Best used with immediate problems – less useful with long-standing issues Focuses on openness and transparency The main cause of a crisis is an intensely stressful, traumatic, or hazardous event, but two other conditions are also necessary: - the individual’s perception of the event as the cause of considerable upset and/or disruption; and -the individual’s inability to resolve the disruption by previously used coping mechanisms.
5 Types of Crisis
Developmental: Events in the normal flow of life that create dramatic changes and can produce extreme responses -leaving home, child birth, retirement, adolescence -the “boomerang effect” adult children moving back in with their parents Situational : Uncommon and extraordinary events that a person has no way of forecasting or controlling (lack of control or predictability) -physical injuries, sexual assault, loss of a job, major illness or death of a loved one). Social Larger societal or cultural events or responses, such as discrimination or persecution, and their effect on a particular individual or family. -Ex) terrorism and the racism and bigotry that is put on Muslim families who do not have anything to do with the terrorists Compound A crisis when a current trauma reactivates responses to previous losses that had receded from consciousness. -Unresolved stuff from earlier trauma will reactive the trauma. -Ex) intergenerational trauma -domestic abuse victim who then had children who have the perception of something dangerous possibly happening -Ex) death and grieving –someone who they are not that close to will affect them because they had someone close also die Fight or flight response will be set off Existential Inner conflicts over issues such as the purpose and meaning of life. - “The Scream” (1893) Norwegian Painter – Edvard Munch Agonized figure against a red sky that asks the questions, “Where do we come from?, What are we? And Where are we going?”
Short term focus limits potential if supportive, long term counselling is needed Client needs to accept the position of the worker/agency to offer assistance May not address the complexity of people’s lives Problem solving use of contracts – can result in a power imbalance Political critique - avoids discussion of structural issues that lead to oppression – conceals resource inadequacies – Empirically validated – but can support reduced funding for longer term models of practice
When using Crisis Model, we need to remember:
Determine “What kind of a crisis are we working with?” May not be appropriate for long term crisis, but also not intended for that Not good for intergenerational but for an immediate crisis -Ex) a suicidal child with access to guns… You do not have a lot of time to work with them. They need to like you quickly and easily Key: focus on doing what will get them out of the crisis state 9 Research on contracts are very up and down in whether they are useful
“The therapeutic practice used in helping clients in crisis to promote effective coping that can lead to positive growth and change by acknowledging the problem, recognizing its impact and learning new or more effective behaviours for coping with similar predictable experiences” (Barker, 2014, p. 101) Dive in. Help the person regain or develop healthier coping styles so they are no longer being triggered into fight or flight Ex) Having a crisis intervention worker designated to the non-abuser mother Crisis periods generally last about 4-6 weeks