10/23/08 Communication Honest signaling ? handicap model Ex: bird of paradise Graph: low quality male can?t produce as good of signal because it is more costly Phylogeny of Signals Ritualization is the evolutionary process whereby a behavior is elaborated to become a more effective communication signal. Any trait upon which natural selection can act-behavioral, physiological or morphological ? can be ritualized for communication Principle of antithesis (Darwin) Ex: wolves ? opposite signals (subordinate and dominant) Things that look different are taken as different signals Intention movements Wolf holds open mouth growl pose signaling a bite, but doesn?t do it Appropriation (Emancipation) Wolf licks others mouth (uses signal of subordination in order to get food) Displacement Activity Intense interaction with animal and then yawns (shows off their teeth) Signal/Display Ex: male balloon fly gives female a silk balloon gift before mating Phylogeny of nuptial gifts in empid flies (different stages of gifts depending on carnivorous/insectivorous)
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