their companies' overall advertising efforts. Once a campaign is planned, they might contact one or more advertising agencies to execute the plan.
How are campaigns organized inside an advertising agency?
The account executive is the liaison between the advertiser and the advertising agency staff. The account executive coordinates the activities of the creative department, which creates the ads, and the media department, which determines where the ads will be placed. Copywriters conceive of creative ideas and write the ads. The agency's media buyer negotiates with the media.
What is the role of research in the advertising process?
Advertisers rely on market research to help them understand the target market. In the agency, account planners ensure that there is a strong connection between research findings and the final advertising message. Researchers use data about who watches or reads media, but also use sophisticated breakdowns by audience segment and psychographics to target advertising. The Internet permits new, even more detailed forms of research and data gathering, but also raises potential privacy issues.
What are the different types of communication used in advertising?
Advertising is generally designed to achieve one of three basic goals: to provide new information (brand awareness), to reinforce a current practice (brand loyalty), or to change an existing predisposition. Advertising genres are further categorized according to the type of buying motive they appeal to. Advertisers have identified 15 needs, or buying motives, to which most messages appeal.
How are advertising audiences changing?
The number of seniors is growing, as are several ethnic groups. Advertisers in the future must have a thorough knowledge of diverse markets. The Hispanic market will be the largest ethnic group in the United States, in terms of both population and buying power. The African-American population is younger and growing faster than Anglo-Americans.
In terms of advertising, what does it mean to be media literate?
In terms of advertising, there are professional and consumer levels of media literacy. Professionals must communicate in a way that gets the attention of the consumer, maintains interest, and motivates purchase. Consumers must be aware of implicit messages, teach children critical thinking skills, and know the distinction between the world presented by advertising and actual society.
Exaggerated assertions in advertising that can’t be proved.
simultaneously consuming many different kinds of media
a. growing divide between those with access to technology and those without.
Understand, explain and predict the effects of media on individuals and society.
Changes in cognitions, attitudes, emotions or behavior that result from exposure to the mass media
studies media under carefully controlled conditions (manipulated variables)
a. the degree to which our findings produce stable and consistent results.
a. Argues that mass media exposure cultivates a view of the world that is consistent with mediated reality.
b. Assumes that media systems like conventional broadcast TV deliver a consistent message to a mass audience
a. activation of one thought triggers other thoughts.
Theory states that media images stimulate related thoughts in the minds of audience members
a. Stereotypes are cognitive short cuts – they allow us to make generalizations off of limited information.
1. They are limiting to members of that group and cause people to form biases about a certain group.
2. They can also cause people of the stereotyped group to undermine their own self respect by internalizing stereotypes given to them.
-are more likely to express negative attitudes toward women
-more likely to think that relatively uncommon sexual practices widespread
-will be more lenient with rape offenders in hypothetical court cases
Observing a cartoon acting violently, and performing that violent behavior after.
To assist media organizations in making ethical decisions.
1. whoever enjoys a special measure of freedom has an obligation to society to use their freedoms and powers responsibly.
2. Society’s welfare is paramount, more important than individual careers or even individual rights
1. Present meaningful news, accurate and separated from opinion;
2. Serve as a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism and to expand access to diverse points of view;
3. Project “a representative picture of the constituent groups in society,” by avoiding stereotypes and by including diverse voices;
4. Clarify the goals and values of the society; implicit was an appeal to avoid pandering to the lowest common denominator, with sensationalism, for example;
5. Give broad coverage of what was known about society.
we should “seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number”
we should “seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number”- guidelines based on this
a. Not conforming with socially accepted behavior:
i. showing Janet Jackson’s boob at the Superbowl performance, saying sexual crude things over broadcast.
dramatizing an issue
How do reality TV programs deepen the “ethical quagmire” when they cross the line from recording human suffering and causing it?
Many children are hurt or killed trying to replicate acts on reality shows
a. A four step box for guiding thinking in ethical situations
Define situation, Identify values, Principles: greater good?, Loyalties; greater good
What can explain why Seinfeld doesn’t sell internationally and yet Sex and the City does?
a. Seinfeld is too specific to American culture, that only we understand.
b. Sex and the City does better because foreign audiences are shown to respond better to action, sex, and violence in important programs.
what’s the difference between film and TV studios and record companies in terms of locus of origin?
a. Film and TV: more produced in America, but greatly distributed and owned internationally.
b. Record companies: mostly owned internationally.
Little recognition of power of media
Media communicate to “opinion leaders” (act as a filter between you and the media) who then filter the message and communicate to their “opinion followers”.
Perceptual bias resulting in underestimation of the effect on the self and the overestimation of the effect on others
Media effects views the audience as being passive.
Three factors-personal, environmental, behavioral
Attention, Retention, Production, Motivation
Heavy TV viewers will be more likely to agree with TV’s version of reality that light TV viewers.
If an act goes unrewarded or lack of consequence-people are more likely to act out aggressively.
One is viewed primarily as a sexual object and judged from a standard of beauty that is narrowly defined and equated with sexiness
Effects of media that are socially desirable and which some ways benefits other persons or society at large
What we do with media, rather than what media do to us
Psychological processes of cognitive and affective enjoyment of media
How individuals select media to manage their moods.
the view of psychologists who emphasize behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development -Albert Bandura
What are the two ways we can think about gender depictions in the media?
1. frequency of representation –underrepresentation or absence
2. types of representations (character traits, appearance, etc.)
We should seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
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