Chapter 1 Ways public speaking is likely to make a difference in you life Communication in profession I mean, come on, if you can’t think of some then you’re fucking retarded How is public speaking and conversation similar? Have to organize thoughts logically Have to tailor your message to your audience Tell a story for maximum impact Have to adapt to listener feedback Differences between public speaking and conversation Public speaking is more highly structured Public speaking requires more formal languages Public speaking requires a different method of delivery Why is it normal to be nervous before speech? It shows that the speaker is becoming “psyched up” for the speech Body produces adrenaline How can you control nervousness? Make it into positive nervousness – enthusiastic, lively feeling for confidence Think positively Prepare a lot Use power of visualization Know that nervousness is not visible Don’t expect perfection Elements of the speech communication process Speaker – person that initiates conversation Message – what speaker communicates to someone Channel – means by which a message is communicated Listener – Person who receives the communicated message. Feedback – Message listener returns to speaker Interference – anything that impedes the communication of the message Internal – within audience External – from the outside, traffic, students outside hall, etc Situation – Time and place in which speech communication occurs. Ethnocentrism and why speakers need to avoid it Belief that our own group or culture is superior then all others Diversity in audience could cause confrontation if ethnocentrism is used by speaker Chapter 2 Ethics and why it is vital for public speakers Branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs Use ethics in order to be a future credible speaker in all aspects of life Guides of ethical speaking Make sure goals are ethically sound Be prepared for each speech Be honest in what you say Avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language Put ethical principles into practice Difference between global plagiarism and patchwork plagiarism Global – stealing entire speech from source Patchwork – takes from several sources Best way to avoid plagiarism Work on speech as soon as possibly can Consult a large number of sources Incremental plagiarism and how to avoid it Incremental - Speaker fails to give credit to source When quoting attribute words to source to person When paraphrasing, must restate or summarize ideas Three basic guidelines for ethical listening Be courteous and attentive Avoid prejudging speaker Have free and open expression of ideas Chapter 3 Difference between hearing and listening Listening is understanding and comprehending what is being said to you Hearing is the vibration of sound waves on the eardrums of electrochemical impulses in the brain. How is listening connected to critical thinking? When you listen properly you are using your mind to remember what is being said, summarizing and storing important fact. Why is it important to develop good listening skills? So you can listen better and as a result you will learn more. Main causes of poor listening? Not concentrating-we can take in all of what the speaker is saying and still have time to comprehend it. Listening to hard- if we treating every word as if they were equal we think too much and can miss what the speaker is saying. Jumping to conclusion- hearing the beginning of something and making your own conclusion Focusing on delivery and personal appearance- focus too much on what the person sounds and not listening to their message or pre judging the person 7 ways to become a better listener Take listening seriously Be an active listener- giving your undivided attention to the speaker to genuinely understand the speakers view points. Resist distraction- always have your undivided attention on the speaker Don’t be diverted by delivery or appearance Suspend judgment- hear the entire speech before making a judgment. Focus you listening- listen for: Main points Evidence Technique Develop Note-Taking Skills- key word notes Chapter 4 Four brainstorming methods when having trouble choosing a topic for you speech: Personal Inventory Clustering Reference search Internet Search Two general purposes of most classroom speeches Inform – Convey info Persuade – Partisan, get audience to believe what you are saying Specific Purpose? Precisely what you hope to accomplish in your speech, What speaker wants audience to know as result of speech. 5 Tips for specific purpose: Full Sentence Not a question No Figurative Language One Idea Not too vague 5 Questions about Specific purpose: Purpose meet assignment? Accomplish task in time given? Purpose relevant to audience? Purpose to complicated for audience? Too technical for audience? Specific Purpose and Central Idea? SP – Hope to accomplish CI – Expect to say Guidelines for Central Idea: Full Sentence Not question No fig. language Not to vague Chapter 6 Supporting materials in speeches? Support the speech with information that supply to audience, topic, and specific purpose Supporting Materials: Brief – illustrate point, specific instances Extended – narratives, illustrations, anecdotes, pull listeners into speech Hypothetical – describes imaginary situation Tips for using examples: Clarify ideas Reinforce Ideas Personalize Ideas Make vivid and richly textured Practice delivery to extended example Statistics and Lying and Questions Statistics and easily be manipulated by the speaker Are stats representative? Are statistical measures used correctly? Are from a reliable source? Tips for statistics in speeches Use to quantify ideas Use sparingly Identify sources of stats Explain stats Round of complicated stats Use visual aids Testimony? Quotations or paraphrases used to support a point Expert Test. – people that are authorities in field Peer Test – opinions from people like ourselves, not prominent figures Tips for using testimony Quote accurately Use from qualified source Use from unbiased source Identify people you quote Chapter 8 Why is it important that speeches be organized clearly and coherently? Speeches should be put together in particular ways to achieve particular results with particular audiences. How many points will speech contain? 2-3 Why is it important to limit the number of points in your speech? Audience will have trouble sorting so many out. 5 basic patterns of organizing main points in a speech Chronological – Informative – Points listed in order of occurrence Spatial – Informative – Points follow directional pattern Causal – Persuasive – Main points show cause and effect pattern Problem-Solving – Persuasive – First main point is problem, second is solution Topical – Informative – Points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics Tips for preparing main points Keep main points separate Try to use the same pattern of wording for main points Balance the amount of time devoted to main points Most important thing when organizing supporting materials in the body Supporting materials must be directly relevant to the main points Kinds of Speech of connectives Transitions – words that indicate when a speaker has just completed one thought and is moving on to another. Internal Preview – let audience know what speaker will take up next but are more detailed Internal Summaries – Remind listeners of what they have just heard Signposts – Brief statements tat indicate exactly where you are in the speech Chapter 9 Objectives of speech introduction Get attention Reveal the topic of your speech Establish your credibility and goodwill Preview the body of the speech Methods to get attention Relate topic to audience State the importance of your topic Startle the audience Arouse the curiosity of audience Question the audience Begin with a question Tell a story Why is it important to establish credibility at beginning of speech? To be perceived as qualified to speak on topic Preview statement? Telling the audience in the introduction what they need to listen for in the speech. Tips for preparing introduction Keep brief Be on lookout for intro materials when doing research Be creative Don’t worry about exact wording Work out in detail Major functions of a speech conclusion Let audience know you are ending speech Reinforce audience’s understanding of the central idea Signal End of speech Reinforce central idea Sample conclusion with commentary Ways to reinforce the central idea Summarize speech End with a quote Make dramatic statement Refer to intro Preparing the conclusion Keep eye out for concluding materials when researching Conclude with a bang Don’t be long winded Don’t leave anything in conclusion to chance, know the conclusion Chapter 10 Why is it important to outline your speech To make sure you have support for your main ideas and all of your ideas in general. It is a blue print for your speech. What is a preparation outline An outline that helps you prepares your speech. Eight guidelines for writing a preparation outline State the specific purpose of your speech Identify and clarify ideas Label the introduction, body and conclusion Use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation State main points and sub-points in full sentences Label transitions, internal summaries and internal previews Attach a bibliography Give your speech a title (if one is desired)- it must be brief, attract attention, and encapsulate the main thrust of your speech. What is a speaking outline? A brief outline used to jog a speaker’s memory during the presentation of a speech. Four guidelines for your speaking outline Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline- use the same format Make sure the outline is legible Keep the outline as brief as possible Give yourself cues for delivering the speech- give cues to pause, look up, how you want to say it Chapter 11 How does language help shape our sense of reality It expresses things that can’t be expressed visually and words can take on different meanings depending on how they’re used an it what context they are used in. What is the difference between denotative and connotative meaning? Denotative is the literal meaning; connotative meaning is the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase. How might you use both to convey your message? Denotative- to explain the meaning of something, inform the audience. Connotative- to make associations with the audience Four criteria for using language effectively Use language accurately Use language clearly Use language vividly Use language appropriately Three things to use language clearly Use familiar words- do not use words that you would not hear in normal speech unless it is technical terms on you topic Choose concrete words- words that refer to tangible objects Eliminate clutter- get to the point Tow ways to bring your speeches to life with vivid animated language Imagery Simile Metaphor Concrete words- referring to objects Rhythm Parallelism- using similar language Repetition- repeating words or phrases Alliteration- repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words. Antithesis- juxtaposition of contrasting ideas What does it mean to use language appropriately? Make sure your language is appropriate for the occasion the audience the topic and the speaker. Why is it important to use inclusive language? So you don’t offend anyone or leave anyone out Five usages of inclusive language that can’t be ignored Avoid the generic “He” Avoid the use of “Man” when referring to both men and women Avoid using stereotyping in jobs and social roles by gender- use businessperson instead of businessman Avoid identifying personal traits that are unrelated to the topic Use names that groups use to identify themselves Chapter 12 Nonverbal communication and why is it important to effective public speaking The way you use your voice and body to deliver your speech The impact of the words is powerfully influenced by nonverbal communication. Elements of good speech delivery Voice Nonverbal communication Eight Aspects of Voice Usage Volume- Loudness/Softness Pitch- Tone high/low Rate- speed Pauses- can be very effective if used to convey points/ideas Dialect- variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent grammar, or vocabulary Vocal variety- don’t be monotone Pronunciation- speak words clearly and properly Articulation- specific speak sounds clearly Four aspects of bodily appearance Eye contact- make eye contact with your audience to keep their attention Movement- be aware of your movements and don’t let them be distracting Gestures- motions of hands and arms during a speech Appearance- Look professional and prepared Five steps while practicing your speech Go through your outline aloud word for word Prepare a speaking outline Go through the speech with just a speaking outline Polish and refine delivery Dress rehearsal Steps for preparing question and answer session Formulate answers to possible questions Practice the delivery of your questions What to concentrate on when responding to questions Direct answers to the entire audience- do not just talk to the person who asked the question Be honest and straightforward- keep your answer clear and simple and always be honest Stay on track- answer the question asked of you in a clear and precise way Practice with your visual aids Chapter 13 Major advantages of using visual aids Clarity- makes your speech easier to understand Interest- gains interest or keep interest of audience Retention- reinforce points and ideas, visuals will be remembered longer than words Types of visual aids Objects Models- if your item is too big or too small a model can be used instead Photographs- if you can’t bring in an object or a model Drawings- they are tailor made for each speech Graphs- simplifies and clarifies stats Charts- summarizing large amounts of information Video- can be very good, but difficult to use properly because they need to be to the point and not cause distractions or go off topic Transparencies- very widely used, inexpensive and can be used for photographs, drawings, graphs and charts. Multimedia presentation- you can integrate a variety of visual aids. Guidelines for preparing visual aids Prepare visual aids in advance Keep visual aids simple- keep them clear, simple, and only have a manageable amount of information Make sure visual aids are large enough Use easy to read fonts Use a limited number of fonts Use color effectively- make sure the colors work well together, if they do recognition will increase by 78% and comprehension 73% Guidelines for presenting visual aids Avoiding using chalkboard visual aids Display visual aids where listeners can see them Avoid passing visual aids among the audience Display visual aids only while discussing them Talk to your audience, not to your visual aids Explain Visual aids clearly and concisely Chapter 14 Four types of informative speeches About objects About processes About events About concepts Informative speakers must not overestimate what the audience knows If a speaker uses to many technical terms without any background information the audience will not be able to relate to the speech. What should you do to make sure that your topic relates directly to your audience? Get your audience involved, put your listeners into the body of the speech, and find ways to talk about your topic in terms of your listeners. Making sure your speech is not overly technical Don’t use jargon Make sure you ideas are straightforward and easy to grasp Three methods you can use to avoid abstractions Use descriptions Use comparisons- compare it to a concrete idea Contrast- contrast it from a concrete idea Informative speakers should form own ideas To present one’s idea in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience.