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use of visuals, narratives and ideas to construct and make sense of how we view the world
-Real world example: Representation of brand/associations with that brand
-Significance: Influences how we interpret society and how media represents reality, whoever gets to represent has the power
a system to communicate ideas
-Real world example: English
-Significance: We can have shared meanings through language
social norms of a society and group
- Significance: culture gives different representations meaning (ex. what does a red dress signify in America vs. India)
the narrative itself and what is left out of the frame
-Real world example: leaders vs. finders during a natural disaster
-Significance: Sets up the way you interpret a story
representation is not reality.
- Re-presents reality.
- Draws reality.
- Reiterates reality.
- Makes meaning.
- “Funhouse mirror” metaphor- representation distorts reality.
- Real World Example: women being represented as skinny are distorting the reality that not all women are skinny. Makes women believe that skinny is the only type of normal.
- Real World Example: Not all women are fragile- they play sports and work out à calls for laws of equality in sports.
- Significance: Because reality is skewed in media, it creates hegemonic societal ideas that are not necessarily true.
adds judgment to a type.
- Difference: ex. Gender difference
- Classification: Groupings based on criteria
- Essentialization: for a given group, erases differences à all women, men, Afghanis are the same.
- Hierarchy: mark boxes in hierarchy.
- Naturalization: we come to believe these ideas are true, unconsciously.
o Real World Example: Bathrooms designated for men and women aren’t so different and don’t need to be segregated à this belief is naturalized.
the idea that an image invites a particular kind of viewer
-Real world example: Fanon’s example of skin color being unavoidable and always frames interaction
-Significance: There are certain characteristics of an image that on bases their assumptions and judgments off of
a system of signs that feel that feel like they are natural but are arbitrary
-Real world example: stop sign
-Significance: Creates culture
Denotation is the actual definition while connotation is the constructed meaning and what we associate with that idea
-Real world example: The denotation of a snake is a reptile but the connotation is that it is a symbol of evil
-Significance: Denotations simply name and assign categorizations hile connotations shape the perceptions we assigned to certain symbols and ideas
- Langue: language structure, rules, grammar, shared meanings.
- Parole: an individual utterance, which can shift meaning.
o May or may not follow the rules.
o Impacted by gender roles in television.
- Real World Example for Langue: word- father. Letters create a word that has a common meaning.
- Real World Example for Parole: the different meanings we can give to “father,” so depending on the context the word can have different meaning. Each time the word is reinforced a certain way it seems like the normal meaning for the word.
- Encoding: how a message is sent out based on society’s views of the specific message.
- Decoding: how individuals make meaning of certain media based on their own social context and what their interpretation is of the media.
o Strongly agree, strongly disagree, or in between.
- Real World Example: A commercial of a woman making her kid’s lunch. Why is the man not making the lunch? Because society has views of women being stay-at-home moms and not working (encoding). The public will either agree, disagree, or have mixed feelings about the ad (decoding).
- Significance: explains how advertisements are constructed and society’s effect on how they are made.
since representation is constructed and shapes reality, many constructions tell individuals what is physically and socially acceptable.
- Ex) Body image.
- Ex) Seeing someone in the airport who looks Middle Eastern and assuming they’re a terrorist.
- Significance: false representation of reality.
a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights for women.
- Real World Example: women are against the objectification in advertisements because they look like they have no role in society and that men run the world.
- Significance: shows the movement that women haven’t reached equality and the fact that it’s a struggle.
– how women are supposed to act, culturally constructed ideal of a woman à she should have purity, be into ‘pink’. Much diversity in representations
- Real World Example: images of a woman in a white dress on a beach (represents purity), woman shown muscular body builder – but in a pink bikini and a rose in her hair (lessens the masculine aspects)
- Significance: Alters the way women are represented, alters the societal expectations of a woman’s image, sets standards that excludes/includes
images of “Eastern” people as opposite of “Western” people – that they are exotic, foreign, backward savages, etc; common in the colonial era; justification of imperialism and colonialism
-Real world example: Colonization/imperialism of England over colonies
-Significance: justified with reasoning that they were more sophisticated than whoever they were trying to colonize
Types exist and stereotypes adds feelings and judgments
-Real world example: type- people of Asian descent vs. Stereotype-Asians are good at math
-Significance: Stereotypes can be offensive and untrue
– the difference in the way you look at an image (subjective vs. objective) à the power to describe/ascribe social position, the power to display, the right to consume, the right to use as accessory, the right to look at
- Real World Example: an image of African folklore (subjective – has a meaning to it, actions to it) vs. an image of a woman in a bikini on a beach (objective – just appealing to look at, advertising)
- Significance: gives people different powers, people viewed subjectively have more humanity/power than objectified, more meaning vs. more eye-candy
– treating a person like a thing (an object). Visual pleasure is often associated with such an image; invites sexualized consumption
- Real World Example: an ad that shows only the woman’s legs
- Significance: takes away humanity/dignity of the person in the image and sexualizes them
the idea that those who control media control ruling ideas
-Real world example: those who control media decide what gets publicized
-Significance: According to Marx’s theory, it keeps the ruling class in power
the social, cultural, ideological effects a powerful group exerts on society and its social expectations of representations
- Real World Example: “manly” football playing, nacho eating, ripped guy (not meant for domestic life), the “punk” – rebelling against social norm, was a political stance that turned into a fashion statement
- Significance: restricts the standard, creates a norm for society – a category people want to fit into
An ideology is established that people assume is normal
-Real world example: Men are in the army
-Significance: Sets the norm
– One of the two forms of power in society – an idea proposed by Althusser. These “teach” people how to behave and set the standard culture, and spread that culture
- Real World Example: police, army, prison
- Significance: people are being taught forcefully
– The other form of power in society proposed by Althusser. These “teach” people how to behave and set the standard culture, and spread that culture
- Real World Example: school, family, religion
- Significance: people are being taught through persuasion and reinforcements
a shared belief system of knowledge production
-Real world example: Acts, gestures, policy documents
-Significance: It gives our society structure
Power implicates how knowledge is used; power makes knowledge true
-Real world example: the government enforces what is taught in a school system
-Significance: influences what people are cognizant of
Representations and Identity
Representations and Nationalism
Power as productive, circulating
Regime of truth
cultural meanings attributed to biological differences.
-Real World Example: Men are masculine, strong, leaders. Men like blue. Women are feminine, weaker, subservient. Women like pink.
-Significance: These examples permeate all parts of the media. Media helps build and maintain these definitions of gender.
the quality or condition of being feminine, such as ladylike, submissive, soft, delicate, gentle, etc.
-Real World Example: The movie Legally Blonde both affirms and subverts femininity.
-Significance: Affirms women’s place in society.
women are viewed as passive, meant to be looked at in the media.
-Real World Example: Cosmo – half-naked woman
-Significance: Women are a product to be used, contributes to objectification. Because they are being watched it contributes to self-surveillance and the gaze.
the false belief that someone’s sex is a determinate in their personality.
-Real world: the idea that all women have built-in maternal instincts and are inadvertently domestic
-Significance: these portrayals of women are heavily documented and perpetuated through media.
a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression.
-Real World Example: feminism has been a movement since women had to earn the right to vote and have contributed to much social change throughout American history.
-Significance: Many practices in the media have to do with feminism and post-feminism ideals, and the representations offered by the media have been changed and challenged by feminism.
People against the idea that women are equal to men; opposition to feminism
-Significance: Directly opposes feminism, there’s always going to be disagreement between the two – women are represented in a subservient role to men in media because of anti-feminist ideas
stereotype of men that they are expected to know how to and have a desire to take care of children about be successful at it
-Real World: More stay-at-home mothers than fathers, mothers do more housework and childcare, etc.
-Significance: This puts a lot of pressure on women to have kids and be a good mother when they do have kids.
Stereotypes of being a female and how girls should feel, dress and act
-Real World Example: Barbie
-Significance: Presenting females in the media with a certain set of standards
Both celebrates and mocks girliness
-Real World Example: Clueless
- Significance: It is not promoting sexism, but it is also not promoting feminism by presenting girliness in a non-traditional, mocking way
The ideology that women and men are already equal, and therefore, we no longer need to fight for equality. Thus, feminism is outdated and not necessary anymore. The irony comes when people say that feminism’s fight is over, making it not completely be over.
-Significance: The irony in this trivializes the importance of feminism and the fight women have put up for equality.
Women are represented falsely, such as holding high-paying jobs, when in reality they are not actually in those positions.
- Real World Example: Gossip Girl
- Significance: The media tries to make it seem as if we are post-feminism, when in reality, women are still not equal to men.
The war between feminism and anti-feminism both portrayed in the media.
-Real World Example: Miss Congeniality
-Significance: We accept depictions that were once considered sexist, because we are also getting depictions suggesting that women have achieved equality.
In the 1980’s, men in media began to be portrayed as sensitive. In the 1990’s, homosexual men began to appear in the media.
-Real World Example: (1980s) 30-Something (1990s) Will & Grace
-Significance: Opens up more ways for acceptance for men and shows how stereotypes have changed overtime
Occupy high status positions, Initiate Action, rational rather than emotional, financially successful, strong
-Significance: This puts a lot of pressure on men to meet stereotypes in order to be considered successful.
feminist gains, attitudes, and achievements are woven into the cultural fabric; the idea that feminism has completed its goal.
-Real World Example: The Closer (television show) because it features a strong female lead in the role of a prosecuting attorney. She holds the same social standing as male counterparts. Does not represent real life accurately.
-Significance: The media does this to attract audiences but it does not further women or the feminist cause because it creates a false sense of achievement.
the existence of multiple personas, which at times may conflict, and the identity which they try to define at times contradicts itself.
-Real World Example: The Pink Ad
-Significance: Because there are so many different roles as women we can take up, it puts pressure on women to be that
In the 50s and 60s biology and gender had a predetermined expectation of domesticity, maternal instinct, nurturing, and passive. In the 70s, TV defined women’s roles and feminine characteristics as beautiful and slim, young, weak, passive, not very smart, poor decision makers. In the 80s, there was a rise of embedded feminism, strong women appear on TV in men’s roles. In the 90s, post-feminism era with warrior women as well as girliness. There was a struggle in the media between enlightened sexism and embedded feminism.
-Real World Example: 60s: Alice in the Brady Bunch kept to herself except in ways that were typically feminine and domestic. 70s: Farrah Faucet and what she represents. 80s: Rosie O’Donnell. 90s: Spice Girls/Buffy.
-Significance: Shows progression and indecisiveness in the media.
the public openly criticizes the physical appearances of women ad compares them to female stereotypes.
-Real World Example: “Bridalplasty” and “Doctor 90210”
-Significance: women are pressured to look perfect like the female images they see in the media.
A 1963 Bettie Fridan book which is widely credited for sparking the first wave of feminism in the United States.
-Real World Example: The typical American housewives living vicariously through their children and husband. The book features the opposite of this.
-Significance: A false belief system that women find identity and meaning in their lives through their husband and children.
The unattainable expectation of a woman to be both innocent and pure but also sexually experienced and promiscuous.
-Real World Example: Marilyn Monroe was the image of sexuality but wore whites and acted very innocent. Taylor Swift vs. New Miley Cyrus
-Significance: The holy grail of the media representation of female sexuality.
The systematic under-representation of a particular group or groups and or media representations that favors stereotypes and omits realistic portrays.
-Real World Example: In most medical television shows, there is an under representation of women in doctor roles and men in nurse roles.
-Significance: The symbolic annihilation of positive and empowered female role models in popular media. Women who consume this media over time are said to internalize oppression by giving merit to stereotype.
“Normative” male behavior: aggressive (prove themselves through fighting), tough, ambitious, strong, self-reliant, and emotionless.
-Real World Example: The Avengers, Rocky
-Significance: It sets a standard for men’s self expectation and let’s the audience associate certain qualities with men.
resurrects sexist stereotypes of girls and women and insists that it is okay because “equality has been achieved.”
-Real World Example: America’s Next Top Model
-Significance: invites the viewer to be ironically sexist and pokes fun at feminism, reinforces past stereotypes that feminism has worked to eradicate. People can still enjoy sexist programs.
something traditionally considered to be male; what culture expects from men
-Real World Examples: tough, ambitious, strong, agressive, self reliant, stoic
-Significance: What it means to be a man is held to a certain standard.
The traits of masculine taken to the exteme in order to tout one’s inherent masculinity and perhaps make up for other feminine traits.
-Real World Example: bodybuilders
-Significance: This a level of masculinity that is very difficult to acheive.
a straight man possessing certain qualities that would be considered feminine (like dressing well) without jepoardizing their manliness.
-Real World Example: David Beckham
-Significance: a new type of mascismo from to 90s that allows men to be stylish and manly at the same time, “the unblushing man.”
the idea that real mean are the opposite of women of feminie attributes and of gays nad that feminie traits are cast as emasculating. Men have to compensate for deviating from masculinity.
-Real World Example: the tide ad the mad was doing laundry and compensated by doing pushups.
-Significance: What “masculine” is is defined by its contrast to “femininity,” which seperates the tow into spheres if influence and justifies inequality between them.
response to feminism, ironically sexist, objectifies women. Says these women are empowered through their sexual surperiority.
-Real World Example: the magazine Maxim
-Significance: a symptom of enlightened sexism, now that women have equality we can go back to objectifying them and its okay. Contributes to the “she was asking for it” mentality of rape culture.
Being accepted by the world and society around you. Full membership, access to equal treatment and rights. Its dimensions are social, political, cultural, and legal.
- Real world example: In the past, in ancient Greece and even in the recent past, wealthy male landowners and rich individuals were citizens.
- Significance: Some people are not accepted because they are Gay, Lesbian, or because of their class.
Due to changes in society such as capitalism and new markets, which leads to niche markets and audience segmentation.
- Real world example: Different TV channels that focus in on one particular audience or group of viewers.
- Significance: Because it creates niche markets
At first, they were never truly seen in the media, but not included and ignored. Now, it is more widely accepted yet they are still represented as safe and sanitary / sanitized.
- Real world example: In modern family, they gay couple do not show much affection. In one episode, the children walk in on a straight couple having sex, but they do not walk in on the gay couple having sex, of course, because of the controversy in society it could cause.
- Significance: People do not get the full scope of what it is like being gay or lesbian. Though it has improved over the last few decades, representations are still very stereotypical. Example: Ellen’s sitcom in the 90’s was cancelled once she came out.
In the media, the focus of media products is often the middle class, while the working class is severely under-represented. The representation is the stereotypical middle class family. With invisibility, because media focuses on middle class, the lower class and non-stereotypical issues are ignored, thus making them invisible in the media’s eye.
- Real world example: In sitcoms, they all seem to feature the middle. Shows such as the Big Bang Theory, Seinfeld, My Wife and Kids, and Full House, and they are all the same story based upon the middle class.
- Significance: This results in the viewers creating a stereotype stating that, this is the common and typical family in reality.
Ways of distinguishing class.
- Real world example: What school someone goes to, where they live, the clothes they wear, the cars they drive, new money v. old money, zip code, the job one has.
- Significance: It separates people
Contain or limit the threat represented by a minority identity.
- Real world example: Native Americans were seen as barbaric which justified colonialism and taking native American land. Also, the “mami” stereotype justifies domestic slavery. Nazi propaganda justified hatred of Jews during the holocaust.
- Significance: It justifies certain actions that could hurtful to societies and groups of individuals.
According to Crenshaw, the ideas that discourses that race, gender, and class intersect and inter-relate in their influence, and how they shape peoples positions and social outcomes.
- Real world example: The Aunt Jemima image. Mammy forms a stereotype about women and black people intersecting. The angry black man stereotype does the same thing only with men and black people.
- Significance: Shows that stereotypes and representations have more than one implication. Spanning across more than one group of people.
According to Entman and Rojecki, the media’s representation of and portrayal of a certain race, pinned against another.
- Real world example: Treyvonne Martin and how, due to the fact that he was black, he was the instigator.
- The media can affect and sway our thoughts and opinions by choosing what evidence is portrayed.
Crenshaw’s idea of how race, gender, and class correlate
- Real world example: The Mammy stereotype: black women being portrayed be caregivers
- Significance: It creates a double bind that is hard to break
A representation that justifies a stereotype
- Real world example: How Native Americans are seen as “barbaric”
- Significance: How the media portrays stereotypes
Material representations and demographics associate to which class one belongs
- Real world example: What brands you wear, where you live, and who you know
- Significance: Each group has different associated qualities, identified through class markers
Media severely underrepresents the blue collar working class, and when they are represented, it is through stereotypes.
- Real world example: Most programs and show represent a white collar working class, and when the blue collar is represented, it is through side or background characters.
- Significance: Belittles the working class
Scale of sexual behaviors and patterns, with a binary opposition
- Real world example: More often than not, tv show represent a sense of heteronormativity
- Significance: Media has downplayed the fact that there are couples other than man and woman.
A once derogatory term that has now been accepted and is commonly used among the gay community.
- Real world example: Modern Family portrays a gay couple who engage in a normal lifestyle, including adopting a baby girl.
- Significance: The Queer community is gradually becoming more and more accepted.
Why do representations change?
Citizenship (& dimensions)
Music before media
· Music was mostly available through live performances (concert halls, churches, traveling groups), people buy street music, play instruments
o Real world example: People performing street music
o Significance: Artists will always find a way to perform; culture diffusion à music was spread organically
Analog recording captures the fluctuations of sound waves and stores them in the physical part of the record. Digital recording translates sound waves into numerical code.
- Real world example: Records/tapes versus CDs
- Significance: The evolution of technology, CDs made music easier to listen to and paved the way to MP3s.
Music that appeals to the mainstream public.
- Real world example: Katy Perry, Lady Gaga- Significance: Reaches a wide audience, can have an impact on the public
Rock’n’roll revolution (and race)
Rock music integrated the black sounds of rhythm and blues and gospel, with the white influences of country, folk and pop.
- Real world example: Jimi Hendrix covering Bob Dylan
- Significance: Some of the first music to have such a diverse set of influences. Blurred racial lines.
Rock ‘n’roll and social change
· Rock n Roll distributed the binaries of high and low culture as well as gender and sexuality
· Radio becomes increasingly desegregated because black musicians and white musicians cover each other music
o Significance: Rock n roll broke down many boundaries
The use of borrowed elements in the creation of new music
- Real world example: Using elements of Rhythm and Blues in Rock and Roll
- Significance: Different musical styles developed out of similar musical elements. Some genres, like rock and roll, are a mixture of different elements of different genres
The practice of record promoters paying deejays or radio programers to play particular songs
- Real world example: 1950s payola scandals: demand for airplay grew, independent promoters from record labels used payola to pressure deejays into playing songs by certain artists.
- Significance: Undermined rock and roll’s credibility for a number of years. Congress eventually added a law concerning payola to the Federal Communications Act
- Origin of rock’s global impact traced to England in late 1950s
- Significance: Verified that rock and roll performers could write and produce popular songs
Challenges the commercialism of the record business
-Attempted to return to the basics of rock and roll
-Not a commercial success in the United States
-Helped introduce women bands and reopen the doors for rock experimentation
-Refers to songs performed by untrained musicians and passed down mainly through oral traditions
-Significance: Usually the sound of social activism (i.e. political action)
-A style of rock music first popular in early 1970s, characterized by male performers wearing exaggeratedly flamboyant clothes and makeup
-Pretty boy glammers meet bad boy rockers
-Updating the spirit of punk
- Grunge is a subcategory of alternative rock
- Appeals to college students and those in their 20s
-A term for the urban culture that includes rapping, cutting by DJs, breakdancing, street clothing, poetry slams, and graffiti art
-Significance: Gave black artists a way to express themselves on politics and serious issues
Music business, ownership, and profit sharing
-The business of music is divided into several areas (i.e. making the music, selling the music, and sharing the profits)
- The record company reaps the highest revenue, the artist bares the bulk of the expenses
- CD division-- Artist is responsible for paying managers, band members, attorneys, and usually end up with nothing
- Digital—Itunes gets 30% of every song sale, artist gets 15%, and record company gets the rest
- Artist doesn’t have full control over song, because record company is in charge of hiring musicians and handling production of beats
- Some groups (example Nine Inch Nails) don’t use record company, use the Internet, so they control their music
-Significance: Three music corporations control 90% of the industry
Royalty is a usage-based payment made by one party to another for the right to ongoing use of an asset, usually an intellectual property. It should be protected as a compensation for licensor who the production.
Ex. Spotify has paid out $500 million in royalties to rights holder so far in 2013 and $1billion total since 2009.
Music as a tool of social control
· Music is often tied to social control (politics, race, sexual norms, gender norms)
· Music can alter social boundaries
o Real world example: John Lennon and the Beatles constantly had songs focused on War, politics, and other social issues
o Significance: Music can exert influence over people and in turn alter their thoughts on certain topics
Music as a site of resistance/revolution
· Music is a way to express ideas that you may have kept quiet otherwise
· Ex: youth culture and rebellion through rock and roll
It refers to the current western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century under the influence of mass media.
Ex. Lady Gaga
Channels of communication
Significance: music helps shape our identities and comforts us during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and it stirs debate amongst parents and teenagers; teachers and students; and politicians and performers which leads to social change
· Development of electric guitar dependent upon technical knowledge
o Related to radio hobbyists/tinkeres, military
· Amateurs lead the industry in innovations rather than established manufactures
· Electrification turns the guitar from a musical instrument to a powerful machine
· Model names relate the electric guitar to other prestigious technologies
· Significance: Becomes a tool of power; gives people a new creative form of expression; gives men a new way to embody masculinity
Rock and Masculinity
According to Simon Frith & Angela McRobbie (1978), “rock is a male form” and the industry is male run. Men construct suitable female images; market masculine style. The concept is needed to be understand the fact that successful women performers are primarily singers.
Ex. The genre, rock, is usually represented by male singers, and they show their masculinity through performing rock.
Cock rock vs. teenybopper
- Cock rock is the music, which is an explicit, crude,
and often aggressive expression of male sexuality.
Ex. Jimmy Page & Robert Plant of Led Zeppelin
- Teenybopper is based on
self-pity, vulnerability, and
need, and songs are about loneliness and frustration.
Ex. Justin Biber
: It is important to compare and contrast to find the differences and similarities between cock rock and teenybopper. It is the binary oppositions of music marketed towards men and women, and it reinforces gender stereotypes.
Symbolic Annihilation of Female Rock Musicians
1) Treated as ahistorical
: multiple moments characterized by women in rock, and it reinforces they are women first, musicians second
2) Myth of rebellion
3) Myth of lineage
4) Fiction of femininity
: allows authenticity of women’s performance to be called into question
Ex. Courtney Love
Rock, women and gender transgression
· The nature of given social institutions and what they forbid or encourage in various classes of individuals
· Traditional constructions of gender and the masculinization of technology
o Real world example: Riot grrrl movement
o Significance: Women are suppose to act more domestic and womanly and follow the social constructions of feminism in society which is therefore why women in rock transgress the stereotype
· Not just music, but a feminist movement
· Values polysemic feminity
· Co-opted by the mainstream and turned into “angry women of rock”
o Post feminist- the illusion of feminist independence while clinging to traditional feminine ideals; feminism is no longer necessary
o Increases visibility of female musicians
o Real world examples: Bikini Kill, Jack Off Jill, Bratmobile, Adickdid, Bangs
o Significance: Gave women a new channel to voice their inequalities, were able to address real world issues through their music
Girls Rock camp
· First nonprofit rock n roll for camp girls founded in 2007
· Girls Rock camp allicance founded in 2007 – now a global movement with over 40 affiliates
o Real world example: Camps exist all over
o Significance: Mission to empower girls and women using music education to foster self-esteem and confidence
Events or stories of importance and relevance to people, whether social, economic, political.
- Real World Example: Newspapers reporting events
- Significance: The world is informed of news
Constructed by the media and what they consider to be important
- Real world example: News stations choose to report about only certain events
- Significance: Society is exposed to different things
The news media, mainstream TV/newspaper/magazine outlets that cover current events
- Real World Example: Fox news
- Significance: They are the source for news
Press is the government watch dog, an unofficial social and political source
-Real world example: During the government shutdown
-Significance: press is looking out for the interests of the people
Serves as a public service - checks and balances, shows that it is important to the government and serves as a source of power
- Real world example: Televising presidential debates
- Significance: allows society to be informed
An unattainable but theoretically conceivable condition of un-bias, an idea for the news - although it often does have a bias
- Real world example: Fox news vs. CNN
- Significance: People have look at multiple sources of news to hear different viewpoints
Objective journalism, there are always several positions from which to tell a story and it is impossible to produce an account from a completely outside position
- Real world example: Debate of an idea
- Significance: shows opposing views and counter arguments
Mainstream media serves the interests of the public
- Real world example: Political news focuses on Republicans and Decmocrats and not smaller parties
- Significance: Shows that because the minority is not the mainstream, some topics are left out because they are not “universal interest”
contemporary American news emerged out of several traditions and a long history
- Real world example: News was traditionally shown through newspapers
- Significance: Shows the progression of forms of news
primarly political opinion, beginning of opinion pieces and the merchant class is able to buy this, sold by subscription
-Real world example: New England Courant
-Significance: Shows that early news was focused on politics and commercial transactions- changed today
trying for a bigger market - cheaper, increased coverage of upper and lower classes, emphasis on local news and human interest, includes crime news and emphasis on events rather than opinions
- Real world example: The NY Herald
- Significance: Shows the transition of news to become a commodity and mass media
to get an exclusive on a story, to publish it before someone else
- Real world example: Supreme court decision on Obamacare, Fox News and CNN reported wrong
- Significance: Shows that we are transitioning from quality of news to whoever can get out the message faster
the tabloid style, fantastical journalism that downplayed legitimate news in favor of eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers
-Real World: Freed of political patrons, a series of strong publishers and editors attempted to outdo one another in attracting subscribers and advertisers
-Significance: Puts pressure on the government to do certain thing
Professionalizing the trade of journalism (creation of journalism schools and the teaching of objectivity)
-Real World: Annenberg School of Journalism
-Significance: gives reporters more power, attempts to take out bias
Commercial Era: Focusing on the appeal of the journalism and not the content
- Real world example: Taking only interesting parts out of an interview
- Significance: They are focusing more on the business side rather than the quality of the news
Journalism schools are formed that teach objectivity and other ideals
-Real World: New York Times called Grey Lady
-Significance: make Journalism a respected institution
news analysis emerges where reporters try to explain what lies behind the surface of events and what they mean
see journalism as art, writing stories that speak to human experience
-Real World: The New Yorker
-Significance: bringing in different styles to write narrative fiction
there is more interpretation and more news outlets. Media is fragmented and there is little agreement
-Real World: blogs
-Significance: more radical views are heard, moderates are competing with the fringe media
An event or public official’s statement used as a handle on which to hang other related stories (education stories run at the start of the school year, flight safety story when an airplane crashes)
-Real World: Every September, students go back to school. Education stories are released then.
-Significance: Popular time to release stories
The amount of space in a newspaper or broadcast news show that remains for journalism after advertising has been placed
-Real world example: any newspaper
-Significance: how much room there is
News Analysis: Reporters try to explain what lies behind the surface of events and what they mean
- Real world example: Reporters doing a special on an event such as the Boston bombing
- Significance: Ties into the interpretive area so that reporters can acknowledge their own bias
news that cycles 24/7
-Real world: CNN
-Significance: smaller slices of audience; one reason for the crisis in the news business
Impact of cable and the internet on news:
Current challenges to the ideal of objectivity and the role of the fourth estate:
Trends in the news:
The often unstated criteria upon which journalists determine what should become news reports
Real world example: Timeliness, proximity, conflict, prominence, human interest, consequence, usefulness, and deviance
Significance: Decides what is in the news, who gets represented
government conflicts, disagreements, crimes, regional conflicts, wars and disasters
Real world example: when the news covers Supreme Court decisions
Significance: News tells us what we should be thinking about
world leaders, celebrities, victims, participants in unusual activities and voters
Real world example: Kim Kardashian, Obama
Significance: Tells audience what to think about and who they should look up to in society
Format for the ideal way to report news: objectivity, neutrality (inverted pyramid example), verification, fairness, and truth.
Real world example: Getting the most important and basic facts and narrowing it to more opinion based.
most news is based on official sources. Good sources are close to power, they are eager to be sources, they have been proved reliable, they have good information, they are close to the journalist, and they are discrete
Real world Example: Deepthroat, nobody knows his real identity (close to Nixon, told the reporter what happened)
Significance: Most news is based on sources
Government officials control a leak and what the media gets.
Real World Example: That Obama was claimed to not be a US citizen, the Iraq war
Significance: Sources may not always be reliable and are at times biased
Source journalism gets information from different institutions, such as the government or public relations people, while investigative journalists dig for information on their own
Real world example: The Obama care example- institutions passed on information and the newsroom had to determine how to present to society (source)
When someone is hired to figure out information on their own to convert to news
Significance: Investigative journalism isn’t as prominent anymore, so it is hard to determine what news is biased
Real World Example:
Trends in the news business, news values, heavy reliance on official and powerful sources, dominant media firms, big businesses, what advertisers want, social circles ( publishers, editors, etc.)
Real world example:
Something universally agreed on
Real World Example: Miami is destined for big weather events, racism is bad, should not be tolerated
Significance: Determines what is not debated, establishes normity
Something people can debate on
Real World Example: Some believe global warming is occurring while others do not.
Significance: Determines the issues that are debated publicly
what everyone in society sees as false, not worthy for debate
Real World Example: The inquirer (fake news)
Significance: Establishes what is not debated
The norm is favored, people of power, are important. Violators of the law, celebrities, victims, people that participate in unusual activities favored in news. Voters and poll respondents.
Real World Example: Obama, Celebrities, big criminals
Significance: These people shape the news
Community activist groups, young people who are not victims or criminals, middle class people of color, left of center journalists (politicians), working class spokespeople
Real world example: (see examples above)
Significance: Tells audience what news is important and what to think about
News values with a bias toward conflict, ratings, profit pressures, entertainment values, pressures from advertisers, censorship
Real World Example: News that’s shocking would be presented to increase ratings
a type of journalism driven by citizen forms that goes beyond telling the news to embrace a broader mission of improving the quality of public life
Real World Example: Blogs
Significance: Puts the control of media in the hands of average people, there a lot of people not qualified to make news, it represents a broader audience
Systems integration over space and time, interconnectedness amongst the world
Real world example: Materials of boots made in Italy, the boot is assembled in China, and the boots are sent all around the world
Significance: Connects the world
The idea that media technology draws the world together to form a single social community. Marshall McLuhan came up with the term
Real World Example: Television, Facebook
Significance: It’s a positive, utopian view of the effect that global media has on the world
Technology drives the growth of social and cultural values.
Real World Example:
Significance: Technology is really important and it impacts everything.
What technology makes possible and allows to happen.
Real World Example: Able to get messages from across the world in seconds when it used to take days if not weeks.
Significance: Changed the way the world works together
Media that can’t be easily reproduced but it exists for a long time.
Real World Example: Stone-tablets
Media that can be easily reproduced but does not last for a long time.
Real World Example: Radio waves and paper
Significance: The two different types of media can determine how the message is sent.
Technology compresses space by making it easier to move and connect with other places and cultures.
Real World Example: airplanes can take you around the world in 24 hours
Significance: Connects the world together and makes it easier to communicate.
Takes less time to travel more space, which makes the world seem smaller.
The transfer of media information throughout the globe.
Real World Example: Facebook, McWorld
Significance: Everything in the world is connected.
Culture is transformed by new technology.
Real World Example: Facebook allows people to connect with each other across the world.
Significance: Allows culture to continuously change
More possibilities for social connectedness and cultural imperialism, could create more connection OR separation
Real world example: creation of global economy. Nike sourcing its materials from all over the world.
Significance: Involves multiple countries in production for one product, giving company control over different countries. Some countries benefit more than others.
the positive things that can come from globalization, for example, connecting and sharing information, transcending boundaries, equalizing power relationships, bringing peace and understanding.
Real World Example:
Significance: This is a positive view of the effects of globalization through media (the other is dystopian)
utopian worldview of uniting the world as a “global village,” historically favored by US/Western nations, advocates free flow of media across nations and cultures
Real world example: Coca Cola and other large corporations support this view; this view justifies their global presence
Significance: gain access to new markets and audiences- cultural interconnectedness
Four perspectives of global media:
2. cultural imperialism
Four perspectives of global media:
3. cultural nationalism
Four perspectives of global media:
4. cultural hybridity
when global flows are adapted and remixed with a local culture; so in different places, what is created is different (since the local culture is different)
Real world example: The tv show The Office started as a British comedy, yet transferred over to America, and the show has many aspects of it that are adapted for an American audience, American humor
Significance: Creates new cultural products, and counters the idea that globalization just leads to cultural imperialism
Origins of the Internet
Decentralized network model
Commercialization of the internet
Concerns raised by new media
Access (Digital Divide)
Self-Representation in gaming environments – why is this of interest?
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