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Which class of drug could be used to treat Tourette syndrome?
TOMM (Test of Memory Malingering) would be best related to:
(a) Frontotemporal disease (FTD).
(b) Tourette syndrome.
(c) Alzheimer’s disease.(d) Depression.
Select the best related memory site:
(b) basal ganglia
(c) basal forebrain
(d) orbitofrontal lobes
(d) both (a) & (b)
Which drug requires blood levels to be monitored closely during treatment?
(c) Lithium (lithobid)
(d) Provigil (modafinil)
Which of the following CANNOT be used (validly) with ordinal data?
(b) median(d) none of the above
The median is the best measure of central tendency to use when a researcher:
(a) plans to use this measure in many statistical
(b) wants to take all of the scores into account.
(c) has a very large sample size.
(d) does not know the exact size of the largest
In a positively-skewed distribution, the median will be:
A researcher is testing the idea that people w/brown eyes have > pain tolerance than people w/blue eyes. Which would be an appropriate H0?
(a) Brown-eyed sample mean = blue-eyed sample
(b) Brown-eyed sample mean > blue-eyed sample
(c) Brown-eyed µ = blue-eyed µ.
(d) Brown-eyed µ < blue-eyed µ.
On a midterm exam, a score expressed as a z-score is +0.50. The mean of the exam is 65 and the standard deviation is 10. The raw score is:
(a) 60.(b) 65.(c) 70.(d) 75.
A Type II Error occurs when the researcher:
(a) rejects a false null hypothesis.
(b) rejects a true null hypothesis.
(c) retains a false null hypothesis.
(d) retains a true null hypothesis.
A t-test is used in place of the z-score for groups. Which of the following must be estimated?
(a) Sample Mean
(b) Population Mean
(c) Sample Standard Deviation
(d) Population Standard Deviation
In a One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), what can cause the group means to vary?
(a) The variable whose effects are being studied
by the researcher.
(b) Irrelevant factors such as sampling error.
(c) both of the above
(d) neither of the above
A researcher finds the correlation between obesity & satisfaction with life is -.74, & this correlation is statistically significant using .05 criterion. The researcher should conclude that:
(a) being obese (i.e., overweight) makes people
unhappy with life in general.
(b) being unhappy with life in general causes
people to become overweight.
(c) both of the above
(d) neither of the above
(answer (c), both true. The heavier someone is, the less happy they are in life.)Negative Correlation: as scores on one variable go up, scores on other variable go down, and vice versa.
The work of Robert Ader on psycho-neuroimmunology demonstrated it was possible to kill rats w/injections of saline water. What actually killed the rats?
(a) Conditioned immune system responses ↓ rat’s immunity to normal infections.
(b) Cruel treatment with unrelenting electric shocks.
(c) Strychnine like chemicals the rats ate after a one was sounded.
(d) Learned helpless displays adrenal rage.
______ is concerned with the study of humanity’s highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness.
(b) Client Centered Psychotherapy
(c) Transpersonal Psychology
(d) Orgone Therapy
Which of the following is NOT a phenomena that Transpersonal Psychology studies regularly?
(b) Near-death experiences
(c) Sexual intimacy
(d) Childhood trauma
Which of the following is the new paradigm in neuroscience which looks at phenomenological experience as well as neural correlates?
(d) Psychoisocial Behavioral Psychology
Which of the following is an ultimate concern in the Existential Psychology of Yalom?
(a) Collective unconscious
(d) Who Am I?
What is the actualizing tendency according to Carl Rogers’ theory?
(a) A force within people that tends to guide them
to self-actualize their innate potential.
(b) A mystical force that binds all sentient beings
(c) A behavioral tendency to reinforce stimuli.
(d) Phony behavior in Gestalt stimulus fields.
________ is the study of the interactions between the brain, behavior, immune system, and social and physical environments.
(b) Cognitive psychology
(c) Behavioral genetics
Humanistic psychologists were particularly vocal in their criticisms:
(a) of behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
(b) of structuralism and functionalism.
(c) of behaviorism and Gestalt psychology.
(d) of Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis.
Watson is to classical conditioning as ________ is to operant conditioning.
(a) Eugene Posner
(b) Stanley Krippner
(c) B. F. Skinner
(d) Montgomery Burns
Who founded the first official psychology program at a Western university?
(a) Dr. Wilhelm Wundt
(b) Dr. Wilhelm Reich
(c) Dr. Louis Cipher
(d) Dr. James Braid
Which of the following best characterizes William James' view on emotion?
(a) The experience of emotion is purely mental.
(b) Bodily changes are indispensable to the
experience of emotion.
(c) Bodily arousal is not a necessary condition for
the experience of emotion.
(d) The experience of emotion is dictated
exclusively by the cerebral hemispheres.
J.B. Watson is well known for his belief that:
(a) genetics determines a person’s psychology.
(b) personality is the determining aspect of the
(c) the environment and learning determine a
(d) our behaviors are reinforced purely by
environmental stimuli, not internal factors.
Ivan Pavlov is known for his emphasis on:
(a) operant conditioning.
(b) classical conditioning.
(c) strategic methods of psychotherapy.
(d) bioenergetics and Orgone therapy.
Most of Freud’s original discoveries of psychoanalytic phenomena came through his practice of ________ with patients who had psychosomatic medical conditions.
(c) free association
(d) automatic writing
Which of the following terms is often attributed to Jung?
(b) Collective unconscious
(c) Reciprocal exhibition
(d) Free association
Which of the following statements most accurately describes Victorian-era attitudes toward marital sex and love?
(a) Sexual attraction and love are considered good
foundations for marriage.
(b) Sex and love are considered separate human
(c) The ideal love includes sexual passion.
(d) Both sex and love are to be enjoyed outside
the marital union.
According to Richard von Krafft-Ebing, the cause of all sexual deviations is:
(a) a brain disorder.
(b) childhood sexual abuse.
(d) unconscious conflict.
The recent study on American sexual behavior that is generally considered the most accurate is the:
(a) National Health and Social Life survey.
(b) Janus report on Sexual Behavior.
(c) Redbook survey.
(d) American Couples study.
Although Kinsey and his colleagues interviewed thousands of people for his groundbreaking studies, his results are considered flawed because his interviewees were:
(a) a biased sample in terms of the age-group
(b) a sample of convenience.
(c) encouraged to exaggerate the frequency
and variety of their behaviors.
(d) still influenced by Victorian sexual attitudes.
Helen wants to have sex with her boyfriend, Bob, as one more way of “having fun together.” Bob wants to know if Helen really cares for him before they begin being sexual with each other. Their conflict may be described as one that involves:
(a) traditional vs. nontraditional attitudes.
(b) Victorian vs. modern attitudes.
(c) recreational vs. relational attitudes.
(d) promiscuous vs. cautious attitudes.
One result of clitoridectomy is to:
(a) ease childbirth.
(b) increase fertility.
(c) increase sexual pleasure.
(d) reduce sexual pleasure.
Research on HRT shows all of the following effects EXCEPT:
Involuntary contraction of the sphincter vaginae and levator ani muscles is associated with:
(c)(Vaginismus: involuntary spasm of the muscles surrounding the vagina. The spasms close the vagina.)
In the locker room, Jim notes his penis appears ↓ & narrower than other men. What will happen to Jim when he is sexually aroused?
Tantric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism typically portray sexual activity as:
(a) a goal-oriented activity with reproduction as
the primary aim.
(b) a goal-oriented activity with the physical
satisfaction of orgasm as the primary aim.
(c) an expression of spiritual energies.
When Tony & Jan make love, he inserts his penis into her vagina until he feels ejaculation is close & then puts on a condom. Why is this behavior risky?
The sequence of phases in Masters and Johnson's Model of Sexual Response is:
(a) excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution.
(b) excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.
(c) plateau, excitement, orgasm, resolution.
A major difference between Kaplan's Model of Sexual Response & Masters & Johnson’s Model is the former model:
(a) gives = emphasis to ♂ & ♂ sexual patterns.
(b) includes psychological factor of desire.
(c) based on a more demographically balanced
(d) relies on lab observation rather than verbal
What are pheromones?
(a) Endocrine secretions that guide the dev-
lopment of secondary sex characteristics.
(b) Natural painkillers released by the brain.
(c) NTs that stimulate the hypothalamus and
(d) Scents that function as sexual attractants &
alter other sexual processes.
Which of the following is NOT a factor associated with long-term loving relationships according to John Gottman?
(a) An absence of quarrels.
(b) An absence of strong gender differences in
(c) Early confrontation of complaints &
(d) Positive memories about the beginning of a
The imposition of labels such as orgasmic dysfunction & hypoactive sexual desire disorder is problematic because:
(a) individual sexual responsiveness varies
(b) it is impossible to measure sexual responses
(c) their definitions cannot be clearly stated.
(d) these labels do not fit sexual problems as they
are experienced by real people.
Erectile dysfunction is often associated with:
(b) fatigue.(d) all of the above
(c) use of alcohol.
A researcher's experimental study finds that a special program on binge drinking ↓ use of alcohol in residential dorms of a small Midwest college. The investigator draws results from the conclusions that this program will work in a nearby university. What threat to validity exists?
(a) Statistical Conclusion Validity
(b) Construct Validity
(c) Internal Validity
(d) External Validity
(d)External validity: will results generalize to the population it was intended?
A confounding variable is:
(a) a variable that cannot be easily explained.
(b) a variable that contradicts what one expects
(c) a variable that cannot be directly measured.
(d) a variable that definitely affects or
impacts an outcome.
An experimental researcher unknowingly selects students who have low scores in math to participate in a study examining the influence of a new math curriculum in an elementary school grade. What potential threat to validity exists in this experiment?
(b) Ability Scores(d) Regression
An experimenter says "it was a 3 by 3." What does this mean?
(a) It was a factorial design with 3 IVs.
(b) It was a time-series design with 3 Xs &
(c) It was a Latin square design with 3 groups.
(d) It was a factorial design with 2 variables,
each had 3 levels.
(d)In factorial design notation, the number of numbers (e.g., 2 numbers, 3 and 3), tells how many factors there are (IVs), and the number value tells how many levels (subdivisions of a factor) for each factor (e.g., 3 levels for each IV).
Assume that a researcher wants to select individuals from a population so that an equal number of people from different ethnic groups (e.g., African-American, Hispanic, Asian-Americans) are selected. The procedure the researcher would use is called:
(a) proportional population selection.
(b) stratification sampling.
(c) ethnic sampling.(d) convenience sampling.
(b)Stratified sampling: method of sampling that involves the division of a population into smaller groups known as strata. The strata are formed based on members' shared attributes or characteristics (race). A random sample from each stratum is then taken in a number proportional to the stratum's size when compared to the population. These subsets of the strata are then pooled to form a random sample.
An important aspect of an experiment is to select independent variables that can be manipulated. Which one of the following is a variable that can be manipulated in an experiment?
(a) self-esteem of junior high girls
(b) classes that junior high girls attend
(c) the parents of junior high girls
(d) attitudes of junior high girls
Assume that you read in a journal article, “Scores in self-awareness correlate .6 with scores on self-consciousness in two different tests by Smith (1999) and Jones (1997).” What form of validity does this statement represent?
(a) criterion-related validity
(b) multiple score validity
(c) predictive validity
(d) construct validity
Measure of how well a variable (or set of variables) predicts an outcome based on information from other variables (e.g., criterion validity achieved if set of measures from personality test relate to behavioral criterion on wh/psychologists agree. Achieved by extent score on personality test can predict future performance or behavior. Another way involves correlating test scores with another established test that also measures same personality characteristic.
During the course of her experiment, Yolanda learned that seven of the 12 clients in her new four-hour session had quit and walked out of the session before it was completed. What threat to internal validity does her experiment have?
(a) Selection bias
(b) History effect
(c) Experimental mortality
Pete researched if caffeine intake ↑ subject's arousal state. After randomly assigning 100 seniors to either an experimental or control group, the experimental group drink ↑ caffeine soda, while the control group drank caffeine-free soda. He measured & compared arousal states for both groups. What type of design was used?
A researcher explores how elementary students experience being assessed in math at 4th grade level. Prior theories provide little guidance about what the researcher would expect to find. Students have shown some anxiety during testing. This research problem is best studied using a(n):
(a) qualitative approach.
(b) quantitative approach.
(c) assessment approach.
(d) evaluation approach.
What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB) & what is its purpose?
(a) Located in state police offices & ensures researchers do not misuse research money.
(b) Part of prof. assns & lobby for ↑ research money from gov't agencies.
(c) Located at most colleges, hospitals & research centers & ensures human research is ethical.
(d) Located inside gov't agencies that give research grants & ensures scientific methodology.
All BUT which of the following are true about qualitative research?
(a) Includes broad, open-ended questions that
answer the how or what about a particular
(b) Compartmentalizes research in one direction
making it more useful.
(c) It is an emerging design.
(d) Allows you to interpret meaning in context.
All BUT which of the following are true regarding focus groups?
(a) They are convenient.
(b) They originated in marketing research.
(c) They function better when participants
know each other.
(d) They allow for more comprehensive
responses as participants build from one
Phenomenological researchers do all BUT which of the following?
(a) View people and their world as inextricably
(b) Observe interactions between the person and
(c) Manipulate the variables in the interaction
between the person and the world.
(d) Focus on the essence of lived experience.
Data collection and analysis in narrative research involves:
(a) systemized survey design.
(b) a needs assessment of stakeholders.
(c) the use of SPSS.
(d) gathering stories.
Significant statements related to the phenomenon under consideration are often labeled:
(a) thematic perception.
(b) textured descriptions.
(c) divergent perceptions.
(d) meaning units.
Which of the following is NOT a form for presenting findings visually in qualitative research?
(a) A comparison table of teacher and student
(b) A graph showing the interconnection of
(c) A demographic table indicating personal
(d) A table that presents significant results in
Which one of the following represents why negotiating a qualitative proposal with the institutional Review Board (IRB) may be more difficult than negotiating a quantitative proposal?
(a) The attitudes of IRB members.
(b) The emerging design of qualitative research.
(c) The length of the qualitative proposal.
(d) The amount of time required for qualitative
Which of the following research ideas would be best suited for Grounded Theory?
(a) Relationship b/t birth order & tx for depression.
(b) Efficacy of program to ↑ undergrad retention
(c) Impact of yrs of clinical exp. on measures of
compassion fatigue among therapists..
(d) Therapists' perceptions of working w/
While analyzing qualitative data, Kristen made a first pass through her notes. She read slowly and put a preliminary label in the notes to identify themes in the data. She was using:
(a) open coding.
(b) axial coding.
(c) selective coding.
(d) contingency coding.
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