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city, city-state; also, citizenship and body of citizens
rhetorical syllogism in which one or more parts is left out for the audience to figure out
repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning; (“I have a dream…”, “Let freedom ring…”)
1) Inventio/heuresis (Invention)
2) Dispositio/taxis (Arragement)
3) Elocutio/Lexis (style)
4) Memoria/mneme (Memory)
5) Actio/hupokrisis (Delivery)
conjectural (what happened? – Cloduis was killed); definitional (what kind of killing was it? – he was killed in self defense by Milo); qualitative (how bad was it? – he was a rotten guy so Rome was better off anyway); translative/jurisdictional
–still used in comm classes; ill/harm (what’s wrong?), blame (who did the wrong), cure (solution to the harm), cost (what are negative consequences or disadvantages from the solution?)
Plato coined the term as well as “oratory”
small group of teachers wanting to teach young men who wanted to continue their education beyond their secondary level; traveled from city to city to increase the pool of potential students; truth was relative, whoever made the better argument was the most persuasive
Skeptics/relativists, moved from place to place, believers in democracy, and they taught public speaking
two most famous Sophists, both of them taught public speaking, only fragments of their writings survive
stylistic devices important for persuasion (like a drug or magic incantations); kairos vs. chronos (rhetoric is an art of important timing); known for speech about Helen of Troy
introduced the concept of relativism, taught to argue both sides of rhetoric; switch debate as teaching method (“for every argument there is an equal and opposite argument”), “man is the measure of all things” (humanity, not the gods, is the center of things), “to make the weaker claim appear to be the stronger” (source of Plato’s criticism of rhetoric)
Says rhetoric is like adding spices to be cookery, adding cosmetics to an ugly face, finding the basest desire of your client and making sure he gets it (“pimping”) - pandering to the masses and that it is a “mere knack” or “flattery”
Appetite (sex, food, shelter), Thymos (collective self that’s part of society and culture - part that’s moved to go into combat to defend one’s nation, the part that’s kind of engaged when one is watching t.u. sucking miserably in football), and Reason. These three parts of the soul are ideally balanced, but in the real world of the polis, one part dominates people.
he does change his mind (matures); the two don’t contradict each other; Gorgias shows the bad side of rhetoric where Phaedrus shows the good side, which leads us to Aristotle as a tool; Plato attacks rhetoric in both dialogues because in the Phaedrus he makes it so difficult that only Socrates would be able to do it; Plato isn’t teaching anything and builds in internal contradictions to label a particular kind of writing.
Faculty of discovering in a given case, the available means of persuasion” - response to the Sophists; Aristotle being more realistic realizes that sometimes you can’t persuade them sometimes because he says “available”
Logos (the case for the position being argued), ethos (the credibility of the speaker as constructed in the message [knowledge, character, good will]), pathos (the connection of 1 and 2 with the mood of the audience)
Primary influence – experience of the Roman republic (why it mentions the words ‘republic’ or ‘Republican’ but not Democracy. Constitituion had to be designed so that there was not too much faction (special interest/political parties), no monarchies, and civic virtue.
Basic techniques were spread through the school system: reasoning, arrangement, stylistic devices; importance of preaching; importance of arguing effectively against heretics; Nicene Creed
Certain Judaizing teachers had come into teach that in addition to faith in Jesus, Christians were “obligated” to keep Mosaic law (especially circumcision)
On Christian Doctrine
Literal (Moses leading people through the Red Sea);
Allegorical (passing through the Red Sea as the “antitype” of the Christian notion of baptism);
Moral (how has your congregation personally been led out of danger into salvation?);
Anagogical (how does this passage foretell our life in heaven?)
Centered on rhetoric, primary means of instruction was debate
Oral exams; no written exams until the mid-19th century; students had to defend assigned theses in front of the Board of Visitors (Regents) at the end of the year to advance or graduate
1) Emergence of the “belles letters” or strictly “literary” study
2) Increased specialization of professors and instruction
3) Shift in the size and purpose of universities
4) Elocutionary movement was intellectually bankrupt and gave rhetoric a bad name.
Means “trivial”; includes grammar, dialectic (logic, discovery of arguments about general or philosophical issue), ad rhetoric
Liberal” as in “liberty”, freeing from superstition
Pictured as a woman, ornamented with tropes and schemes, fearsomely armed, holding a sword and has jewels on her. Sword represents argument, jewels represent style or figures of speech.
Sermon/homily:simple homily was meant to apply biblical passage to life; university sermon was more elaborate and learned
Disputation:formal discussion of a subject by 2 people taking opposite sides, with a third offering a resolution at the end; used for instruction (even of small boys), entertainment, and scholarly discussion; influenced by transition of Aristotle’s TopicsDictamen:The art of letter writing; set of contentions. Evolved into fixed forms for common law pleadings
most important Christian philosopher; wrote Summa Theologiae, concerning the proofs for the existence of God
First cause (if everything on earth is caused by something, it seems reasonable that there must be a first cause), and the idea of an argument from design (the universe displays remarkable order – the idea of an original designer seems at least plausible)
Argument: Problem of Evil; Response: God allows evil to exist, but out of it produces good
Argument: Substitute “nature” for “God” in the above arguments; Response: But nature is changeable and capable of defect, so the substitution does not work (less persuasive in modernity)
1095-1291 – attempts to wrest control of the “Holy Land” from Islamic forces; true motives were enhanced papal authority and monarchs’ search for riches
Propaganda –woodcuts of a monstrous Turk trampling the cross were circulated from village to village
Jews were required to kill a Christian baby to make Passover matzah; the first reports of this happened in 1144 and in 1215, Pope Innocent III charged Jews with deicide and they were required to wear a yellow badge and were prohibited from holding public office.
Historically associated with the murder of Jews in Europe (Good Friday the typical time for physical attacks and murder); a pamphlet on the Blood Libel circulated in southern Minnesota during Easter week in 1995; Hitler praised the largest passion play for doing the work of the Nazis, in blaming the Jews
the predella for the alterpiece showing the Communion of the Apostles that Justus of Ghent painted in 1472 for the church of Corpus Domini in Urbino
we can broadly distinguish traditional cultures based mostly on morality, where people are bound together across time, vs. people starting with the invention of printing and reaching its highest point currently, where humans are connected more across space
a main interest in historical continuity, shared rituals, and values, oral communicative forms, focus on community
main interest is in expansion across space, use of emotionless symbols (mathematics, the price system) to communicate, based on writing and print, focus on individual
- Believed that healthy societies need both time-binding and space-binding media to correct the excesses of each other
Basics of McLuhan’s media theory
- Religion: copies of Luther’s writings could rapidly circulate throughout Europe
- Language: high German
Calvinists believe in double pre-destination, Luther was a bit more skeptical and can be assured we’re saved from all eternity, but if we ultimately fall away from the grace that’s our own fault.
Baptists and Congregationalists developed the congregational organization, Presbyterians have not just the local congregation but a larger one as well.
Puritans favored a highly plain style (sermons are very dry and hyper-organized), Anglicans were very stylistically polished.
- On rhetoric– rhetoric is ONLY style and delivery, nothing to do with thinking
- Use of tree diagrams– promoted a system of analyzing issues with bifurcated tree diagrams, thus emphasizing the spatial representation of knowledge
influenced Puritans in England and the US; John Milton’s “Paradise Lost”, Ramus’ logic taught at Harvard, Puritan preaching based on Ramus
simply “propagating the faith” – the title of the office in the Roman Catholic church was to fight against the Protestant Reformation, didn’t originally have a negative meaning
One of the reasons why we still can’t quite agree on how to read the Constitution is that from day one there were Ramusist who thought it should be read as plainly as possible, but there were Ciceroianis who thought it could be read in an open-ended (difference between Madison and Hamilton).
Sheridan took the natural approach, Austin was the one with all the weird diagrams and highly mechanical approach.
Highly negative, gave the art of rhetoric a bad name, spurred our interest in setting non-verbal communication and had influence on things like dance notations; dead end as far as rhetoric goes
Richards added attention to language messes us up and creates misunderstanding, Burke added the important role of stories and drama as persuasive devices.
"Rhetoric is the study of misunderstanding and its remedies”; the three parts of the triangle: symbol, referent, reference (at the top)
What we hate will kill us; what we love will kill us.
Because it tries to throw out the creative or poetic aspects of language
humans seem to be programmed to respond to a core dramatic pattern (pollution, guilt, purification either through Victimage or Mortification, redemption)
learning to metacommunicate about the dramas, we get caught up in as “we huddle, nervously loquacious, at the edge of an abyss”
how does the persuader “identify” with his audience; are there “unconscious” identifications; is the rhetor somehow “above” the audience, making for “social mystery”?
Burke’s interpretation of Hitler
the lone star flag was directly inspired by a pentagram flown by an earlier group of American Freemasons who led a rebellion against Mexico and founded the short-lived “Republic of West Florida”.
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