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founded the Classical School of Criminology; Free Will; Deterrence
focuses on the individual as the source of interest; something, whether external or internal to the individual, is causing crime to occur.
genetic links to criminal behavior
testosterone in males and Pre-Menstrual Syndrome in females is what caused criminal behavior.
deviance and delinquency result from incomplete development, both cognitively and morally, as well as personality disorders.
-why not all males with high T and all women with PMS commit crime
-inadequate diet and nutrition, both in prenatal and postnatal, have been linked with criminal behavior, but these studies are very new.
society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Concerned with social structures (crime and deviance are social structures).
crime as a pathology or illness; Medical Model; place not people.
concentric zone model. Social Ecology: the concentric zone model (inner zones have higher rates of disorganization and thus crime).
social disorganization theory; concerned with breakdown in norms and deteriorated social bonds. IT WAS THE PLACE, NOT THE PEOPLE.
economic deprivation results in an underclass who are trapped in a permanent state of social disorganization
ecological model of social disorganization; vast amounts of social disorganization stigmatizes residents of poor and urban neighborhoods, which in turn stigmatizes its residents and fosters a criminal mentality. Community disorder leads to community fear and “siege” mentality.
The Code of the Streets; extreme form of deprivation and segregation leads to a subculture which treats the police as the enemy, “respect” as commodity, and “stop snitching” as credo.
-poverty causing crime—causation or just correlation?
-why don’t all inner city residents commit crime?
-gentrification seems to show that it’s not the place causing crime
-assumes universal norm of materialism
Strain Theory; crime and deviance arise from a society’s goals and the means by which it prescribes attaining those goals; there is too much emphasis on material reward and comfort in American society.
-can’t explain middle or upper class crime
-Assumes a universal norm of financial well-being
-can’t explain violent crime
-most empirical evidence doesn’t support it
using Strain, explain middle and upper class delinquency
Relative deprivation: someone always has more than you;
Other goals (like status, colleges, etc.) in middle class
General Strain Theory - using Strain, explain all crime.
Not achieving wealth or goals is enough
Removal of positive stimuli
Introduction of negative stimuli adds to repeated stress, emotions, anger and an increase in crime.
Delinquent Subcultures; noneconomic and nonutilitarian delinquency: arises from frustration over the differences between middle and lower class values; delinquency is about having a good time and feeling good
Focal Concerns; identified values (focal concerns) unique to lower class delinquent subcultures: trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, and autonomy
Subculture of Violence: violence in a subculture that values it, is more common among lower class, particularly black, urban males.
-work suffers from same methodological problems in that:
-the focus is on male populations
Differential Opportunity Theory; legitimate and illegitimate opportunities
Social class determines access to legitimate or illegitimate opportunity
Policy recommendations: anti-poverty programs which increase access to legitimate opportunity in the lower classes will lower crime.
society is the product of everyday interactions of individuals.
The Outsiders; Becoming a Marijuana User. Learning theories can answer why don’t all or most people who live in criminogenic structural conditions commit crime and why do the middle and upper classes commit crime?
Differential Association. Principles of Criminology. A person’s tendency towards either conformity or deviance depends upon the relative contact with others or institutions of socialization who/which encourage conventional behavior versus those who/which don’t.
Postulate 3: Sutherland implies that criminal behavior is learned only
Through intimate relationships and explicitly excludes mass media
Postulate 9: motive is not sufficient to explain criminal behavior…being
· Causal order debate: do juveniles become delinquent by associating with other delinquents or does their delinquency cause them to associate with other delinquents?
· Influence of the peer group and friends and the actual testing of theory is problematic.
· Lack of research on juvenile female.
Differential Identification Theory: reference groups and anticipatory socialization. Delinquent behavior can be learned without interacting with other delinquents.
Differential Reinforcement Theory, role of operant conditioning; structural conditions identified in some macro-level disorganization theories can affect one’s exposure to criminal associations, definitions, and reinforcements. All lend credence to the idea that criminal behavior is indeed a learned behavior.
the essence of social control lies in anticipating the consequences of one’s behavior.
Control Theory; Causes of Delinquency; with Gottfredson, Self-Control Theory - general theory of crime; a lack of self-control on behalf of the deviant. The criminal lacks self-control and only cares about himself.
The more a person is tied to the norms of conventional society, the less likely the person will end up deviant.
single parent households = greater chance of delinquency
control theory supports the idea that girls are more attached to family, school, and conventional beliefs than are boys, which is why they have lower rates of delinquency.
whites are more committed to conventional beliefs, which is why proportionally the rate is higher amongst minority groups.
teens and young adults will grow out of criminal behavior.
-Circular reasoning: since crime is considered evidence of low self-
Control, crime is being used to explain itself
-causal order: crime could generate low self-control in participant
Control Balance Theory: those who exercise control over others and those who have it exercised over them, one more likely to be criminal or deviant than those whose control-balance ratio is intact.
Containment Theory: inner and outer containments (inner, positive self-concept; outer, family) as well as internal pushes (the need for gratification) & external pressures (poverty) and pulls (delinquent peers) explain crime.
Neutralization Techniques to deny culpability or justify criminality.
Denial of responsibility, injury, and of the victim
Drift Theory: criminals use neutralization to drift in and out of conventional behavior. They express guilt and often respect law-abiding individuals. Likely to draw line between those they can and cannot victimize; not immune to demands of conforming.
no action is inherently deviant; deviant behavior is behavior so defined.
looks at stigmatized deviant and predicts future recidivism (sex offender registries)
Restorative Justice: restoring bonds b/w the convicted criminal and society, reintegrative shaming, means by which we maximize the treatment of the offender to ensure complicity.
· Unable to explain why some accept the label and some don’t
· Unable to explain the primary deviant act
· Policy implications are implausible. If CJ system is wrong, do we just ignore criminal?Circular reasoning: most people officially labeled have, in fact, committed the behavior for which they were labeled.
Thomas Scheff, Edwin Schur, Thomas Szasz (mental illness is label for deviant behaviors); medicalization amounts to swapping one set of labels for another.
- The rich and powerful have the resources to resist the deviant label.The widespread belief that the norms and laws are natural and good for ALL members of society, masks their political character
people who interfere with capitalism are labeled criminal or deviant.
Theoretical Criminology: Group Conflict Theory; power-elite control legislative access; crime stems from the conflict between various interest groups.
Criminality and Legal Order: criminal labeling is imposed on the powerless as part of the struggle for political power.
vagrancy laws first surfaced with industrialization and the need to force laborers to accept low wage employment.
· Ignore the abundance of laws that focus on or help the lower, working or middle classes (i.e. occupational safety laws)
· Crime is prevalent in socialist and communist countries
· Solution to replace capitalism with communism is irrelevant today
socialization process explains the differences in male and female offending
crime is way that men maintain and extend their dominance over women (patriarchy, elimination of gender)
socialism would make women and men more egalitarian and equal
double handicap of race and being a woman.
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