9/26/09 10:30 AM S, E, SE Asia= where most immigrants come from Came from china first Korea and Japan SE= PHilipines and Indoneais, lous, mymar S Asain Pakistan, india, Nepal, bangaldesh Most came from the East and Southeast costal area of china Guandong, fudion province First go to SE asian coast when facing difficulties at home Most info and more trade with foreign counties 7 counties which send the most very compact area and may have known each other from back home Pilipino and Indonesia(late 19th and early 20th) Lasong, Cebu islands(Philippines) Indians: most came from Punjab Use to be part of larger India After 1947, it was partitioned to two different parts Early immigrants almost exclusively from here Largely young male farmer Less educated if educated at all Most have limited English skills Have close social ties and networks among themselves Help each other out Have a ?pull? factor, pulling them together Very tight knit communities Faced job competition from other racial groups and faced discrimination from main stream society Pushed them out of society and into their own communities Considered Homogeneous by outsiders Socially and culturally tight knit internally Groups Chinese Held a variety of different jobs Gold miners in cali Major workforce for the transcontinental railroad Indispensible Good farmers Sacramento river valleys Made it one of the best agricultural areas in the world Very scattered due to jobs Cuz of job competition and racial problems, anti Chinese violence broke out Chinese exclusion act Bared Chinese labor for many years 1882-1943 devastating loss intensified anti Chinese violence immigration increased dramatically in the first 35 years, then the Act caused a dramatic drop. Contributed to imbalance sex ratio Bared Chinese women from immigrating 1980= only 100 females out of 1800 males Coping Strategies Changed occupations Ones that did not directly compete with other ethnic groups, esp. White people Developed small businesses Restaurants and laundry Changed geographic regions Left hostile West, n spread all over Many Chinese communities all over the country, many are in large cities of the west coast Most important: changed residential patterns Left rural areas Went to urban areas to develop china towns for refuge In undesirable areas of the town Dominated by males Served as ethic enclaves Residential, business, social gathering places Used as tourist centers SF one is small/ compact Most historical one Risk being beaten up if they left the boundaries Viewed in the negative sense by outsiders Filled with social vice Drugs, prostitutution Exotic and strange ?islands? Neg stereotypes shrinks in first half of 20th century Japanies/philipinto % increased greatly in first part of 20th century Turned to other Asian immigrant groups Japanese(ise) Sojourners Wanted to work and earn money to move back to Japan Kept close ties to Japan Faced job comp and forced to form ethic enclaves Little Tokyo, Japan town Gentlemen?s agreement Allowed women to come over Allowed them to form families and have children in the communities Businesses grew as % of Asian population grew Laundry, shoe shows, barber shops, tailors, restaurants Mainly In west coast large cities SF, LA, Sea, Sac International District in Sea Koreans vs Jap Jap= late 19th century until Gen agreement hurt it Many more Reasons: Economic, lost land due to high taxes Korean= first 2 decades in early 20th century Reasons: poverty at home, political refugees Relatively small ethic enclaves Not enough people More scattered compared to the past 2 groups Both relatively selective group Jap= high literacy Koreans: high literacy since they were political refugees Both had agricultural business as well as urban businesses Korean Settlement Western US Alaska, Hawaii, cali and other SE parts like AZ Asian Indians Primarily immigrated from Punjab in India Arrived in BC and moved their way down to the west coast/ NW Worked in lumber mills 1000 imported to work on Western Pacific railroad in Cali Relatively large number in first decade of 20th century After 1911, it slowed down Jobs: railroad, lumber mills, mining, agricultural (cotton, cant elope, citrus, wheat, grape, celery) In sac valley, as well as Imperial valley (near SD) Formed agricultural camps Settled here Pilipino Immigration Act of 1924 cut off all Asian immigrants expect Pilipino Their number increased greatly in the first part of the 20th century Many were recruited to work in farms until 1934 (tydings Mcduffy act) Curved Pilipino immigration as well Worked and lived in Imperial valley like Asian Indians Asian Indians vs. Pilipino Numbers are very different About the same by 1920 Pilipino increased while Indians decreased Religions: Asian Indians: sihik Pilipino: Christian Settlements: ( both in rural areas for farming) Indians: Gants(worked and lived together) Intended to be sojourners Many settled/stayed No large and self sufficient communities Chinese and Japanese?s Pilipino: Agricultural camps Formed small cultural areas Little manilla Much smaller than chin and jap Family: Indians Social norms from the Punjab area Many were relatives or friends Married Mexican women to form interracial families Pilipino First gen: manongs Interracial marriage with white women 13 states prohibited it most ended up marrying Mexican women as well Quite different compared to Korean, Chinese, and Jap cases since most kids grew up as bi racial/cultural
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