OBJECTIVE 7.5 — Explain the “magic number” seven; describe chunking; and explain how the two types of rehearsal affect memory. Short term memory is limited to the “magic number 7” (plus or minus 2) information bits which is a single meaningful piece of information. The average number of bits that can be held is 7 Chunking- recodes(reorganizes) info inot unis that are already in LTM. Maintenance rehearsal- prolonging a short term memory by repeating it silently Elaborative Rehearsal- makes info more meaningful, is a far better way to from lasting memories. Links new inforomation to memories that are already in LTM. OBJECTIVE 7.6 — Discuss the permanence of memory, including the work of Penfield and the Loftuses; explain constructive processing and pseudo-memories; Permanence of memory- Penfield claimed that the brain records the past like a “strip of movie film, complet with a soundtrack”. Many events don’t get past short term memory. Brain stimulation only produces memory-like experiences about 3% of the time Memory experts believe that LTMs are only relatively permanent. Loftus & Palmer tested a few indivuals by asking them to watch a video of a car accident. After the individuals were asked how fast the cars were going when they “smashed”. Although they asked others the same question but a different word like “bumped, contacted, or hit”. One week later each person was asked if they saw any broken glass in the film and the ones who were asked about the cars that “smashed” were more likely to say yes. But there was no broken glass. The new information (“smashed”) was included in memories and altered them. Constructive process- updating memories. Gaps in memory may be filled in by logic, guessing or new information. Pseudomemories- thoughts, inferences, and mental associations OBJECTIVE 7.7 — Briefly describe how long-term memories are organized, including the network model and redintegrative memories. LTM organized- can be arranged according to rules, images, categories, symbols, similarity, formal meaning, or personal meaning. Network model- LTM is organized as a network of linked ideas. When ideas are “farther” apart it takes a longer chian of assiciations to connect them. Ex. 1) a canary is a bird 2) a canary is an animal You are more likely to say yes faster the the first example. Reintegrative memories- to spread through the “branches” of memory networks You look at a picture of your 10th Christmas and you start a chain of memories. OBJECTIVE 7.8 — Differentiate procedural (skill) memory from declarative (fact) memory and define and give examples of the two kinds of declarative memory (semantic and episodic). Procedural (skill memory)- includes basic conditioned responses and learned actions, such as those involved in typing, driving, or swinging a golf club. Declarative (fact memory)- stores specific facgtual information, such as names faces, words, dates, and ideas. Semantic Memory- a metal dictionary of or encylopedia of basic knowledge Days of the week, months, seasons, simple math skills, names of objects. Eposodic Memory- an “autobiographical” record of personal experiences. It stores life events (episodes) day after day, year after year. About the what, where, when of our lives.