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- Benefactor – donor, give to people or cause. (Expert Model McKnight). Give services, good, things. “Provide, assist, generate, support, and include.”- Intermediary – links people together to agree on something. Power lies within the community. “Encourage, advocate, promote.”
- Notion of how we fit in (holistic perspective)
- “isolation = death”
- Your perception of the environment causes the stress not the environment that causes the stress.
- People of color are in a constant sympathetic state even through rest. This is the power of oppression.
These parts of the body are self-regulating & we are unaware of their functioning. Little to no control. Regulates non-skeletal and smooth muscles.
- Sympathetic (fight/flight) – when we need arousal it kicks in.
- Parasympathetic (rest/digest) – relax once the stress is gone from sympathetic stressful situation (fight/flight).
- Try to find balance between sympathetic & parasympathetic.
- No matter what you do you’re going to be punished, never succeed. No matter what you do you’re going to get punished, no matter what you do you’re going to fail.
- Give up when experience learned helplessness, leading to death.
- When people feel they have no control over their situation, begin to behave in a helpless manner & overlook opportunities.
- Opposite of learned empowerment.
- Environmental demands are greater than you individual ability.
- When we have efficacy we don't have stress.
-- Traumatic events (Acute – happen once or rarely)
-- Death of family member, loss of a job, being in an accident
-- “Daily Hassles” (Chronic – continue on and on, not just one event)
-- This causes the greatest degrees of stress (constant reminder in our daily lives)
Social Support (enacted vs. perceived)
- Social Support - a collection of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral processes occurring relationships and social networks.
- Enacted support – actual support of behaviors (someone actually helped out). Used to reduce stress.
- Perceived social support – the cognitive perception of being connected (this is the strongest to change). The best type of social support is the notion that we do have the social support from people out there; the fact that we are not alone.
- The number of social connections one has. Ways to conceptualize social support.
- Drawback: concept is shallow
- Gate Keeper – has the power to let you through or not let you through (have fate control and have the capacity to block).
- Primary & universal focuses on the entire population with no problem that manifested yet. They are not same but they are correlated.
- We focus on the negative and the problems.
-- Ex. of Program evaluation issue: Focusing on teens that are not pregnant, and to prevent their pregnancy even though they are not pregnant to begin with
- Cons: It is expensive, hard to get results, focuses on the negative, and problems from universal prevention.
- Positively adapting despite significant adversity. Helping you to swim upstream the channel, to return to a situation that is healthy.
- Not falling into the traps of the vicious spiral, being able to resist that trajectory.
- Not achieveing ones goals and not dealing with outcomes that are deemed unhealthy.
- Forces pushing you down the channel and making your life unhealthier. Anything pushing you to negative outcomes.- White, upper class, male, heterosexual = least amount of adversity in life.
Children of the Kauai (Emmy Werner Study, 1955)
- Path along which people move through, not determined by person. We live in a continual set of trajectories that our life is following. There is a trajectory that you follow that leads to homelessness, divorce, juvenile delinquency, etc. “vicious spirals”
- Trajectories are not determined by the person.
- We refer to trajectories as a “chain of events”
- One event will happen and that will lead to an increase or decrease likelihood of another event which then leads to an increase or decrease chance of a third event.
- Ex: Divorce – leads to and changes ones trajectory and leads to other things happening. Divorce à less income à work more à less supervision for kids à loss children of Rockdale county type children
Context (individuals, relationships, community)
- Qualitative: interviews, focus groups (interviews w/ groups), observation, questionnaires, case studies. To primarily answer the question: Why is this happening? How is this taking place? Get more of a Sense of Meaning*
- Quantitative: observations (count the proportion of homes that have seats in front that indicates sense of community), questionnaires, surveys, field experiments (inside and outside the lab), controlled comparisons (compare experiment group to control group). To primarily answer the question: What is going on? What is happening? Get more of a Sense of outcomes*
-- Record focus groups and record how much a term is used in a focus group
- Geographic information System- To understand what a neighborhood is and how a neighborhood is defined. -- Can demonstrate which areas have more or less cohesion.
- Positive Externalities- “Benefits are not included in the price of good or service.” Ex. Education- You get higher income with education, Crime diminishes-> monetary benefit-> pays in the long run, stress diminishes, Health goes up. These benefits are not included in the cost they tend to be underutilized because the cost does not cover all the benefits. Public transporation is a positive externalities because it has less pollution and less traffic which in turn has monetary benefits. Positive = benefit
- Negative Externalities- “Costs that are not included in the price of the good or service.” Ex. Gasoline- The cost of extracting gas, transportation, processing, and selling, everyone takes profit marginality from selling. The impact of environment, increase in traffic congestion. The cost of the good is not calculated in the price. The cost is much greater. Negative = cost
- Program evaluation-“applied component to our research- Are we making things better or not? Evaluate programs to make changes.” If you are not improving then close the shops, if you are using up resources, then you are causing the problem. Using scare resources where you are not making a change is unethically.
- Needed to make changes. Using scarce resources when you are not making a change is unethical.
- Establish criteria of success before evaluating to make changes after.
- ex: you have to work with the organization, if we find that this reaches success but if not, we will make the changes.
Measures “Unintended Negative Consequences”.
- Any effect on a person caused by/resulting from any activity by a health care professional perceived as beneficial but doesn't support the goal of the person affected.
- Ex. Side effects from medication. Rise in pregnancy for Hispanic teens, there was effort to keep their virginity. However the pressure for sex was still strong. Hence, rates for anal sex goes up.
- The narrative is what drives what we do on an individual level, it is a fundamental aspect of community organizing.
Analogies - Making a connection
- Art, music, poetry, writing, etc.
Assumes that narratives are basic human strategies for coming to terms with our life experience, with change, recognizes that narrative manifests in all the analogies, and describes what happens to particular people in particular circumstances with particular consequences. It is the story of humans.
Story of me, story of us, story of now
--- He quoted “Stories have power to get people to move together”- There is story of the self, and us, and there is a story of now, which are important qualities for community organizing.
US culture has succumed toward “the one” and only focusing on developing, growing and meeting our own needs; neglecting “the many” – the multileveled context in which individual behaviors occur and gain meaning. Community psychologists try to remind people that we don’t exist as independent actors, but as members of social systems.
- The growing interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing colume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.
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