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Many inmates who are raped in prison do not report these rapes. The reluctance of rape victims to report their victimization and the general underreporting of rape incidents can be attributed to
John Jones is on trial for murder. Because his potential punishment is the death penalty, his case has to proceed in two separate phases. The second phase is the
Trial courts in federal jurisdiction are called ________ courts.
According to neutralization theory, which technique deals with rejecting blame and claiming oneself as the real victim?
A young woman gets angry and throws a large stone through an office window. The stone hits a bystander and kills him. What crime did the women commit?
After the In re Winship decision, what was the standard of proof required in a juvenile case?
The ________ Amendment means that criminal defendants are entitled to the help of an attorney
Parens patriae literally means
John is fourteen years old. He is arrested for robbery. The prosecutor and probation officer recommend that he is tried as an adult. The juvenile judge decides that John should be dealt with by the adult criminal court jurisdiction. This is an example of
In order for a behavior to be considered a crime it must be
The In re Gault decision entitled juveniles to all of the following rights EXCEPT the right to
The criminal justice system is set into motion when ________ is violated.
The requirement that police must obtain a search warrant before searching a suspect's residents is supportive of which crime model?
There are currently offenders in prison who have been convicted for crimes in which DNA was not tested. Several of these offenders request that that these tests be done because it will prove that they did not commit the crimes for which they were found guilty. Several district attorneys, however, contest their request and argue the tests are unnecessary as guilt has already been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. The failure of states to accommodate DNA requests is reflective of which model?
What are the main parts of the criminal justice system, in the contemporary view?
law enforcement, judiciary, corrections, and victims services
A man breaks into a home during the night. Although there is currently a family living in the home, they are away that night and the house is unoccupied. The man steals several items of value and sneaks out the window undetected. When the family returns home, they noticed their items are missing. What crime was committed?
What is the most common form of victimization in the United States?
Sobriety check points are traffic stops in which police officers stop cars at random to see if the driver is driving while drunk. Studies have found that these programs are effective in reducing the number of alcohol-related crashes. On what theoretical perspective are these programs based?
Which psychological disorder leaves individuals out of touch with reality and unable to cope with their surroundings?
How is the neoclassical school different from the classical school?
The neoclassical school assumes that some people (e.g., children and the insane) cannot reason.
Alex had never engaged in delinquent acts prior to age 14. At age 14, however, Alex started to hang out with new group of kids. These kids used drugs and stole from the local corner store. Alex witnessed them having money and having a good time while engaging in these activities. He also noticed that they never seemed to get caught or suffer any negative consequences for these actions. After watching these activities, Alex began to engage in them too. What theory best explains Alex's behavior?
Sally is a good student and does not get into trouble. One day her father is killed in a car accident. She is very upset by his death and it has a strong influence on her behavior. She begins to express her feelings of anger at her father's death by engaging in risky and delinquent behavior. Which theory best describes the reasons for her criminal behavior
A young boy who has never committed a crime is often called "bad" because of his look, attitude, and lack of interpersonal skills. His peers and his school system regularly refer to him in negative terms and consider him a bad seed that probably does criminal acts. As a result of this societal condemnation, the boy begins to commit minor offenses and works his way up to more serious crimes. He has experienced a process called
________ law is the foundation of the legal system in the United States.
How is criminal law distinguished from civil law?
Criminal defendants are found guilty and civil defendants are found liable.
Which player in the courtroom must prove that mens rea exists in a criminal case?
________ is the criminal intent or mental state of the defendant at the time of the crime.
When a police officer fails to provide equal protection they are violating the ________ Amendment.
________ is moral principles and professional standards that help officers resist the temptation to abuse their rights and privileges.
Which is NOT a component of SARA, a model of problem-oriented policing?
Samantha is a crime analyst at a local police department. Her duties include all of the following EXCEPT
analyzing physical evidence through the use of scientific techniques in a laboratory.
In order for an act to be a search or seizure, the target of the act must have a(n) ________ expectation of privacy.
Which statement is FALSE concerning the Fourth Amendment and warrants?
A Terry stop is permitted when police have ________ to believe that a person is engaged in criminal activity.
The derivative evidence rule is also known as the ________ doctrine.
The ________ allows for illegally obtained evidence to be admissible if police officers would have discovered it anyway had they used the proper procedures.
________ is when police reasonably believe that the warrant or law authorizing a search or seizure is legitimate but later it turns out it is not.
________ allows evidence to be admissible if its discovery was separate from any improper search or seizure.
Police illegally entered Matthew's home to search for drugs. They find evidence that Kristina is involved in a money-laundering scheme. Kristina does not live in the home. The evidence can be used against Kristina because she does not have
The ________ Amendment states that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself."
The ________ test established by the Supreme Court means that confessions are inadmissible unless made willingly.
Sometimes juries choose not to apply criminal laws when they feel doing so would be unjust. This is an example of
Which Supreme Court case ruled that all felony defendants, state and federal, have a right to counsel at trial?
Gideon v. Wainwright
When does a defendant NOT have the right to an attorney?
at her habeas corpus proceedings
If the judge in a preliminary hearing finds that probable cause exists, the prosecutor produces
The process of both legal parties in a criminal case requesting opposing counsel's evidence or information is known as
Which constitutional amendments contain the due process clause?
If you are incarcerated and feel that you are being confined illegally, you would file a ________ so that the courts would review the constitutionality of your confinement.
One of the duties of probation officers is to complete a ________, which contains information that judges use when sentencing defenders.
Many states require judges to sentence certain offenders (often drug offenders or those who use a firearm in the commission of their crime) to a specific minimum sentence, referred to as a(n)
In the case of ________, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the specific laws determining how the death penalty would be administered were unconstitutional.
The Auburn system differed from the Pennsylvania system in that inmates were
The Auburn system differed from the Pennsylvania system in that inmates were
Which of the following offenses would likely result in an inmate being placed in a supermax prison?
The process of determining which inmates go to which institutions and what the specific conditions of their confinement will be is referred to as
Upon entering prison, most inmates go through a process where they learn and adopt the values and norms of the prison. Some of these values and norms include not portraying themselves as weak or needy, not associating with corrections officers, and to always be suspicious of the motives of others. The process of learning these norms and values is called
Upon entering prison, most inmates go through a process where they learn and adopt the values and norms of the prison. Some of these values and norms include not portraying themselves as weak or needy, not associating with corrections officers, and not snitching on others. The norms and values of prisons that inmates learn is referred to as the
Jack is incarcerated in the Southwest State Prison. He has been there for the past 12 years and has over 30 years left on his sentence. While incarcerated, his communication with his family has been restricted; most notably, any letters that he has attempted to send that criticize the conditions of the prison have been censored. Further, he has not been allowed to practice his religion because it is not a commonly practiced religion in the United States. Because Jack has been incarcerated for so long, it is likely that he will face great difficulty in integrating back into society. The difficulty of inmates in reintegrating is referred to as
Debbie is a probationer in Los Angeles County whose probation was revoked because she failed to find and keep a job and check in with her probation officer weekly as required. Her probation is being revoked because
Bill and Tom are both on probation. Bill has committed a felony and must report monthly to his probation officer. Tom, on the other hand, committed a misdemeanor and does not have to report monthly. He simply has to send a form in by mail each month notifying his probation officer of any change in his address, employment, or school. Bill is under ________ supervision.
Sally has just finished serving an 8-10 year prison sentence for a drug offense. She has been released, but is not completely free of criminal justice supervision. She must remain under community supervision for 24 months, during which she must find and maintain employment or education, refrain from drug and alcohol use, and receive permission before she moves or leaves her home county. Sally is on
Sally has just finished serving an 8-10 year sentence. She was granted release by a group of people assembled to determine if she is eligible to return to the community. Because this group of people felt that she was no longer a threat to the community, they made the decision to release her from prison. Sally has been released through
Jane has served all of the time allowed by law of her 19-year prison sentence for voluntary manslaughter. She is ultimately released, without any consideration from the parole board because the law stipulates that she is released since she has served the entire sentence that she is required to serve. Jane has been released through
Chris has been convicted of embezzling $150,000 from his employer. With this money, he purchased a boat, a motorcycle, and several pieces of expensive jewelry for his girlfriend. As part of his sentence, the judge allows law enforcement authorities to confiscate any property that Chris purchased with the embezzled money. The ability of law enforcement to confiscate Chris' property that was purchased with embezzled money is referred to as
Aaron is fifteen years old. He is arrested for rape. According to the state that Aaron lives in, there is a law that categorically excludes 15-year-olds who commit rape from juvenile court jurisdiction. This is an example of
Nancy is sixteen years old. She is arrested for assault. According the state that Nancy lives in, the prosecutor can choose whether to bring the case to juvenile or adult court. This is an example
Juveniles have the right to a jury trial
Tommy is arrested on attempted murder charges. He goes to his bail hearing in a small town in Texas. At the bail hearing, the judge rules that Tommy's bail is $5 million. Tommy claims that this is a violation of his Eighth Amendment rights. The judge still denies his request for lesser bail. Why can the judge impose such a high bail for Tommy?
The privilege against excessive bail does not apply to state defendants, only federal defendants.
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning appellate courts?
When appellate court judges ________ the case, they send it back to the trial court.
Judge Mills enters her courtroom and sees that her neighbor is on trial for battery. Judge Mills must exercise ________ by turning the case over to another judge who can be impartial.
What constitutional amendment is violated when the attorney-client privilege is violated and what is said between a criminal defendant and his attorney was made known to the prosecutor and the judge?
Evidence that an offender is the victim of abuse, has a mental illness, or is a first-time offender are examples of
The exclusionary rule states that
evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment cannot be used against a suspect in a criminal trial.
Which type of crime comes from an ongoing criminal conspiracy that exists to profit from providing illicit goods and services?
Mala in se crimes are
Which school of thought argues that criminals have free will, are rational, and choose to be criminal?
Which of the following is a disorder of personality revealed by a lifelong pattern of antisocial behavior about which an individual has no remorse?
________ means there is a lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies.
Wearing your pajamas to work would be an example of a violation of a(n)
Which perspective argues that laws are made to serve to represent the interest of the public majority?
Which criminal justice actor has the responsibility of instructing the jury for rendering a verdict?
In 2004 Scott Peterson went on trial for the murder of his wife and unborn child. Even before the trial, the case had a great deal of media attention. In fact, from the time the victim, Lindsay Peterson, was reported missing, the news reported extensively on the case. After a long trial, Scott was found guilty of a capital crime and was sentenced to death by lethal injection in 2005. In Westernized cultures, Scott Peterson's crime would most likely be classified as
An example of a mala prohibita crime that is not also necessarily a mala in se crime is
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of due process?
processing offenders through the system as quickly as possible
109.The two courts of the United States dual-court system are the
What famous case, introduced in 1966, made it a requirement for police to notify suspects of their rights?
Which is not a source of crime data?
This crime measure was created to enhance the UCR.
A young man plans to murder his wife. He outlines a plan to shoot her in her sleep and dump her body in a river nearby. He then follows through with his plan. What crime did the man commit?
Murderers who kill multiple victims over a long time period are what?
What is the most commonly used substance in committing sexual assault?
Which group is the most common victim of property crimes reported to the police?
A new non-profit organization is developed to help juvenile delinquents. The program is mostly funded through donations. The employees, including the president, work for the organization as volunteers. Therefore, they have agreed to work without pay for their services. To balance out the expenses of her commute and day care services she pays while at the agency, however, the president takes money from the organization's account. She classifies these expensive under the disguise of various other organizational expenses but she never takes more than her personal costs. What crime has she committed?
A group of youths see a neighbor on their block carrying the new iPod. They decide to break into the house and steal the iPod. When they break into the house, they are unable to find the iPod so they leave the house without taking anything. Which crime did they commit?
Henry is employed at the CIA. In the course of his work activities, he has access to confidential government information. The government of another country offers to pay him for some of the information. Henry agrees and provides them with copies of confidential files. What type of crime did Henry commit?
Henry is employed at the CIA. In the course of his work activities, he has access to confidential government information. The government of another country offers to pay him for some of the information. Henry agrees and provides them with copies of confidential files. What specific crime did Henry commit?
Who is a female most likely to be stalked by?
Lombroso's name for born criminals whose biological inferiorities could be seen in their physical features was
Studies that examine brain scans find that impulse murderers have
Which of the following is the best predictor of criminal behavior?
Kate has her first child. Although Kate does not have a history of mental illness, she begins to feel very depressed after having the baby. As the depression worsens, she begins to be paranoid, believing that the devil has possessed her baby. She begins to believe she must do something drastic to stop the devil from taking her baby's soul to hell. What type of disorder is Kate most likely suffering from?
A woman has suffered from severe abuse by her husband. One night she accidently breaks a plate while doing the dishes. The last time this happened, her husband beat her severely. She becomes very frightened and believes her husband is going to kill her for breaking the plate even though he is actually sleeping on the sofa in the other room and is unaware of the incident. The women likely suffers from
Which part of the brain according to Freud is associated with seeking pleasure and instant gratification?
According to Freud, which part of the brain is associated with bringing pleasure that does not violate societal norms?
Which part of the brain, according to Freud, is associated with internally judging one's actions?
Which theory emerged in the United States following the turbulent 1960s and its variety of social movements?
Use this scenario to answer the question that follows: "You are a football star who was late for practice. You rushed out your door, tripped over your neighbor's cat that was sitting on your porch, and broke your ankle. You consider suing your neighbors." If you choose to sue your neighbor, what type of law would govern this case?
Use this scenario to answer the question that follows: "You are a football star who was late for practice. You rushed out your door, tripped over your neighbor's cat that was sitting on your porch, and broke your ankle. You consider suing your neighbors." Who would be the plaintiff?
________ is literally "the body of the offense."
Mary decides to rob a bank. She obtains a gun, drives to the bank, enters, points the gun at the teller and demands the money in the vault. Before the teller can respond, an off-duty police officer tackles Mary, disarms her, and places her under arrest. Mary could be charged with
A man forces his way into the home of an elderly couple. He holds a gun to the husband's head and tells the wife that he will kill her husband unless she comes with him to help him rob a liquor store down the street. Which defense would be acceptable for the elderly woman if she in fact goes along with the offender and helps him to rob the liquor store?
Which of the following is an example of double jeopardy?
Michael was tried in criminal court for murder and acquitted. Two years later the prosecutor attempts to go to trial again for the same offense.
Michelle and her husband Dan went on a camping trip. Dan disappeared from the campsite. A search party was launched and Dan was never found. The park rangers believe that Dan was attacked by bears and eaten alive. Michelle believes her husband to be dead. Ten years later, Michelle marries her second husband Hank. Dan suddenly reappears. Which defense can Michelle use if she is charged with bigamy?
A football player who tackles and injures his opponent can escape criminal liability by using the defense of ________ because the victim actually gave permission to engage in the act.
In what system were men responsible for patrolling the streets, lighting lanterns, serving as lookout for fires, and generally keeping order?
________ were the first police officers in London.
Which era of policing focused on crime prevention with the assistance of improved relations with community members?
Chief Smith believes that his officers should patrol the city streets and maintain a visible presence in the community. This type of policing is known as
The ________ is the chief federal law enforcement department.
Which of the following is NOT a result of fragmentation?
One agency is well coordinated, and everyone knows their responsibilities and performs them as expected, without any overlap of service.
Sergeant Thomas is responsible for recruiting new police officers for his police department. His first step is
The ________ places loyalty to fellow officers above all other values.
_______ allows officers to act in a manner they judge most appropriate in a given situation.
There is nothing more harmful to a law enforcement agency than
______ is the misuse of authority for personal gain.
Which of the following is NOT a principal role of policing?
_______ is a policing strategy based on conducting specific and detailed research on a community's problems to discover the underlying dynamics of crime
________ is a policing strategy that depends on getting community members to address the problems that plague their neighborhoods.
In which step of the problem-oriented policing model SARA will a police officer determine whether the program was put into effect as intended and whether the goals were met?
Which of the following is NOT one of the components of community-oriented policing?
Wilson and Kelling's broken windows theory argues that there is a relationship between higher crime rates and
Elder abuse includes all of the following EXCEPT
The detective prepares the case for presentation to the ________, who reviews its worthiness for a court's scrutiny.
Which constitutional amendment does NOT place restraints upon what the police may do?
Which of the following is an exception to the search warrant requirement?
Detective Smith illegally taped a phone conversation in which Johnny talks about a famous painting that he stole from the Museum of Modern Art. Detective Smith uses the information to obtain a warrant to search Johnny's home. The ________ would be the fruit of the poisonous tree.
Which is NOT one of the exceptions to the exclusionary rule?
_______ applies when the link between the unconstitutional acts and the evidence becomes weak due to intervening time or events.
The ________ Amendment prohibits compelled confessions.
________ is needed to obtain a warrant or conduct most searches and seizures.
The ________ exception allows police to interrogate suspects without first warning them of their rights if there is a significant threat to innocent bystanders.
A ________ is a legal document permitting police to conduct a search or seizure, or to arrest someone.
Michelle Jones is a suspect in a murder. Michelle hired an attorney and turned herself in to the police department, where she was formally arrested upon arrival. While waiting for her attorney to arrive at the police department, the detectives in the case try to talk to Michelle about the murder. Michelle speaks with the detectives, and within ten minutes she tells them the location of the murder victim. While detectives are speaking with Michelle, other officers are digging in an open field to look for the murder victim's body. The body would be allowed as evidence in this case because of the ________ exception.
A states' high court is often called their ________ court.
Jack works for the government and represents indigent defendants. Jack is
The Supreme Court has allowed juries to be as small as ________ members.
The Sixth Amendment to the Constitution affords all of the following rights EXCEPT
All of the following are examples of hearsay evidence, EXCEPT
What is the difference between a grand jury hearing and a preliminary hearing?
Which constitutional amendment applied the due process clause to the states?
________ due process is the concept that the processes and methods used to try people for crimes cannot be arbitrary and unfair.
_______ due process means that the government cannot unfairly, or without just cause, deprive people of certain liberties.
Who has the burden of proving every element of every crime?
Eyewitness testimony and videotape documentation are examples of ________ evidence.
The prosecutor is most likely to get a conviction when he or she has ________ evidence.
The Eighth Amendment protects citizens from
A politician who is "tough on crime" to send a message to would-be criminals is promoting
People who feel that we should "lock criminals up and throw away the key" are promoting
The U.S. Supreme Court case of ________ held that federal sentencing guidelines are no longer mandatory and that appeals courts can review sentences to determine whether they are reasonable.
An especially heinous murder would be an example of a(n)
Convicts who were transported from Britain to American colonies to be sold to private individuals to act as servants for a period of time were
A punishment that involved no torture or corporal punishment for offenders and focused on reforming their behavior is based on ________ principles.
A early American judge who wished for an offender to repent for his or her sins or wrongdoings would most likely be inclined to sentence an offender to (a)
Jack and Jill have both been convicted of possession of illegal drugs and have been sentenced. Jack is sentenced to 9 months of incarceration, while Jill has been sentenced to 18 months of incarceration. Jill will most likely serve her sentence in a
John Smith has been convicted of a nonviolent drug crime and has been sentenced to 18 to 24 months in prison. He does not have a prior record and is considered a low security risk. John will most likely be held in a ________ prison.
Unlike men, women develop emotional bonds with other inmates; they often develop ________ while they are incarcerated.
Most women are incarcerated for ________ crimes.
Tom overhears another inmate talking about his girlfriend and the inmate calls her a "mule." If this inmate's girlfriend is a mule, she most likely
There are two goals of probation. One is to protect society. The other is to
Jeff is under community supervision in Los Angeles County for committing a felony. He has a prior record, so his community supervision entails mandated restitution, house arrest, and bi- weekly meetings with his probation officer. Jeff is most likely serving
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a technical violation?
One of the responsibilities of the probation officer is to create a report for a judge that includes information on an offender's criminal history, employment and education history, and mental and physical health, among other things. This report is then used by the judge when he or she is sentencing the offender. This report is called the
Most parole failures occur during the first ________ after release.
The goal of restorative justice is to repair the harm caused to the community, the victim, and the
Someone who is required to sign in and out of the facility while they attend work, school or treatment is in a or on
All of the following were reasons to try young people in juvenile court rather than adult court EXCEPT
Which is NOT a status offense
Which crime are juveniles least likely to be arrested for?
Which crime are juveniles most likely to be arrested for?
Which would be the most informal manner to deal with a juvenile?
Juvenile courts are courts of ________ jurisdiction.
Before the In re Winship decision, what was the standard of proof required in a juvenile case?
Which case decided that juveniles were not entitled to jury trials?
Which case decided that people younger than 18 could no longer receive the death penalty as a possible punishment?
What is needed in order to justify searches of students and their belongings inside public schools?
The majority of all delinquency cases are referred by
A court record that is destroyed or made legally unavailable is
Spencer has been convicted of possession of cocaine. His sentence includes 6 months where he is restricted to his home at all times, unless he is working, at school, or attending a treatment program. Spencer has been sentenced to
Who is responsible for the issuance of an arrest warrant?
Which constitutional amendment states that excessive bail shall not be required?
Emile Durkheim's term to describe feelings of alienation or a condition that renders a person hopeless, rootless, cut off, alienated, disillusioned, and frustrated is
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