Anthro 101 Conformity and Conflict ? Section 7 Intro Notes: Laws and Politics Legal System: Anthropologically means disputes among individuals regularly occur in all societies, and how much such disagreements are handled. Infralegal: they never reach a point where disputes are settled by individuals with special authority. Extralegal: is a dispute occurs outside the law and escalates into violence Legal Disputes: involve socially approved mechanisms for their settlements Law: the cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents that have recognized authority Types of Solutions for Disputes: Self- Redress: wronged individuals are given the right to settle the dispute themselves Contests: physical or mental combat between disputants Go- Between: a third party used to negotiate until a settlement is achieved In some societies it can be the supernatural Ordeal: disputants have to take an oath in the name of a powerful deity and suffer painful dangerous etc tests Moot: an informal community meeting where a conflict is aired Courts: formally organized structure with officials and authorities that make and enforce a decision Political Systems: is the process for making and carrying out public policy according to the cultural categories and rules of the society Policy: the guidelines for action Public: people effected by the policy Criteria for policies: Must have support Anything that contributes to it acceptance and enforcement Legitimacy: peoples positive evaluation of public officials and public policy Coercion: support due to threats, use of force, or a bribe Divided authority Those with the right to make and enforce public policy Leadership Ability to influence others to act Must be exercised formally in these societies Chapter 26 ? Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of the Gypsy Offender Anne Sutherland A gypsy man was convicted of identity theft after he used one of his other gypsy family?s name and social security number. Anthropologist, Anne Sutherland, was called to the jail to talk to the man and see if he was a real gypsy She first and most importantly talked to him about his other family in LA and what part of the vista he was from. In the jail the gypsy man didn?t eat and he lost 15 pounds due to the fact that he was scared of becoming impure because Americans don?t prepare the food ?clean.? This would cause him to be shunned from his gypsy family referred to as ?marime? Gypsies cultural issues with American law contact conflict between the historically nomadic group and modern bureaucracy identification Conflict between Gypsy religious rules regarding ritual pollution and prison regulations Cultural clash between Rom Gypsy value on corporate kinship and the American value on individual rights Reciprocity between visiti members is expected Chapter 27 ? Life Without Chiefs Marvin Harris Different societies conform to different norms and rules. Saying ?thank you? etc is respectful in one culture, but can also have negative implications and repercussions in other cultures. The Headman Leadership, not power They work herder then everyone else If something has to be done, they do it He encourages and promotes the ethics of the society Reciprocity is one form of exchange practiced by egalitarian band-and-village people. Another is redistribution; when valuables and food are turned over to a headman to be pooled and divided equally Headman to ? Big Man to ? Chief We need to reject the claims that there are superior and inferior races
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