The study of speech, its anatomical and physiological bases, the formation and production of speech sounds, and perception and understanding of speech
The study of the larger, more abstract, and organized system of verbal or nonverbal means of communication
the study of hearing, its anatomy and physiology, its perception and understanding, and its relation to communication
the exchange of information
-other patterns of communication
Behavioral Definition of Language:
a form of social behavior, shaped and maintained by a verbal community
Linguistic Definition of Language:
a system of codes and symbols used in commnication
What are the five basic components of human communication
(#6 is CNS)
Where is the voice housed?
What is the source of the human voice?
the vibration of the vocal folds
the voice or vocal output is shaped into sounds and syllables by the articulators (soft palate, tongue, and lips)
the study of speech sounds and sound patterns used to create words. Primarily concerned with the "broader rules and processes that govern the patterns of sound, their acquisition and use, and the knowledge that underlies the use of sound systems."
refers to the "production, perception, and classification of speech sounds."
a single speech sound
a "group" of speech sounds
ex: /k/ is still recognized as /k/ even if it is produced differently
combinations of phonemes. Vowels are necessary
What are the two modes of language
oral and non-oral
What are the 2 primary approaches to language?
Behavioral and Linguistic
Linguistic Approach to Language
holds that language is a system of codes used to communicate
Behavioral Approach to Language
maintains that language is a social endeavor maintained by a verbal community.
the study of language, its structure, and the rules that govern it
the study of structures
the smallest "meaningful" unit of a language
pertains to the structure and construction of our language, especially our sentence structure. Rule based, the rules specify the ability to combine words to form reasonable and logical sentences.
the study of meaning in language
Transformational Generative Theory
with the knowledge of the rules of grammar and transformations, endless sentence varieties can be generated.
Who believes that the understanding of universal rules of grammar are innate and present at birth allowing for the acquisition of language?
Chomsky distinguished language into two groups
1.) Language Competence- innate and perfect knowledge of the rules of universal grammar which apply to all languages (and which is present at birth)
2.) Language Performance- actual production of language. Production may be deficient or variable.
What are the 2 theories of Semantics?
Content Theory and Referent Theory of Meaning
words and sentences that have structure and hold meaning within them, they contain their own meanings.
Problem with the theory is that: if there is an inherent meaning that we should have no problem understanding anything
Referent Theory of Meaning
there is an actual connection to signs/symbols. Visual cat is the animal cat
Problem with the theory is that: it leaves out abstract or non-concrete words like love, ok, afterall, for
the study of rules that govern the use of language in social situations.
Places greater emphasis on the functions of language than on its structure.
contrasting sets of meaning that children acquire.
They follow a developmental pattern:
Nomination--> Child names a "hat"
Possession--> "my hat"
Agent Action--> "daddy throw hat"
What are the 3 pragmatic functions of language?
1.) Instrumental--> we get what we want
2.) Regulatory--> we get others to do what we want
3.) Interactional--> we engage others in social interaction
What are 4 examples of social rules of language?
-proxemics (don't get too close)
What is the Behavior study of language?
By B.F. Skinner
He theorized that adults guide the development of children's speech by reinforcing babble and "shaping" it into true words.
Consequences to not using correct action are determined by the audience.
Functional Units (Verbal Operants)
different classes of verbal behavior learned under specific conditions and processed under similarly specific conditions.
What are 5 functional units coined by Skinner?
verbal behavior controlled by deprivation and aversion.
Ex: child asks for milk, Skinner believes that giving her milk would reinforce her to say it from then on.
essentially labeling. Includes nouns, adjectives, action, pronouns, relations, etc.
ex: child says milk to identify the white liquid produced by cows
vocal imitative repertoire. The ability of a child to imitate or repeat increased the likelihood of learning and future usage
responses to verbal behavioral of another person.
Ex: responding to a "wh__ question"
a form of verbal behavior which modifies the functions of other forms of verbal behavior.
Ex: i think I love you, adding I think changes the whole meaning to the listener.
According to Skinner what is necessary for speech to become communication
MEANING!!! without it you are speaking gibberish
easy, smooth, flowing, and relatively effortless speech (according to Hedge)
Fluency can diminish with lack of knowledge on a certain topic.
What are the 2 disorders of fluency?
Cluttering and Stuttering
variations in rate, pitch, loudness, stress, intonation, and rhythm.
Mediated by voice and fluency. Much meaning can be conveyed this way.
the processing of an auditory (sound) signal by the hearing organs and the brain
The ear is divided into 3 parts, what are they?
Outer ear (pinna, EAC)
Middle Ear (tympanic membrane, ossicles)
Inner Ear (cochlea)
Who said: Speech is abnormal when it deviates so far from the speech of other people that it calls attention to itself, interferes with communication, or causes the speaker or listeners to be distressed.
What are the 2 categories for the cause of disordered speech?
Organic and Functional
Organic Disordered speech
has a root cause in a structure or organ involved in speech production (cleft palate, brain injury)
Function Disordered Speech
has no demonstrable organic cause (idiopathic). These people have normal neuor function, normal speech mechanisms, and are otherwise healthy, but their speech is nonetheless disordered.
Can be: Disordered learning, environmental, habituation, emotional/psychogenic
What are the 2 types of "Age of Onsets" in disordered speech?
Congenital- present at birth or noticed soon after. (never had it to begin with) Efforts are habilitative.
Acquired- A disorder occurs after a period of normal development and communicative competence. Effort are rehabilitative (had it then lost it)