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University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
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Criminal Justice: The Essentials
Making Sense of Criminal Justice: Policies and Practices
Researching Theories of Crime and Deviance
Assumption from _______ school that all human behavior is motivated by ___-interest and reflects the ________ desire to secure pleasure and avoid pain
Classical; self'; universal
People, if left to their ___ devices, would engage in hedonistic, self-serving, and often ____-______ behavior
_________ provides the glue that holds society together
Those unrestrained by society's norms ______ its problems
Age-graded theory takes a somewhat ______ stance on society's norms creating its problems
Age-graded theory assumes that socialization is an __-_____ process that continues through __________
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
The social bond curves the natural propensity for misbehavior
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory consists of:
Where any element of Hirschi's Social Bond Theory is ________, misbehavior ensues
Skyes and Matza's Neutralization Theory
Delinquent youth drift between conventional and unconventional actions
Youth do not reject conventional calues, but instead lear to ________ them through the techniques of neutralization
Gottfredson and Hirschi's Self-Control Theory
Individuals with low self-control, who share certain characteristics are more likely to engage in acts, including crime, that offer short-term pleasure for very little effort
Characteristics of individuals with low self-control:
-Search for immediate gratification
-Simplicity in all tasks and decisions
-Desire for physical as opposed to spiritual rewards in life
Having little commitment to conventionality and little concern for _____-term consequences of acts makes crime _____ attractive
Origin of low self-control is found in poor ______ management
Poor Parental Management Includes:
-Inadequate monitoring or recognition of a child's misbehavior
-Inappropriate parental responses to misbehavior
-Poor emotional bonds to a child
Sampson and Laub's Life Course Theory
Social bonds commit individuals to conventional life styles and which social bonds are most relevant to change over the life course:
Which social bonds are most relevant to change over the life course EXAMPLE:
-School may be more important in childhood and jobs and marriage may be more important in adulthood
Sampson and Laub's Life Course Theory says life is full of ______ ______, which can redirect people's trajectories either towards crime or away from crime
All control theories are appealing to those who hold position that _____ of crime problem is _________ _______ (and not particular social class)
Center; dysfunctional families
Concepts like stake in ________ make sense for those who have _____ considered committing a crime
Most control theories have direct _______ implications
If you _______ social controls and ties to both family and community, then crime will decline
______ _____ theory was the first traditional criminological theory to be empirically testable
Social bond theory was one of the few theories that addresses ________ in male and female delinquency rates and in observed rates for _____ or ______ groups
Differences; ethnic; racial
_______ theory provides a powerful critique against cultural- or learning-based theories of crime
____-_____ Theory provides a powerful explanation of why a small proportion of people account for such a large proportion of all crimes (one''s with low ____-_____) and puts and emphasis on ____ _____
Self-Control; self-control; free will
Self-Control theory attempts to explain why the age-crime relationship is so ______ across ______ places and historical times
Criminality is _______ over a person's life, but involvement in crime per se peaks in _________
___-_____ Theory does a better job of explaining how people can change their ways over time
Age-graded Theory integrates aspects of ______ theory with _____ theory
Age-graded Theory has strong ________ support
Control Theories often make strong assumptions about _____ _____
Control Theories assume that people are naturally prone to be ________ and ___-_____
Many tests of control theory focus on relatively _______ delinquent acts and ignore more ______ delinquency and crime
Self-control theory holds that once you have self-control, you ____ change your ways
Researchers question the _______ of self-control theory (i.e. its ability to explain all crime)
Self-control Theory may be ________ as currently constructed (i.e. the terms low self-control and high self-control may be _____ for differential propensity to commit or refrain from crime)
Key Question Control Theory tries to answer:
Why do we NOT commit crimes?
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