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University of North Texas
Criminal Justice 3600
Criminal Justice 3600
University of North Texas
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The field of criminology is considered ___
Caesar Beccaria believed in the concept of ___, the idea that people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
"let the punishment fit the crime" refers to which criminological school of thought?
the father of criminology and the man who referred to offenders as born criminals was ___
name the group of urban sociologists who examined how neighborhood conditions, influenced crime rates; their sociological vision transformed into social structure theory
the writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on ___, which faults the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates
a deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous and is defined,....
... prohibited and punished under criminal law
which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant, be they rich and powerful or poor and powerless?
the consensus view of crime
mala in se crimes such as murder and rape reflect which view of crime?
the consensus view of crime
mala prohibitum crimes such as traffic offenses change according to social conditions and attitudes; criminal law is used to codify these changes, reflecting which purpose of law?
expressing public opinion and morality
written laws: "an eye for an eye"
code of Hammurabi
uniform crime report is a primary source of crime data collected by the:
what shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?
the non reporting issue
survey research involves___- process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who rep an entire group sharing similar characteristics called a population.
according to the 2008 monitoring the future survey:
crime problem is greater that the UC and NCVS indicate
referring to ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?
on july 1st with a temp of 80 degrees
which of the following setting has the highest violent crime rates?
an urban area in south
which statement lends support to liberal feminist theory?
female arrest rates are increasing
What suggests that as the african american pop increases, so does the amount of social control directed at them?
racial threat theory
which of the following is not a key predictive factor for chronicity?
adequate parental supervision and control
being abused or neglected as a child ____ the odds of being arrested
victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves is called?
cycle of violence
why are schools the locale of a great deal of victimization?
because schools are pop by teenage males
the elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that include:
what refers to a victims physical weakness or psych stress that renders them incapable of resisting or deterring crime?
tom has been wearing the home teams shirt while sitting on the visitors side and has been repeatedly victimized; what aspect of of repeat victimization accounts for this trouble?
which victimization theory claims hat victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to the victimization?
victim precipitation theory
view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors
routine activities theory
counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the cj SYSTEM, WHO GUIDE VICTIMS THROUGH THE justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court
at the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the classical approach began to decline as ____ criminologists focused their attentions on internal and external factors
crime is ___ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act
thieves that select german cars indicates that auto theft is rational because
german cars usually have high quality audio equipment
sociologist jack katz argues that there are situational inducements to criminality that directly precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations; termed these inducements?
seductions of crime
excitement of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations is referred to as:
Marcus Felson argues that the risk of crime may be increased by improving the effectiveness of
situational crime prevention tactics generally fall into one of four categories; which is not?
increasing the use of probation for committing crime
concept of general deterrence holds that:
the decision to commit crime can be controlled by the threat of criminal punishment
people who believe that they will be caught if they commit crime are the ones most likely to be deterred from committing criminal acts; what element of deterrence does this reflect
certainty of punishment
if more criminals are sent to prison the incarceration rate should go down; referred to as?
what reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psych traits?
diet, hormones, and contaminants are the causes of behavior in the __ perspective
which of the following is NOT considered to contribute to a healthy diet and thus good mental health and well adjusted behavior patterns?
heavy metals such as lead and mercury
What androgen has been linked to criminality?
locations in the highest concentrations of lead also report the highest levels of
brain structure, brain damage and brain chems are the causes of behavior in the __ perspective
many ADHD children also suffer from __ and continually engage in aggressive and antisocial behavior early in childhood
evidence exists that indicates abnormally low levels of brain chem compounds called __ are associated with violent behavior
according to __, for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, peoples brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli
social learning theory holds that:
ppl learn to be aggressive through their life experiences
what are segments of the pop whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings and who are attitudes, etc
oscar lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower class areas produces ___ that is passed on from one generation to the next
culture of poverty
which theory focuses on the urban conditions such as high unemployment and school dropout rates to explain crime?
social disorganization theory
strain theory holds that crime is a function of:
conflict between ppls goals and means
social disorg theory was popularized by the work of which two chicago sociologist
clifford shaw and henry mckay
cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where ppl develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop:
the concept that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower class ppl to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent (Judith and peter blau)
what reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individuals emotional traits and responses to criminality?
general strain theory
subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called:
cloward and ohlins classic work Delinquency and Opportunity combined strain and social disorg principles to explain:
social process theories share one basic concept:
all ppl, regardless of their race class or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals
social reaction theory suggest that:
ppl become criminals when significant members of society label them as such
what refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a noncoercive way?
Edwin Sutherlands differential association theory states that:
crime behavior is learned like any other behavior
process of __ refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values
Hirschi states that the social bonds a person maintains with society are divided into four main elements; which is NOT an element
in its purest form ___ theory argues that even crimes such as murder rape and assault are only bad or evil because ppl label them as such
according to lemert, __ involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and therefore can be quickly forgotten
the boyhood friend of a convicted murderer is interviewed by the media and reports that the offender was withdrawn, suspicious and negativistic as a youth; example of:
what is a process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders our of the mainstream of society and offenders begin their escalating cycle of deviance
according to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by:
creating a social atmosphere in which the law is mechanism for controlling have not members of society
what book did Tylor, Walton and Young publish?
the new criminology (powerful boost to conflict view)
what is the term for profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves
critical theorists question the altruism of multinational corps and therefore take a very skeptical view of:
supranational criminology is a specialization of critical theory that focuses on which type of crimes?
what describes the antisocial behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race class and gender advantages of those who support the govt
state (org) crimes
key difference between instrumental theorists and structural theorists
structural theorists focus on anyone who threatens the capitalist system
mainstream criminologists level a number of criticisms against critical criminology; which is not a criticism?
critical theorists focus too heavily on the problems and conflicts that exist in socialist countries
what reflects a critical perspective that explains both the exploitation of women and womens criminality in terms of gender inequality and patriarchy?
peacemaking criminologist view that the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as:
encouraging crime rather than discouraging it
the integrative methodology in the early research of ___ formed the basis of todays developmental approach
eleanor and sheldon glueck
developmental theories attempt to provide a natural history of criminal careers by encompassing:
the onset, continuation, and termination
how do life course theorists view criminality
as a dynamic process
life course theorists are described as
using data from a longitudinal study of pittsburgh youth, lobber identified distinct pathways to crime; which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior
authority conflict pathway
bacon and paternoster identified this pathway to crime characterized by staying out of trouble during adolescence, until late in ones teenage yrs then becoming violent chronic offenders
late bloomer pathway
why is early onset an important factor in crime?
early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality
life course theorists examine offending patterns and trends. terrie moffit describes adolescent limited offenders as:
sampson and labs research indicates that building ___ and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of longterm deviance
which of the following is not one of the significant life changing events that reduces criminality, according to laub and sampson
buying a car
laub and sampson identify life events that enable adult offenders to desist from crime. accordingly, they identify transitions as short term events embedded in:
according to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?
at birth or soon after
according to general theory of crime, being adventuresome, physical and self centered are all signs that a person possess:
low self control
critics of the GTC argue that white collar criminals and organized crime bosses:
seem more calculating than impulsive
ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. which is not a factor characteristic?
____ is the death instinct that is sometimes expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide and alcoholism
common law definition of rape derives from the latin work rapere meaning ___ and is defined as the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will
to take by force
diana russels concept of the virility mystique reflects which causal factor of why men commit rape
Michigan v Lucas upheld the validity of:
first degree murder occurs when a person kills another after ___ and deliberation
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