1. demonstrative - show how something is done / works 2. description - provide the audience with a clear picture 3. explanation - help audience understand complicated conepts
the use of a series of sentences with similar length and structure to signify the equality of ideas i.e not only did he forget his books, not only did he miss the bus, not only did he get to class late, he missed the test completely.
an implicit comparison in which two dissimilar objects are compared i.e life is like a roller coaster
a figurative comparison made explicit by using the word like or as i.e the boy was as tall as a tree
placing two images together that have very different meanings i.e the definition of classics "examples of HOW to think, not WHAT to think"
questions speakers ask not get to an answer but to engage the audiences curiosity i.e why is smoking bad for you?
combination of contradictory expressions i.e thunderous silence
when a speaker implies a meaning that is different than what is stated
giving human qualities to an inanimate object i.e the white house says that bin laden is dead
use of repetitive pattern of initial sounds that can hold the audience attention i.e sally sells sea shells down by the sea shore
the fallacy that occurs when a speaker attributes a flimsy easy to refute argument to his opponent then proceeds to demolish it in the process misrepresenting the opponents real position i.e trying to convince the class to go to a ku basketball game
attacking the person instead of the argument i.e saying you're stupid instead of you're idea is not correct
1. introduction 2. welcome/farewell address 3. presentation or acceptance speeches 4. commemoration 5. tributes 6. eulogies 7. inagural and key note 8. after dinner speech 9. sermons
strong provocative language that stirs up an audience's emotions
transactional model of communication
the process of constructing shared messages or understandings between two or more individuals
types of argument
types of persuasive speeches
types of organization
1. sequential - speech progress with time 2. spatial - use space as your ordering principle 3. categorical - arragned by distinct topics 4. climactic - sequence that goes from simple to difficult 5. casual - cause to effect or effect to cause 6. problem solution - identify a problem then provide a solution 7. narrative - based off of a story
words that indicate the level of confidence we have in our claims
general assumptions, rules, or principles that connect evidence to claims
the debatable assertions put fourth by speakers
burden of proof
the standards or expectations that define a reasonable argument in a particular situation or the proof necessary to warrant serious debate or consideration over an advocates claims
deceptive or manipulative speech - appealing to "dark" emotion like fear and hatred
appeal to speakers credibility
appeal to emotion
appeal to logic
what do you need to source in a speech?
1. authors name 2. date 3. source 4. credibility
what goes in an introduction
1. establish a common ground 2. maintain audience attention 3. stress relevance of the topic to the audience 4. establish credibility 5. state thesis 6. preview main points
why and when do you use visual aids?
-use them whenever is necessary -use them to clarify, retention, emphasis
specific audience or location makes you nervous
fear of speaking in general
how do you prepare yourself to speak
- know yourself and the topic - know your audience - know the situation/context of the message - aim for audience response - research - construct reasonable argument - speak directly to the audience
how can you identify audience attitudes
poll the audience beforehand do research interview someone survey observations
what is denotative meaning
reflective framework for persuasive speaking
1. how shall we define and limit problem 2. what are the causes and extent of the problem 3. effects of the problem 4. criteria by which solutions can be solved
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