10/28/09 10:21 AM ?We can?t go on living like this? ?Mikhail Gorbachev 1985 Succession of Leaders Had to be distinguished member of the Communist party: created a gerontocracy: group of individuals who had risen to power that were all in their 80s Leonid Brezhnev dies (November 1982) Yuri Andropov dies (February 1984) Important for Gorbachev Contributed to KGB Konstantin Chernenko dies (March 1985) Economy is getting worse, communists looking for new leader Gorbachev become leader (youngest leader yet) Perestroika Reform of economics of USSR Open things up by making government more transparent and implement more democratic principles Young people want new Russia: Gorbachev is caught in the middle He got reformers more and more excited and then he would make them angry Not as Earth-shattering as many people make it out to be Emphasized Machine Tool Industry Increased Fiscal Deficit (14% of GNP in 1989) Solution: print more money Congress of People?s Deputies (March 1989) Rejuvenation of institutions Designed to challenge party Apparatchiks 2500 deputies (750 elected) Prominent conservative anti-reformists defeated Yeltsin wins in Moscow (beginning of the end of USSR) Gorbachev didn?t realize this He didn?t run in the elections and for first time, someone can say they have legitimacy because they have been elected while the leader has not (Yeltsin) Revolution of 1989 Yeltsin disassembled USSR without extensive bloodshed: Nobel Peace Prize Hungary, Poland, and Solidarity (June) Unrest in East Germany (November) Czechoslovakia?s Velvet Revolution (November) USSR Falls Apart Independence Movements (Baltic States 1988) USSR did not send in tanks: people new this was a new day/form of government Communist party stripped of Monopoly (Jan 1994) Article 6: the communist party could be the only party in the USSR-taken out in 1990 which led to communist party not having power they had before Russia elects parliament (March 1990) Popular Elections for Yeltsin (June 1991) First elections ever basically Military Coup (Aug 18, 1991) Day before important doc was supposed to be signed that was going to let other countries go Members of KGB arrest Gorbachev: Marshall Law Coup members didn?t count on Army siding with Gorbachev Coup ended: not well thought out USSR dies on December 31, 1991 Gorbachev?s Legacy Brought in more freedom to USSR (some thinks this caused the fall of USSR) Political and Economic Reforms (tried to split the difference between two groups=weak and ineffective reforms) Less democratic transition than Eastern Europe No ?pacted? settlement No grand agreement: a lot of violence, protest, chaos, but not too much blood b/c of Gorbachev Russians view Gorbachev as somewhat of a failure He has better international image/popularity than domestic Yeltsin?s Reforms ?Shock Therapy?: economic diet Price and Wage controls (January 1992) Wages: decrease Prices: increase Caused lots of social and political problems Military cuts Convertibility of the Ruble: immediately benefits some while causing problems for others Privatizations Fear that communists would take control again Constitutional Crisis Yeltsin dissolves Parliament in September 1993 No tradition, or conventionalities Parliaments invalidates President, Alexander Retskoi Bombing of Parliamentary building: Yeltsin seizes control Gains respect from US New constitution (December 12) Vladimir Zhirinovsky Reestablishment of the Russian Empire Colonize parts of Indian Ocean Use nuclear weapons against Germany Blow radiation into Baltic States with radiation In times of trouble, these types of views are considered, listened to. Considered a nationalist Invade Turkey Reclaim Alaska Russian refuge for Mike Tyson Opened America?s eyes: need to help Yeltsin and forgive him his debt Loans for Shares Banks lend Bankers were richest men in Russia: worried that communists coming back to power would end this Banks leant money to government and Yeltsin in exchange for collateral: best government companies- gas, oil, mineral Yeltsin went from a 5 % approval rating to being elected (1996) Gov Businesses as Collateral Gov isn?t able to pay debt so they give away companies for cheap Prevent communists from coming back and create upper class of very rich business men Closing the deal: to ordinary Russians, reform came to mean inflation, inequality etc. Brought Putin into power Comparative Politics: Collapse of Soviet Communism 10/28/09 10:21 AM 10/28/09 10:21 AM
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