To extend human communication, to distribute over space and time
What are the Functions of media?
transmission, reproduction, display
What is the process of media distribution?
The moving of Messages.
this goes hand in hand with amplification. It is the ability to copy information overtime and space
1. increased information available to public 2. great variety of info 3. improved feedback 4. greater convenience
What is the impact of technological convergence?
there is delay in the receiving of the message
what someone is writing down driving direction
what is an example of asynchronous?
there is no delay in the receiving of the message
Trying to contact someone because of an emergency
What is a pro about synchronous communication?
High interactivity. Chatting of facebook
ability to control amount of incoming information and have to use it. What is an example of this?
Low interactivity. Watching TV
the inability to control the amount of incoming information and how to use it. What is an example of this?
high social presence
personable and warm communication
1. The Personality- something we have 2. Construction through communication- something we do
What are the two views of the construction of self?
1. choices 2. decisions 3. relationships
What does our interpretation of stimuli impact? (3)
Have and Do.
What are the two views an individual can have on the world's culture?
Culture controls us, and it is static
What does the "have" view on the world's culture state?
We construct culture via communication, so it is dynamic and ever-changing
What does the "do" view on the world's culture state?
Cognitive complexity, loquaciousness, communication apprehension, shyness affinity seeking, self-monitoring, self-reflexiveness
What are communication related personal traits? (7)
this is learned and con be unlearned having more positive more positive experiences with communication. this is fear of communicating.
people who are this may have been sheltered/ protected at some point and have learned to be this way.
a person who looks to be naturally liked
high self monitoring
If you are always thinking about how your interactions are percieved and how it will affect their perception of you. It deals with thinking of what their actions mean about their personality
allows us to turn our attention inward in order to examine our own communication behavior. it is through this we can replay and think about our actions.
these expressions are intentional and instrumental. An example would be to dress nicely for a job interview
Expressions Given off
these are expressions that are incidental and unintentional like a person who blushes
person who talks about expressions given and given off
incoming messages are linked systematically to previously stored information based on common characteristics.
this effects your behavior which effects people's perception which effects our perception of others' responses
our sense of self, who we are is developed through interaction with others.
looking glass self
when one imagines how they appear to others, this is what they see.
known to others and known to self
not known to others and known to self
known to others and not known to self
not known to others and not known to self. Ex. didn't know that she was good at handling emergencies, until she experienced one. Police saw she was good after she handled the car accident well
being true to ourselves
known self- one's own moods and emotions. this is the ability to be self- reflexive. to be high in this would higher your EQ
ability to control impulses. to be high in this would higher your EQ
ability to keep oneself focused on completing and a goal, and fulfilling the desired effect. to be high in this would higher one's EQ
ability to understand other's reactions and emotions. Both men and women show growth in this as they age. To be high in this would higher one's EQ
ability to build relationships, networks, and maintain them. To be high in this would higher one's EQ.
a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall common goal or set of goals
objects that guide the activity of an organization
1. used to measure organization and individual effectiveness and success 2. origin and clarity differentiate organizational goals
How do goals effect an organization? 2
scientific management/ taylorism
-organization is viewed as a machine -employees motivated by material rewards -use of formal authority to achieve maximum productivity -communication to pass information downward to clarify tasks and rewards
to create a common purpose
What is the purpose of a mission statement
- Views the organization as a family - Addressing worker needs, building trust, encouraging collaboration - Communication is about facilitating social interaction and participation in decisions
attempts to scientifically control the work environment by giving them attention so the employees felt important
-Different parts of the organization depend on one another and their environment - Communication facilitates interaction, coordination, adaptability -Information flow is multidirectional
- is a combination of the scientific management, human relations, and systems - it says there should be a quality of service orientation, leadership, information processing , communication, and continuous improvement
key organizational changes
-more complex and highly interactive work -faster paced work -greater collaboration and teamwork - blurred boundaries -rapid knowledge and innovation
ways in which technology has changed communication in organizations
- increase and fasten the dissemination of information across organization -help to create flat, more democratic organization - help to generate rapid feedback - enable and facilitate communication across organizational boundaries geographic distances - help dispersed individuals work as a team
formal organizational communication
- is generally in written form (memos, policy, rules, procedures, reports - helps maintain the authority relationship - might be time consuming
internal networks (how an organization communicate within the organization)
1. this is a downward and upward message flow 2. there is also horizontal message flows 3. examples would be newsletters and meetings
External (how organization communicates with its customers)
1. advertising 2. marketing 3. public relations
Have v. Do in relationships
1. Relationships are static, fixed, shaped by social structure 2. relationships are dynamic, changing, created and recreated via communication
the whole is worth more than the sum of its parts
- physical attraction - mutual attraction - common ground
What are some new ingredients in a new relationship?
is the relationships in which more is invested; since there is more invested the identity is more flexible; its more intimate- since your willing to put more into it
is the relationship that can be more functional and flexible; it is transitory
signs of stable relationships
personal idioms, pet names, private languages
to integrate the people, and to make a couple exclusive
What purpose do personal idioms, pet names, and private languages serve?
a relationship that is impersonal and ritualized
How does a relationship become intimate?
a family that is high in conversation and high in conformity
a family that is high in conversation and low in conformity
a family that is low in conversation and high in conformity
a family that is low in conversation and low in conformity
1. focus on the negative 2. Confrontation of the negative characteristics of relationships. End relationship. 3. Group and social communication phase where you negotiate how you will tell people about the end of the relationship 4. Telling others about the end in relationship
What are characteristics of defensive communication?
descriptive, spontaneity, open problem solving, spontaneity, empathy, equality
What are characteristics of supportive communication?
a relationship in which one is in disagreement with the one who is dependent
a relationship in which one is dependent on the other person, so they always agree
when the relationship agrees with us, our needs, and goals
- dissatisfaction with partner - dissatisfaction with relationship - dissatisfaction with others - problems with circumstances
- new intimate enters - expanding interactive distance -individual physical/ psychological development - death of partner - unfulfilled promise - mismatched goals for relationship -unforeseen event - violation of rules
what are environmental circumstances that end a relationship?
-attractiveness of members -attractiveness of activities and goals - membership attractiveness
Why do we enter groups?
productivity- tasks distribution of labor socialization
What are some goals of a group
characteristics of groups
1. this can be emergent (people's choice) or contrived (arbitrary) 2. formal or informal 3. rigid role structure (fixed positions) or flexible role structure (shared positions) 3. Task orientation (to achieve goals) or social communication (to socialize)
in group communication this communication is from one person to another like the telephone game
in group communication this communication is from one person to the rest like a boss to his or her employees
in group communication this communication is from one person to the rest and the rest talk to each other as well like a boss to employee and between employees
consensus (people all agree) compromise majority vote decision by leader arbitration
styles of leadership
autocratic democratic (shared leadership) laissez-faire leadership as contextual (learned and inherited)
type of roles
task oriented group building and support roles individual roles - all can have many possible roles
benefits of group cohesiveness
1. leads to productivity 2. group membership 3. effective and efficient communication
Negatives to group cohesiveness
1. group think (pressure to agree with the group, meed to avoid disagreement, need for loyalty) 2. Irving Janis- concurrence- seeking (seek to agree in opinion) overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives
Negative to too little group cohesion
lack of member involvement, low moral
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