Basis for Daily Values Food Component DRV 2000 kcal Fat < 65 g (30%) Saturated fat < 20 g (10%) Protein 50 g (10%) Cholesterol < 300 mg (60%) Carbohydrates 300 g Fiber 23 g Sodium < 2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adequate nutrients within kcal needs Physical activity Foods to encourage ? e.g. half whole grains Foods to discourage ? e.g. sat fat Food safety Needs for at-risk populations Adequate Nutrients within Calorie Needs Key Recommendations ? Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods ? Choose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol Balanced eating patterns ? Balanced eating patterns: ? USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid) ? DASH Eating Plan Weight Management Overweight or obese increases the risk for many chronic diseases: ? Heart disease, diabetes, some cancers Key recommendations: ? Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expended ?Prevent weight gain? make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity Physical Activity Key recommendations ? Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weight ? Physical fitness include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise ? 30-minutes daily minimum of moderate activity ? 60-90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss Food Groups to Encourage A variety of fruits and vegetables ? Key nutrients: Vitamins A and C, beta carotene ? Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs ? Choose a variety from 5 vegetable subgroups: 3 or more ounces/day of whole grain foods 3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent Fats Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Energy dense Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase blood cholesterol levels are a risk for heart disease Key recommendations: ? Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat ? Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol ? Trans fats should be as low as possible ? Total fats: 20-30% total calories (lean protein sources) Carbohydrates Important source of energy and essential nutrients Key recommendations ? Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains ? Prepare foods with little added sugar ? Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starch ? Reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities): ? Practice good oral hygiene ? Eat high sugar or starch foods less frequently Sodium and Potassium Essential for health in appropriate amounts Potassium is linked with healthful blood pressure Excess sodium consumption: ? Linked to high blood pressure in some people ? Can cause loss of calcium from bones Key recommendations: ? Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) ? Choose and prepare food with little salt ? Consume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables) Alcoholic Beverages Alcohol provides calories, but no nutrients ? Depresses the nervous system ? Toxic to the liver and other body cells ? Excess can lead to health and social problems Key recommendations: ? Drink sensibly and in moderation ? Moderation: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per day ? People who should not drink alcohol include? ? Women of child-bearing age ? Pregnant or lactating women, children, adolescents ? Persons on medications that can interact with alcohol MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid MyPyramid can be used to plan a healthful diet. ? Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods people can eat in combination to provide a healthful diet ? Developed by the USDA ? Will change as more is learned about nutrition ? Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes ? Personalized guide accessible on the Internet http://www.mypyramid.gov Based on the information you provided and the average needs for your age, gender and physical activity [Age: __, Sex: female, Physical Activity: Less than 30 Minutes] your results indicate that you should eat these amounts from the following food groups daily. Your results are based on a 1800 calorie pattern*. 6 ounces tips 2.5 cups tips 1.5 cups tips 3 cups tips 5 ounces tipsClick the food groups above to learn more. Tips give recipe ideas, etc. Number of Servings and Serving Sizes There are no standardized definitions. MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid MyPyramid promotes 6 health messages: 1. Activity 2. Moderation 3. Personalization 4. Proportionality 5. Variety 6. Graduate improvement Six food groups: 1. Grains 2. Vegetables 3. Fruits 4. Oils 5. Milk 6. Meat MyPyramid: Food Guide Pyramid Designed to result in the following changes 1. Increase intake of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and essential nutrients 2. Lower intakes of saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol; increase intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains 3. Balance energy intake with energy expenditure to prevent weight gain and/or to promote a healthful weight MyPyramid: Grains ?Making half your grains whole? ? Eat at least 3 ounces of whole grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each day ? Foods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits ?Vary your veggies? ? Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas ?Focus on Fruits? ? Go easy on fruit juices Fruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium MyPyramid: Vegetables & Fruits Phytochemicals ? Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health ? Work together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefits ? Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee ? Scientific study of phytochemicals is new ? May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease) MyPyramid: Oils ?Know your fats? ? Encourage people to select health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils ? Limit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat MyPyramid: Milk ?Get your calcium rich foods? ? Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy products ? People who cannot consume dairy can choose lower-lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources ? Dairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B-12 ? Many are fortified with vitamins A and D MyPyramid: Meat & Beans ?Go lean on Protein? ? Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts ? Encourage low-fat or lean meats and poultry ? Cooking methods: baking, broiling, grilling ? Good sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin ? Legumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats) MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories Recent concept ? Represent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient?dense foods ? Depends upon age, gender, physical activity ? Foods that use discretionary calories: ? fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravy ? high sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks MyPyramid: Serving Sizes What is considered a serving size? Grains (1 ounce-equivalent): ? 1 slice of bread ? 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal ? 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cup equivalent): ? 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) ? 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli) Meats ? 3 ounces of meat is equal to 3 ounce-equivalent ? 2-3 oz. of meat is about the size of a deck of cards ? 1 egg, l tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz. equivalents in the meat and beans group MyPyramid: Serving Sizes There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food Serving size may differ from food labels Serving sizes are often smaller than the quantities Americans typically eat. equintana Chapter 1
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