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· Process of analyzing your media placements and strategies compared to your competitors, compare brand in terms of SOV SOS and SOM
· Best use of this type of planning is part of an ongoing intelligence system
What are some of the obstacles when it comes to competitive media expenditure analysis?
· It is not about imitation, we don’t want to necessarily do what our competitors are doing and copy the data
· CME obstacles- most data are incomplete because it does not show discounts earned, generally the data only covers large advertisers, the data is often old
What is Share of market? How is it abbreviated? How do you compute it if you are not provided the information directly?
· SOM definition: is a tool to guide you to the proper amount you should invest in your brand
· Abbreviation: SOM
· Calculation: SOS/SOM or SOV/SOM
What is Share of spending? How is it abbreviated? How do you compute it if you are not provided the information directly?
· SOS definition: is the percentage % of total dollars you spend in the category, used to understand how much your brand is spends in relation to your competitors
· Abbreviation: SOS
· Calculation: amount you spend as a brand / total amount spent on advertising in the category X 100
What is Share of voice? How is it abbreviated? How do you compute it if you are not provided the information directly?
· SOV definition: involves the actual impressions delivered as a percentage of the total category impressions
· Abbreviation: SOV
· Calculation: amount spent as a brand in a medium / the total category spending in the medium X 100
Understand how to evaluate what Share of market, spending and voice mean and how they can be combined to influence your media selection choices
· SOS vs SOV: SOS does not distinguish between media in terms of effectiveness, but SOV takes into account the delivery for each media not just the amount of money spent
What is a quintile? What is a tercile/decile/quartile/percentile, etc, in terms of how many groups are represented?
· Quintile is dividing the population by 5 (or into fifths) 20
· Tercile= is dividing by 3 (thirds) 33.33
· Decile= is dividing by 10 (tenths) 10
· Quartile= is dividing by 4 (quarters) 25
· Percentile= is dividing by 100 (hundredths) 1
What are quintiles mainly used for in media planning research?
· They are used to define media use
What is the expected value of a quintile? How do you use this information to create an index for your quintile group?
· A statistical value of a data set that represents 20% of a given population. The first quartile represents the lowest fifth of the data (1-20%); the second quartile represents the second fifth (21% - 40%) etc.
What are the three ways you can buy broadcast media? What are the advantages/disadvantages of each method?
· In the Up-Front Market: Coincides with intro of new Fall programming, Takes place in May/ Buying across two calendar years, ratings guarantees/ out options
· In the Scatter Market: Buy on quarterly basis, no out-options/ more flexibility than up-front buying
· Opportunistically: Fancy word for last minute purchasing, risky business but can get a good deal sometimes
· Spot T.V. is usually bought from individual stations in order to heavy up in good markets, usually commercials between programs
· With Spot T.V. you need to worry about maintenance of ratings level - did you get what you paid for in terms of rating level?
o If smaller market, you may have less accurate estimates of ratings at any point.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in broadcast TV (cable networks, satellite operators, and broadcast networks and stations)?
o Mass coverage
§ 99% of all HH have a T.V.
o Low CPM & CPP
§ The mass audience delivered by television bring the cost per exposure very low relative to other media
o Impact & Creativity
§ more senses are engaged
o High production costs - can exceed millions of dollars for production
o High upfront costs
o Limited selectivity - not cost effective for selecting seeking a specific and small audience
o Clutter - Surrounded by numerous other messages and recall is low
What are the two main ways cable tv ads are purchased?
1. Networks offer selectivity - national buys
2. Local cable buys are via cable operators
What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in cable TV?
o High selectivity - offers specialized programming aimed at particular types of viewers
o Low Costs - Cable advertising cost much less than broadcast T.V.
o Upscale Audience - upper-income and affluent life-style
o Testability - good place to experiment with products and various approaches
o Limited Reach - 35% of HH do not have cable, shrinking in millennial's
o High Fragmentation - over 100 channels to choose from...
o Clutter - more channels means more messages and programs
o Hard to Buy - Spot cable is hard to buy because of the high number of cable systems
1. Purchase by daypart and format
2. AM radio sometimes by vehicle
What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in broadcast radio?
o Local Appeal - Radio is a local medium
o Immediacy - Provide information quickly and generally current
o High Frequency - A large number of ads need to be placed in order to be effective since people listen to short periods of time
o Cost Efficiency - 30 second ads can run as low as a few hundred dollars
o Audience Selectivity - Provides very specific target audience
o Background Noise - People listen to the radio while they are doing something else
o Audio Only - no visual effects
o Clutter - # of ads aired can reduce the impact
o Short Message Life - Short life spans
o Highly Segmented - Advertisers wanting to reach a broad general audience must run on numerous stations
What are some of the types of newspapers? Newspaper advertising?
· Tabloid vs. Standard
· National vs. Local
· Display vs. Classified
· SAU, Front of the paper; right hand side, Editorial sections, Color
What are some of the types of magazines? Magazine advertising?
· Consumer, Business, Farm
· National vs. Regional vs. Local
· SAU, Front of the paper; right hand side, editorial, Bleeds
What are the two main types of discounts one might receive in print advertising?
· 1) Frequency- buy a certain # generally per week/month
· 2) Continuity- buy a certain $ amount over the course of a year
· Open vs. Flat Rates vs. Short Rates
What does an open rate mean vs. a flat rate?
· Open Rate- Highest one-time rate charged by an advertising medium such as a newspaper, magazine, radio station or television station. It also has not been fixed by negotiations
· Flat Rate- Service charge or advertising rate where no discount is offered to repeat customers or volume buyers.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in magazines?
o Flexibility - reach audience in a variety of size, editorial content, & coverage areas
o Long Lifespan - Magazines hang around for years
o Pass-Along Readership - Purchaser is not the only reader
o Audience Selectivity - Able to reach highly interested readers because of specific magazine content
o Upscale Audience - 18 to 44 years old, w/ college education and HH income over $50,000
o Lack of Immediacy - limited regarding the timeliness of content
o Long Lead Time - must have advertisements to printer 2-3 months in advance
o High Cost Per Thousand - CPM is higher than any other medium due to lower circulation numbers
o Slow Exposure - Some readers don't open the magazine immediately
o Heavy Ad Competition - 52% advertising and 48% editorial content
What are the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in newspapers?
o Local Medium - deliver to specific geographical area w/ people sharing common concerns and interests
o Timeliness/Immediacy - Very timely because they include today's current events
o Comprehensive - cover a variety of topics and issues
o Credibility - newspaper ads rank highest in believability
o Flexibility - Ads can vary in size, shape, and color depending on the advertisers purpose
o Mass Reach - Total coverage per market is high
o Lack of Selectivity - newspapers reach a broad spectrum of people, specific segments is hard to reach
o Low Production Quality - quality of paper stock is very low
o Short Life Span - Not kept for very long
o Clutter - Each ad competes with content and other ads
o Lack of Control - Advertiser generally has little control of where the ad will be placed unless a premium price is paid
o High National Cost - Cost of buying national coverage is very high
How out of home (OOH) media generally sold?
· 25 showing = 25% of target market sees the advertisement on a daily basis
· They are usually sold based on GRP's 25, 50,100,150,200. The higher the GRP the more expensive the spot. Just because a spot is 200 GRP's doesn't guarantee it will have twice the audience impact as the 100
· Location is the most important element of an OOH buy
What is the most important element of an OOH buy?
· Location, location, and location
What are the advantages and disadvantages of OOH advertising?
o Access - Only medium that is never turned off
o High Reach & Frequency - potential to reach everyone in a market and because people travel in similar patterns build frequency
o Flexible Coverage - Can be used locally, regionally, and nationally
o Inexpensive - Lowest cost per exposure of any major medium
o Fleeting Message - Consumers pass by quickly so message must be short and to the point
o Influence by Location - influenced by the environment they are constructed
o Extensive Planning - requires 6-8 weeks of lead time for printing and posting
o High Up-Front Cost - the initial out of pocket cost for national coverage is high. As much as $5 million a month for top 100 markets.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of transit advertising?
o Economical - very low CPM
o High Repetition - provides continuous exposure to consumers both day and night
o Limited Competition - Overall low number of competing messages within the same media space
o Captive Audience - in transit, have no where else to look except at their surroundings
o Advertising Bot Top of the Mind - Consumers are hurrying elsewhere to get to their destination
o Mutilation and Vandalism - subject vandals and destruction
o Quality of Market - Some are doubtful of the quality of the market
· Promotes websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages
· Always changing, more variations. Ex: Google, Bing, Yahoo
What is display advertising?
· Entails embedding an advertisement into a Web page
· The advertisement include both text and images and, like Search Engine Optimization, attract traffic to an advertiser's website by a link to the website. Generally the online user needs to click somewhere on the ad to be redirected.
What are the three types of ad networks? Describe them.
· Vertical - known sites, more expensive
· Blind - unknown sites, less expensive
o Search - What have you searched for recently
o Content - What kind of content do you typically consume
o Behavioral - What kind of purchases do you make, when, how, what contexts.
What are rich media?
· Provide an interactive online experience for the user. For example, some ads expand and provide a new online context when users clock or roll over the ads.
What are some of the problems with measuring audiences online?
· Nielsen Net Ratings, comSCORE = tied to demographics
· Google Analytics = usually just about access, time of the day, geography, no demographics
· Buying = various methods, CPM, CPC, Bids, Negotiations
What are cookies? What do they mean for privacy? What do they mean for online advertising and marketing?
· Due to the little amount of information a cookie contains, it usually cannot be used to reveal your identity or personally identifying information. However, marketing is becoming increasingly sophisticated and cookies in some cases can be aggressively used to create a profile of your surfing habits.
What is cost-per-click buying?
· A website that uses CPCs would bill by the number of times a visitor clicks on a banner instead of by the number of impressions. Cost per click is often used when advertisers have a set daily budget. When the advertiser's budget is hit, the ad is removed from the rotation for the remainder of the period.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital advertising?
o Depending on type, engagement may be high
o Information seeking and entertainment behaviors - all self-directed
o Opt -in, one-on-one conversations more possible
o Delivery at point of potential purchase
o Relatively low cost per impression
o Innovation lends brand "cutting edge" feel
o Combinations hard to determine
o Measurement not always accurate or available, comparisons difficult
o Difficult to understand different sales methods
o Low attention - engagement is low in many types
o Clutter is high
o Ad blockers more common
Which social media platform reigns supreme currently?
· Now consumers are able to give feedback to the marketer in real time.Everyone now suddenly has a voice and can reach millions of people.
· Decreased attention spans?
· End of personal privacy/identity
· Inability to empathize
· Lost ability to communicate face-to-face
What are delivery vs. efficiency metrics?
· Delivery- rating and share
· Efficiency- gross impressions and GRPs
· Gross impressions is the total number of unduplicated people or households represented by a given media schedule
· Gross rating points (GRPs)- Reach % times frequency. The sum of the ratings for a certain period of time.
What are the two main types of efficiency metrics? How do you compute them?
· Cost per point
· Cost per thousand
What are the three ways to buy network TV ads?
· Upfronts- provides opt out
· Scatter buys- quarterly basis
· Opportunistic buying
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