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In 17th-century England, __________ were assistants to the constables and walked the streets removing vagrants.
The Knapp Commission was established as a result of the allegations made by this New York City police officer.
This police department was the first organized police department in the North, created in 1838.
In the summer of 1964, the shooting of an African American youth by an off-duty white police lieutenant precipitated riots in this city.
The lowest level of the mutual pledge system created by King Alfred the Great in England was the:
How did Calvin Coolidge, while governor of Massachusetts, handle the Boston Police Strike?
Fired all the Boston Police Department officers
The landmark decision in the fight for civil rights was this U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1954.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
This commission conducted the first national study of the U.S. criminal justice system:
The trial of this individual in Los Angeles resulted in an acquittal due to jury nullification.
The only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier were the:
County sheriff and town marshal
This commission released a report in 1968 that decried white racism and a rapidly polarizing society.
During the Vietnam War, the presence of this organization on college campuses often prompted student groups to lead demonstrations and civil disobedience.
Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC)
Why did the Pinkerton Agency gain notoriety for its involvement with the Baltimore Plot?
The agency thwarted the alleged plot to kill president-elect Lincoln
The Statute of Winchester established the office of_____________, who was responsible for organizing and supervising the watch.
This U.S. Supreme Court decision held that a black slave could not sue in court for his freedom because he was not a citizen, but a piece of property.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Who formed the Bow Street Runners?
How did August Vollmer change the face of American policing?
He instituted many practices that started to professionalize policing in the United States.
What legislation established National Prohibition in 1920?
The first state police agency was the:
The London Metropolitan Police were organized around this system of patrol.
Following this tragic event, many police departments throughout the nation started specialized antiterrorism units.
The Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 created:
The extensive damage caused by this catastrophic event in 2005 required the efforts of the National Guard, U.S. Coast Guard and local police departments.
The first specialized investigative unit in Rome was the “questors,” which means
What local law enforcement official often serves as the sole legal authority over vast geographical areas?
What drug, which was previously produced by outlaw motorcycle gangs, is now produced through a “mom-and-pop” operation in the Midwest?
The ratio of law enforcement officers to citizens creates an especially sensitive issue for politicians, citizens, and some police officers. That issue is:
Law enforcement is primarily the responsibility of:
What approach to law enforcement has been used successfully in an ongoing program to investigate bank robbery, arson, kidnapping, and terrorism?
The joint federal and local task force approach
According to the text, police officers that live and work in these jurisdictions never have an opportunity to decompress.
Which of the following is responsible for the transporting of federal prisoners and the security of federal courthouses?
What issue, when allowed to become chronic, affects overtime, family life, time off, and officer job enjoyment?
The Federal Witness Protection Program is administered by the:
This international organization was established to help develop cooperation among nations regarding common police problems.
International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
What program are local law enforcement agencies using to train their officers in immigration enforcement?
ICE 287(g) program
The largest local police department in the United States is:
The investigative arm of the IRS is called:
Criminal Investigation Division (CID)
What ATF operation resulted in the procedure of “walking” guns across the border into Mexico?
In the 2008 Tribal Census, the largest American Indian law enforcement agency in Arizona was the:
In the era of reduced government budgets, the most significant reassessment of priorities occurred in what area of expenditure?
Which of the following is part of the Department of Justice?
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
Which of the following states does not have a state law enforcement agency?
What state law enforcement model provides separate agencies for traffic enforcement and other state-level law enforcement functions?
What policies involving illegal immigration are favored by many police chiefs?
Which of the following is responsible for investigating the counterfeiting of U.S. currency?
The specific crimes measured by the Uniform Crime Report Part I are called:
All of the following are functions of the U.S. Department of Justice except:
Providing protection to the U.S. Supreme Court
The tremendous number of law enforcement agencies and employees in the United States makes it very difficult to get a:
Perfect picture of the law enforcement industry
Participative leadership has resulted in many improvements in all the following except:
Improved minority hiring
The entire collection of beats in a given geographic area is called a:
What is the name of the independent body in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma that has the authority to make binding decisions on a wide range of policy issues, working conditions, and departmental strategies?
Several notable leaders have given their definition of leadership. Who was the leader who said this? “A good leaders inspires people to have confidence in the leader; a great leader inspires people to have confidence in themselves.”
Given what studies have shown about when crime occurs, when would it be likely to have the most officers on duty?
_____________ is defined as an organization model marked by hierarchy and promotion on professional merit and skill.
Where does ethical leadership start?
Why is leadership essential in police management?
Leaders, by teaching and setting examples, develop new leaders
What is an example of an administrative unit in a police department?
The traditional organization model and structure of most police organizations is based on the _________________ organization.
The reason police departments replace sworn officers with civilians in nonenforcement jobs is because:
Civilian employees are easier to hire than sworn officers
Police unions have a long and colorful history in police-management bargaining relations. The unions’ ultimate bargaining tool has traditionally been:
The President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended that three distinct entry-level police personnel categories be established in large and medium-sized police departments. Which is not one of these categories?
Activities performed in direct assistance to the public are called:
This legislation, creating a civil service system for federal employees, was passed in 1883 following the assassination of President James Garfield.
An influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes is called:
The ___________ unit answers incoming calls to the department’s 911 telephone lines.
The process of running the organization so the organization can accomplish its goals is called: ______________________.
What is the best reason to explain why the span of control between supervisors and subordinates is suggested to be between 6 and 10 officers?
Police management experts believe this is the amount of officers a supervisor can effectively manage.
The refusal to recognize the AFL-affiliated union triggered a police strike in which city in 1919?
The first supervisor in the police department chain of command is the _______________.
Why is it important to have a good organizational chart in an organization?
So workers can see exactly where they stand in the organization
What management issue, typically seen in every organization, is also common to police organizations?
The issue of managing problem employees
What group is considered the backbone of police services?
Which is not an explanation of why it is hard to hire qualified candidates for police jobs?
Candidate marijuana use
Why did Guardians Association of New York City Police Department v. Civil Service Commission of New York (1980), a landmark federal appellate court decision regarding job analysis, accept the job analysis of the New York City Department of Personnel and the New York City Police Department?
The police department carefully constructed its entrance examinations based on the duties actually performed by police officers
Which position in the police department is generally a nonsworn, part-time, paid, education-oriented position?
According to the text, a form of de facto discrimination resulting from a testing element that discriminates against a particular group, essentially keeping members of that group out of the applicant pool is called:
Adverse impact discrimination
Why has the trend been toward the use of psychologists and psychiatrists who specialize in law enforcement hiring and fitness-for-duty exams?
These specialists understand the unique requirements of law enforcement personnel and the unique requirements of fitness-for-duty examinations.
What selection process can be used to examine a candidate’s characteristics that might be otherwise difficult to assess, including poise, presence, and communication skills?
Those departments that require college as a condition of employment usually have:
A college or university close by
After a conditional offer of employment to a potential police candidate, the final stage of the selection process is:
Psychological and medical evaluation
The Sherman report suggested recruiting police applicants from what college program?
One of the easiest ways to find out information about a department prior to submitting an application for employment is through:
Education requirements have been debated by departments for several years. The most common requirement of departments regarding a college degree is:
Most departments do not require any college but require a high school degree or its equivalent.
Many states have mandated ______________ training for their officers to maintain their state certification.
What stage of the police selection process receives the most litigation?
The majority of police departments:
Have eliminated the height requirement
According to the text it is believed that college educated officers will ________________ to serve in today’s dynamic and challenging environment.
Be better equipped
The requirement to be free from color blindness and have correctable 20/20 vision has caused:
A roadblock to many otherwise qualified candidates
On-the-job training for officers after they have graduated from the police academy is called:
Which is a requirement of most police departments for becoming a police officer?
Lack of a significant criminal record
Why was the NYPD’s age limit policy that required new officer applicants be under 35 years of age upheld by the Manhattan Supreme Court in 1997?
Age limits on public safety jobs are an acceptable exception to the laws against age discrimination
Which act, signed in June 1988, severely limited the use of the polygraph?
Employee Polygraph Protection Act
Concerns for a professional appearance have caused many departments to prohibit which practice?
Smoking in public
When police applicants are selected, which of the following is not considered?
Criminal history of parents
Why is emotional intelligence a desired trait when hiring new law enforcement personnel?
It is important new officers have the ability to interpret, understand, and manage one’s own and others’ emotions.
Police departments around the country are rightfully concerned about prior drug use of applicants. Recently departments around the country have liberalized their policies on drug use because:
There is a smaller applicant pool as well as societal changes.
___________ tend to be costly in human and dollar resources, and although many departments use them for promotional exams, most do not use them for hiring selection.
Research concludes that a disproportionate number of ____________ are killed by police officers.
The new stop-and-frisk policies adopted in Seattle, WA that changed how officers use force on minorities and the psychologically or chemically impaired was the result of:
A settlement agreement between the city and the Department of Justice.
According to the text, most police patrol time is spent:
As uncommitted time
Why has it been said that police work is a “tainted” occupation?
The police are considered tainted because they are viewed as the fire it takes to fight the fire, and they inflict harm.
Ends-oriented policing involves police officers bending the rules to achieve the “right” goal of putting a criminal in jail. This is called:
Noble cause corruption
The legality and morality of the fleeing felon rule is challenged because of the U.S. legal concept of:
Presumption of innocence
The police must gain the cooperation of _____________ if they are to maintain order within the community.
Police have historically overemphasized their role as ___________________ and played down their more common role as keepers of the peace.
Which of the following is not one of Broderick’s police operational styles?
When officers exercise discretion, there are several factors that influence that discretion and this varies depending on:
The type of situation he or she encountered.
All of the following are police operational styles identified by William K. Muir, Jr. except:
Who is generally the first decision maker in the U.S. criminal justice system and often the most important?
Which of the following is part of the federal government’s imminent danger standard for use of deadly force?
Using deadly force on a prisoner attempting escape from a high security prison
How is the watchman style different from the legalistic style?
The watchman style is primarily concerned with order maintenance and the legalistic style enforces the letter of the law.
Homicide victims are the highest in which age category?
When defining the police role, one way may be to say that it is:
Whatever the community expects it to be
Sheehan and Cordner state that the two primary goals and objectives of police departments are:
Maintaining order and protecting life and property
Which of the following is not one of James Q. Wilson’s operating styles?
In the aftermath of 9/11, police departments have responded by forming:
Specialized, military-like antiterrorist units
Through routine patrol and responding to calls by citizens to deal with problems that may cause crime, police develop a sense of:
What United States Supreme Court decision ended the use of the fleeing felon rule?
Tennessee v. Garner
After Tennessee v. Garner, critics said the police role in a fleeing felon situation was:
The availability of options or actions one can take in a situation is called:
Which of the following is not one of the reasons police exercise discretion?
The police want to show they have a caring attitude toward the community.
All of the following are factors that influence the police in determining the exercise of discretion except:
The behavior of the police
HIV/AIDS exposure is defined as “any contact with body fluids, including, but not limited to, direct contact with skin, eyes, nose and mouth,” and through:
All of the following are ways to change the stress culture in police organizations except:
Provide consistent discipline after an incident
According to the text, an officer could be charged with dereliction of duty as well as discrimination if they refuse to:
Render first aid, assist, or arrest a person with AIDS
The refusal of some police officers to report fellow officers’ misconduct is called:
The blue wall of silence
How has the National Institute of Justice’s Corrections and Law Enforcement Family Support program helped with some of the problems of police stress?
Developed innovative treatment and training programs as well as research into the nature and causes of stress
If law enforcement agencies spend time and money equipping and training officers to protect themselves on duty, they:
Should be committed to doing what is required to prevent officer suicides
After a critical incident or traumatic event, officers can suffer from:
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Studies indicate that the suicide rate among police officers is much higher than that of the general population. Why are police at higher risk for committing suicide?
Police have a greater access to firearms, are continually exposed to human misery, and have to often deal with shift work, social strain, marital difficulties, drinking, and physical illness.
Dorothy Bracey found that due to a poor diet and lack of exercise, a significant sample of American police possessed a body composition, blood chemistry, and general level of physical fitness greatly inferior to that of a similar-sized sample of:
The stress produced by elements inherent in the quasi-military character of the police service, such as adjusting to changing tours of duty, odd working hours, and working holidays, is classified as:
Approximately 10% of police officers are assaulted each year in which country?
A 1981 report by the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights emphasized the need to provide _____programs and services for police.
Which of the following is not indicative of police subculture?
Which of the following ranked highest in programs most requested by police officers according to an FBI training needs survey of almost 2,500 police departments?
Programs to handle personal stress and physical fitness programs
The majority of recent studies have found that the police “working personality” comes from:
The socialization process in the police academy, field training, and patrol experience
The American Institute of Stress ranked police work:
Among the top ten most stressful jobs in America
Which of the following is not one of the factors leading to stress in police work?
The dangerous conditions facing U.S. police officers are compounded by:
The irrationality produced by alcohol and drugs
Police cynicism may hurt the relationship between the police and the public, but it may:
Help advance an officer in his career
Which is not a trait of the police personality?
Why are many police officers in the United States unable to do their job safely or live healthy lives?
Because they work long and erratic hours, have insufficient sleep and high levels of sleep disorders.
A moral dilemma faced by police officers in which they may feel forced to take certain illegal actions to achieve a greater good is called:
When an officer has been exposed to critical incident stress, counselors recommend:
Immediate critical incident stress debriefings
Officers who have been involved in a “suicide by cop” incident reported that:
Psychological debriefing was particularly important in helping them through the impact of the incident
Professional criminals, including organized crime members and drug dealers, know that killing a police officer is:
What organization represented African American police officers in New York City?
An agreement binding an agency to a particular course of action in regard to hiring and promotion of women and minorities is called:
After World War II, women who wanted to be policing careerists were sometimes called
A challenge that persists for African American officers is the perception of tokenism by all of the following except:
What act was passed with the goal of helping local governments reduce the incidence of crime by increasing the effectiveness, fairness, and coordination of law enforcement and the criminal justice system?
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968
In a study involving female officers, why did women perform better when working with other women?
Women seemed to be intimidated by their partners and were less likely to be assertive and self-sufficient when serving with male partners.
What type of discrimination is the indirect result of policies or practices that are not intended to discriminate but do, in fact, discriminate?
De facto discrimination
In Executive Order 11246, signed in 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson, which controversial method of ending job discrimination was enacted?
Why must an agency use new officer hiring tests and standards that are job related?
The test or standard must measure qualifications and abilities that are actually necessary for performing the specific job for which the applicant is applying.
At what point should departments especially engage in positive efforts to employ ethnic minority group members?
When a substantial ethnic minority population resides within the jurisdiction
Why would minorities, who continue to face stereotypes, be hesitant to make waves and challenge these stereotypes?
Most minorities do not want anyone to believe or comment that they are where they are because they are a minority.
According to the text, which group of Hispanic officers is best able to build a relationship of trust with other Hispanic residents?
Hispanic officers born and raised in Mexico, who are recent U.S. arrivals and new citizens.
This commission was formed to study the criminal justice system and issued standards to which police agencies should adhere to reduce job discrimination based on race and gender.
National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals
The academic studies of women on patrol indicate that:
Women can perform patrol duties as well as men can.
This Act extended the 1964 Civil Rights Act and made its provisions, including Title VII, applicable to the state and local governments.
The Equal Opportunity Act of 1972
In 1910, the nation’s first “officially designated” policewoman was:
Alice Stebbins Wells
Early female officers were restricted to ________________ or performing routine clerical tasks.
Issuing parking tickets
The most prevalent form of discrimination has been ____________.
De facto discrimination
Which commission found that, of the 120 LAPD officers with the most allegations concerning use of force, all were men?
One of the ways candidates know that their skills are solicited and valued is through the offering of
The concept that employers must take active steps to ensure equal employment opportunity and to redress past discrimination is called:
Women in law enforcement have progressed during the last three decades, but challenges still remain. All of the following are continuing challenges except:
Promotion to higher ranks
This amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees equal protection of the law to all citizens of the United States.
What type of fitness test was developed to reduce adverse impact in the selection process?
Section 1983 of Title 42 of the U.S. Code was originally enacted by Congress as a means of enforcing the _________ Amendment guarantee of rights to the newly freed slaves.
Police testimony presented in court that asserts an officer found narcotics because a suspect dropped them has been called:
Why was the Knapp Commission created?
It was created in response to a series of articles in the New York Times detailing widespread corruption.
The more aggressive type of corrupt officers described by the Knapp Commission in their report were called:
Evidence of good character, as cited by Aristotle, is seen through all of the following except:
Some studies indicate that domestic violence may be _________ in police families when compared to the general public.
When communities feel that internal affairs is not doing its job, citizens’ rights groups can demand some type of _____________________ to ensure that complaints against the police are adequately investigated.
How does the police subculture work against the ethical precepts of law enforcement?
The informal code of conduct that is taught through socialization includes not giving up another cop, not volunteering information, not making waves and not trusting the administration.
Why is it difficult to get to the truth in an investigation of police officers?
The tendency of law enforcement personnel to use the code of silence to not share information with others
Many police departments have established this division within their department as a major department resource to combat corruption.
The slippery slope concept suggests that when people do begin to deviate, they do it:
Officers may develop a reluctance to take action that should be taken as part of their job because of:
Officers who are victims of domestic violence must deal with what psychological issue when seeking help?
Officers often fear for their safety and economic future of their family because it may cost that officer their job.
The IACP recommends that law enforcement agencies and departments develop policies specifically addressing _________________, including the use of early intervention systems for monitoring and preventing this behavior.
Which commission called for the reorganization of the NYPD internal affairs division into a centralized bureau and instituted procedures for monitoring officers in the 1990s?
In 2005, Hurricane Katrina caused extensive damage to the city of New Orleans. Police officers were accused of all the following except:
Committing ATM robberies
The perception of racial profiling correlates with _________________ toward police in a community.
There are several possible explanations for police corruption. Of these possible explanations, all of the following are correct except:
In the case of ______________, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that to be liable, police departments must be deliberately indifferent to the needs of the people with whom police come in contact.
Canton v. Harris
Early warning systems typically use _________________ that flag officers who may be prone to “problems” when interacting with the public.
Any police-initiated activity that relies on a person’s race or ethnic background rather than on behavior as a basis for identifying that individual as being involved in criminal activity is called ____________.
The 1931 National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement was more popularly known as the:
A police officer bending the rules to get the “right” result is often called the:
Dirty Harry syndrome
Police officers who violate a person’s civil rights by unlawfully searching or detaining them can be sued under what law?
Title 42 of the U.S. Code
Which of the following is NOT a basic model of citizen oversight?
Citizens seek citizen control of the internal investigative process and predetermine the results based on political influence or correctness within the community.
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